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7 July 2005 London bombings

Emergency vehicles at Russell Square
Location London, England
Date 7 July 2005, 8:50 am–9:47 am (UTC+1)
Target Transport in London
Attack type Suicide bombings
Death(s) 56
Injured around 700
Perpetrator(s) Hasib Hussain, Mohammad Sidique Khan, Germaine Lindsay, Shehzad Tanweer

The 7 July 2005 London bombings, also known as 7/7, were a series of coordinated suicide attacks on London's public transport system during the morning rush hour. The bombings were carried out by four British Muslim men, three of Pakistani and one of Jamaican descent, who were motivated by Britain's involvement in the Iraq War.

At 08:50, three bombs exploded within fifty seconds of each other on three London Underground trains, a fourth exploding an hour later at 09:47 on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. The explosions appear to have been caused by home-made organic peroxide-based devices, packed into rucksacks and detonated by the bombers themselves, all four of whom died. 52 other people were killed and around 700 were injured.

Contents

Attacks

2005 London bombings
Trapped underground.jpg

Main articles
Timeline of the 2005 London bombings
7 July 2005 London bombings
21 July 2005 London bombings
Jean Charles de Menezes
Response to the 2005 London bombings

Bombers, 7 July
Mohammad Sidique Khan · Shehzad Tanweer
Germaine Lindsay · Hasib Hussain

Bombers, 21 July
Yasin Hassan Omar · Osman Hussain
Muktar Said Ibrahim · Ramzi Mohammed

Locations
London Underground
Aldgate · Tavistock Square
King's Cross · Liverpool Street · Oval
Russell Square · Shepherd's Bush
Warren Street

Related articles
September 11, 2001 attacks
2001 shoe bomb plot
2002 Bali bombings
2003 Mike's Place bombing
2004 Madrid train bombings
11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings
2006 transatlantic aircraft plot
2007 London car bombs
2007 Glasgow International Airport attack
2008 Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing
Saajid Badat · Richard Reid
Attacks on the London Underground


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On the Underground

08:50 — Three bombs on the London Underground exploded within fifty seconds of each other:

  • The first bomb exploded on an eastbound Circle Line sub-surface Underground train, number 204, travelling between Liverpool Street and Aldgate. The train had left King's Cross St. Pancras about eight minutes earlier. At the time of the explosion, the third carriage of the train was approximately 100 yards (90 m) down the tunnel from Liverpool Street. The parallel track of the Hammersmith and City Line from Liverpool Street to Aldgate East was also damaged.
  • The second bomb exploded on the second carriage of a westbound Circle Line sub-surface Underground train, number 216. The train had just left platform 4 at Edgware Road and was heading for Paddington. The train had left King's Cross St. Pancras about eight minutes earlier. There were several other trains nearby at the time of the explosion. An eastbound Circle Line train (arriving at platform 3 at Edgware Road from Paddington) was passing next to the train and was damaged,[1] along with a wall that later collapsed. There were two other trains at Edgware Road: an unidentified train on platform 2, and an eastbound Hammersmith & City line train that had just arrived at platform 1.
  • The third bomb exploded on a southbound Piccadilly line deep-level Underground train, number 311, travelling between King's Cross St. Pancras and Russell Square. The bomb exploded about one minute after the train left King's Cross, by which time it had travelled about 500 yards (450 m). The explosion took place at the rear of the first carriage of the train (car no 166), causing severe damage to the rear of that carriage, as well as the front of the second one.[2] The surrounding tunnel also sustained damage.

It was originally thought that there had been six, rather than three, explosions on the Underground. The bus bombing brought the reported total to seven; however, this error was corrected later that day. This was because the blasts occurred on trains that were between stations, causing the wounded to emerge from both stations, giving the impression that there was an incident at each station. Police also revised the timings of the tube blasts: initial reports had indicated that they occurred over a period of almost half an hour. This was due to initial confusion at London Underground, where the explosions were initially thought to be due to a power surge. One initial report, in the minutes after the explosions, involved a person under a train, while another concerned a derailment (both of which did actually occur, but only as a result of the explosions). A Code Amber Alert was declared at 09:19, and London Underground began to shut down the network, bringing trains into stations and suspending all services.[3] The effects of the bombs are thought to have varied due to the differing characteristics of the tunnels.[4]

  1. The Circle Line is a "cut and cover" sub-surface tunnel, about 7 m (21 ft) deep. Because the tunnel contains two parallel tracks, it is relatively wide. The two explosions on this line were probably able to vent their force into the tunnel, reducing their destructive force.
  2. The Piccadilly Line is a deep tunnel, up to 30 m (100 ft) underground, with narrow (3.56 m, or 11 ft 8¼ in) single-track tubes and just 15 cm (6 in) clearances. This confined space reflected the blast force, concentrating its effect.

On the bus

Locations of the bombings

Earlier, the bus had passed through the King's Cross area as it travelled from Hackney Wick to Marble Arch. At Marble Arch, the bus turned around and started the return route from Marble Arch to Hackney Wick. It left Marble Arch at 09:00 a.m. and arrived at Euston bus station at 09:35 a.m., where crowds of people had been evacuated from the tube and were boarding buses.

The explosion ripped the roof off the top deck of the vehicle and destroyed the back of the bus. Witnesses reported seeing "half a bus flying through the air".

The detonation took place close to the British Medical Association building on Upper Woburn Place, and a number of doctors in or near the building were able to provide immediate emergency medical assistance. BBC Radio 5 Live and The Sun newspaper later reported that two injured bus passengers said that they saw a man exploding in the bus. News reports have identified Hasib Hussain as the person with the bomb on the bus.[5] The bus was running off its normal route at the time of the explosion; it was in Woburn Place, because its usual route along Euston Road had been closed, due to the earlier bombing of the tube train between Kings Cross and Russell Square.

Hasib Hussain, who detonated the bomb on the bus at 9:47 a.m., seen here leaving Boots the Chemist on the King's Cross station concourse at 9 a.m.

The bus bomb exploded towards the rear of the vehicle's top deck, totally destroying that portion of it but leaving the front of the bus intact. Most of the passengers at the front of the top deck are believed to have survived, as did those on the front of the lower deck including the driver, but those at the top and lower rear of the bus took the brunt of the explosion. The extreme physical damage caused to the victims' bodies resulted in a lengthy delay in announcing the death toll from the bombing while the police determined how many bodies were present and whether the bomber was one of them. A number of passers-by were also injured by the explosion and surrounding buildings were damaged by fragments.

Two more suspicious packages were later found on underground trains and destroyed using controlled explosions. Police later said they were not bombs.

The bombed bus was subsequently removed by low loader (and covered in a tarpaulin) for forensic examination at a secure MOD site. The vehicle was ultimately returned to Stagecoach, and sold for breaking. A replacement bus for 17758 was a new Alexander Dennis Enviro400, fleet number 18500 (LX55 HGC), named "Spirit of London".

The bombers

Profiles

The bombers were named as:

The bombers on CCTV at Luton train station at 7:21 a.m., 7 July. From left, Hasib Hussain, Germaine Lindsay, Mohammad Sidique Khan, Shehzad Tanweer.[6]

The men were reported to be "cleanskins," meaning previously unknown to authorities. On the day of the attacks, all four had travelled to Luton in Bedfordshire by car, then to London by train. They were recorded on CCTV arriving at King's Cross station at about 08:30 a.m. On 12 July, the BBC reported that Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke, Metropolitan Police counter-terrorism chief, had said that property belonging to one of the bombers had been found at both the Aldgate and Edgware Road blasts.

Videotaped statements

Two of the bombers made videotapes describing their reasons for becoming what they called "soldiers". In a videotape aired by Al Jazeera on 1 September 2005, Mohammad Sidique Khan, described his motivation. The tape had been edited and also featured Al Qaeda member, Ayman al-Zawahiri, in a way intended to suggest a direct link between Khan and Al Qaeda; however, there has been no report that Khan said anything linking the bombing to Al Qaeda.

Mohammad Sidique Khan in video aired by Al Jazeera

I and thousands like me are forsaking everything for what we believe. Our drive and motivation doesn't come from tangible commodities that this world has to offer. Our religion is Islam, obedience to the one true God and following the footsteps of the final prophet messenger. Your democratically elected governments continuously perpetuate atrocities against my people all over the world. And your support of them makes you directly responsible, just as I am directly responsible for protecting and avenging my Muslim brothers and sisters. Until we feel security you will be our targets and until you stop the bombing, gassing, imprisonment and torture of my people we will not stop this fight. We are at war and I am a soldier. Now you too will taste the reality of this situation.

On 6 July 2006, a video statement by Shehzad Tanweer was broadcast by Al-Jazeera. In the video, which may have been edited[7] to include remarks by al-Qaeda member Ayman al-Zawahiri, Tanweer said:

What have you witnessed now is only the beginning of a string of attacks that will continue and become stronger until you pull your forces out of Afghanistan and Iraq. And until you stop your financial and military support to America and Israel.

Tanweer argued that the non-Muslims of Britain deserve such attacks because they voted for a government which "continues to oppress our mothers, children, brothers and sisters in Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq and Chechnya."[8]

Investigation

Initial results

Number of fatalities
Aldgate 7
Edgware Road 6
Kings Cross 26
Tavistock Square 13
Suicide bombers 4
Total 56

There was initially a great deal of confused information from police sources as to the origin, method, and even timings of the explosions. Forensic examiners had initially thought that military grade plastic explosives were used, and, as the blasts were thought to have been simultaneous, that synchronised timed detonators were employed. This changed as further information became available. Home-made organic peroxide-based devices were used, according to a May 2006 report from the British government's Intelligence and Security Committee.[9]

Fifty-six people, including the four suicide bombers, were killed in the attacks[10] and about 700 were injured, of whom about 100 required overnight hospital treatment or more. The incident was the deadliest single act of terrorism in the United Kingdom since Lockerbie (the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 which killed 270), and the deadliest bombing in London since the Second World War. More people were killed in the bombings than in any single Provisional IRA attack (in Great Britain or Ireland) during The Troubles.

Police examined about 2,500 items of CCTV footage and forensic evidence from the scenes of the attacks. The bombs were probably placed on the floors of the trains and bus.

Investigators identified four men whom they alleged had been suicide bombers. This would make the 7 July incident the first suicide bombings in Western Europe.[11] The then French Interior Minister (later to become French President) Nicolas Sarkozy caused consternation at the British Home Office when he briefed the press that one of the names had been described the previous year at an Anglo-French security meeting as an asset of British Intelligence. The then Home Secretary Charles Clarke later said that this was "not his recollection, to say the least".

Vincent Cannistraro, former head of the CIA's anti-terrorism centre, told The Guardian that "two unexploded bombs" were recovered as well as "mechanical timing devices", although this claim was explicitly rejected by the Metropolitan Police.[12]

It has been reported that the intention was to have four explosions on the Underground forming a cross of fire with arms in the four cardinal directions, possibly centered symbolically at King's Cross. It was said that one bomber was turned away from the Underground as the explosions had already started, and took a bus instead. It is also speculated that the fourth bomber meant to take the Northern Line. Whilst it has been widely reported that the Northern line was suspended, it was in fact serving all destinations at the time of the attacks, having previously been partly suspended because of a faulty train. Northern Line trains were extremely crowded as a result of the earlier disruption.

The Underground bombs exploded when trains were crossing, thus affecting two trains with each explosion. This is one of the features which led rapidly to the suspicion of a terrorist attack by suicide bombers as the cause of the explosions.

Raids

Police raided six properties in the Leeds area on 12 July: two houses in Beeston, two houses in Thornhill, one house in Holbeck and one house in 18 Alexandra Grove, Hyde Park. One man was arrested. They also raided a residential property on Northern Road in the Buckinghamshire town of Aylesbury on 13 July.

According to West Yorkshire police, a significant amount of explosive material was found in the raids in Leeds and a controlled explosion was carried out at one of the properties. Explosives were also found in the vehicle associated with one of the bombers, Shehzad Tanweer, at Luton railway station and subjected to controlled explosions.[13][14][5][15]

Luton cell

There has been speculation regarding links between the bombers and another alleged Islamist cell in Luton, Bedfordshire, which was broken up in August 2004. That group was uncovered after Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan was arrested in Lahore, Pakistan. His laptop computer was said to contain plans for tube attacks in London, as well as attacks on financial buildings in New York and Washington. The group was placed under surveillance, but on 2 August 2004 the New York Times published his name, citing Pakistani sources. The leak caused police in Britain and Canada to make arrests before their investigations were complete. The U.S. government later said they had given the name to some journalists as background, for which Tom Ridge, the U.S. homeland security secretary, apologised.

When the Luton cell was broken up, one of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan (no known relation), was briefly scrutinised by MI5 who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not put under surveillance.[16]

March 2007 arrests

On 22 March 2007, three men were arrested in connection with the 7 July bombings. Two men were arrested at 1 pm at Manchester Airport, attempting to board a plane due to depart for Pakistan at around 4.30 pm that afternoon. They were apprehended by undercover officers who had been following the men as part of a surveillance operation. They had not intended to arrest the men that day, but felt they could not risk letting the suspects leave Britain. The other man was arrested in the Beeston area of Leeds, West Yorkshire, at an address on the street where one of the suicide bombers had lived before the attacks.[17]

May 2007 arrests

On 9 May 2007 police made four further arrests, three in Yorkshire and one in Selly Oak, Birmingham. Hasina Patel, widow of the presumed ringleader Mohammed Sidique Khan, was among those arrested for "commissioning, preparing or instigating acts of terrorism".[18]

Three of those arrested, including Patel, were released on 15 May 2007.[18] The fourth, Khalid Khaliq, an unemployed single father of three, was charged with possessing an al-Qaeda training manual on 17 July 2005, but this charge was not related to the 7 July bombing. The possession of a document containing information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism carries a maximum 10-year jail sentence.[19]

Deportation of Sheikh Abdullah el-Faisal

Sheikh Abdullah el-Faisal was deported to his country of origin, Jamaica, from Britain on Friday 25 May 2006 after reaching the parole date in his prison sentence. He was found guilty of three charges of soliciting the murder of Jews, Americans and Hindus and two charges of using threatening words to stir up racial hatred in 2003 and after his appeal was sentenced to seven years in prison. In 2006 John Reid alleged, to MPs, that el-Faisal had influenced Jamaican-born Briton Germaine Lindsay.[20][21]

Investigation of Mohammad Sidique Khan

The Guardian reported 3 May 2007 that police had investigated Mohammad Sidique Khan twice in 2005. The newspaper said it "learned that on 27 January 2005, police took a statement from the manager of a garage in Leeds which had loaned Khan a courtesy car while his vehicle was being repaired. It also said that "On the afternoon of 3 February an officer from Scotland Yard's anti-terrorism branch carried out inquiries with the company which had insured a car in which Khan was seen driving almost a year earlier". Nothing about these inquiries appeared in the report by parliament's intelligence and security committee after it investigated the 7 July attacks. Scotland Yard described the 2005 inquiries as "routine", while security sources said they were related to the fertiliser bomb plot.

Reports of warnings

While no warnings before the 7 July bombings have been officially documented or acknowledged, the following are sometimes quoted as indications either of the events to come or of some foreknowledge.

  • One of the London bombers, Mohammad Sidique Khan, was briefly scrutinised by MI5 who determined that he was not a likely threat and he was not put under surveillance.[22]
  • Some news stories, current a few hours after the attacks, raised a query over the British government's position that there had been no warning or prior intelligence. It was reported on CBS News that a senior Israeli official said that British police told the Israeli Embassy in London minutes before the explosions that they had received warnings of possible terror attacks in the city. This was later retracted by AP.[23] An Associated Press report carried on a number of news sites, including The Guardian, attributed the initial report of a warning to an Israeli "Foreign Ministry official, speaking on condition of anonymity", but added Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom's later denial on Israel Army Radio: "There was no early information about terrorist attacks." A similar report on the site of right-wing Israeli paper Israel National News/Arutz Sheva attributed the story to "Army Radio quoting unconfirmed reliable sources."[24] Although the report has been retracted, the original stories are still circulated as a result of their presence on the news websites' archives.
  • In an interview with the Portuguese newspaper Público a month after the 2004 Madrid train bombings, Syrian-born cleric Sheik Omar Bakri Muhammad warned that "a very well-organised" London-based group which he called Al Qaeda Europe, was "on the verge of launching a big operation."[25] In December 2004 Bakri vowed that if Western governments did not change their policies, Muslims would give them "a 9/11, day after day after day."[26]
  • According to a 17 November 2004 post on the Newsweek website, US authorities in 2004 had evidence that terrorists were planning a possible attack in London. In addition, the article stated that, "fears of terror attacks have prompted FBI agents based in the U.S. Embassy in London to avoid travelling on London's popular underground railway (or tube) system."[27]
  • In an interview published in the German magazine Bild am Sonntag dated 10 July 2005, Meir Dagan, head of the Mossad, said that the Mossad office in London was alerted to the impending attack at 8:43, six minutes before the first bomb went off. The warning of a possible attack came as a result of an investigation into an earlier terrorist bombing in Tel Aviv, which may have been related to the London bombings.[28]
  • Then-French Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy caused consternation at the British Home Office when he briefed the press that several of the secondary plotters had been arrested and released as part of an attempt to find their superiors, the year prior. This was adamantly denied by then-Home Secretary Charles Clarke.

Anwar al-Awlaki

The Daily Telegraph reported that radical imam Anwar al-Awlaki inspired the bombers.[4] The bombers transcribed lectures of al-Awlaki while plotting bombings. His materials were found in the possession of accused accomplices of the suicide bombers. Awlaki has also been linked to the 2006 Toronto terrorism case, 2007 Fort Dix attack plot, Fort Hood shooting, and most recently the failed attack on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 [29]

Effects and response

Initial reports

Tony Blair announces the attack
at the G8 summit.
Headlines outside
Waterloo station

Initial reports suggested that a power surge in the Underground power grid had caused explosions in power circuits. This was later ruled out by the National Grid plc, the power suppliers. Commentators suggested that the explanation had arisen because of bomb damage to power lines along the tracks; the rapid series of power failures caused by the explosions (or power being cut off by means of switches at the locations to permit evacuation) looked similar, from the point of view of a control room operator, to a cascading series of circuit breaker operations that would result from a major power surge. A couple of hours after the bombings, the Home Secretary Charles Clarke confirmed the incidents were terrorist attacks.[30]

Coincidentally, Visor Consultants were running an exercise based on a similar scenario to what actually happened. Peter Power, a crisis management specialist, told reporters: "At half past nine this morning we were actually running an exercise for a company of over a thousand people in London based on simultaneous bombs going off precisely at the railway stations where it happened this morning, so I still have the hairs on the back of my neck standing up right now."[31]

Security alerts

Although there were security alerts at many locations, no other terrorist incidents occurred outside central London. Suspicious packages were destroyed in controlled explosions in Edinburgh, Brighton, Coventry, Southampton, Portsmouth, Darlington and Nottingham. Security across the UK was raised to the highest alert level. The Times reported on 17 July 2005 that police sniper units were following as many as a dozen Al Qaeda suspects in Britain. The covert armed teams were put under orders to shoot to kill if surveillance suggested that a terror suspect was carrying a bomb and he refused to surrender if challenged. A member of S019, Scotland Yard’s elite firearms unit, said: “These units are trained to deal with any eventuality. Since the London bombs they have been deployed to look at certain people.”[32]

Transport and telecoms disruption

Vodafone reported that its mobile phone network reached capacity at about 10:00 a.m. on the day of the incident, and it was forced to initiate emergency procedures to prioritise emergency calls (ACCOLC, the "access overload control scheme"). Other mobile phone networks also reported failures. The BBC speculated that the phone system was closed by the security services to prevent the possibility of mobile phones being used to trigger bombs. Although this option was considered, it later became clear that the intermittent unavailability of both mobile and landline phone systems was due to excessive usage.

Sign on M25 ring road reads:
  AVOID LONDON
  AREA CLOSED
  TURN ON RADIO
Tube stations closed
all across London, causing chaos.

For most of the day, central London's public transport system was effectively crippled because of the complete closure of the underground system, the closure of the Zone 1 bus networks, and the evacuation of Russell Square. Bus services restarted at 4 p.m. the same day, and most mainline train stations reopened shortly after. Tourist river vessels were pressed into service to provide a free alternative to the overcrowded trains and buses. Local Lifeboats were called in to act as safety boats, including the Sheerness Lifeboat from the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. Thousands of people chose to walk home or make their way to the nearest Zone 2 bus or train station. Most of the Underground apart from the affected stations restarted the next morning, though some commuters chose to stay at home.

Much of King's Cross station was also closed, with the ticket hall and waiting area being used as a makeshift hospital to treat casualties on the spot. Although the station reopened later in the day, only suburban rail services were able to use it, with GNER trains terminating at Peterborough (the service was fully restored on 9 July). King's Cross St. Pancras tube station remained open only to Metropolitan Line services in order to facilitate the ongoing recovery and investigation effort for a week, though Victoria Line services were restored on 15 July and Northern Line services on 18 July. St Pancras railway station, located next to King's Cross, was shut on Thursday afternoon with all Midland Mainline trains terminating in Leicester disrupting services to Sheffield, Nottingham and Derby.

By 25 July there were still disruptions to the Piccadilly Line (which was not running between Arnos Grove and Hyde Park Corner in either direction), the Hammersmith & City Line (which was only running a shuttle service between Hammersmith and Paddington) and the Circle Line (which was suspended in its entirety). The Metropolitan line resumed services between Moorgate and Aldgate on 25 July. The Hammersmith and City was also operating a peak hours service between Whitechapel and Baker Street. Most of the tube network was however running normally.

On 2 August the Hammersmith & City Line resumed normal service; the Circle Line service was still suspended, though all Circle Line stations are also served by other lines. The Piccadilly Line service resumed on 4 August.

Economic impact

There were limited immediate reactions to the attack in the world economy as measured by financial market and exchange rate activity. The pound fell 0.89 cents to a 19-month low against the U.S. dollar. The FTSE 100 Index fell by about 200 points in the two hours after the first attack. This was its biggest fall since the start of the war in Iraq, and it triggered the London Stock Exchange's special measures, restricting panic selling and aimed at ensuring market stability. However, by the time the market closed it had recovered to only 71.3 points (1.36%) down on the previous day's three-year closing high. Markets in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain also closed about 1% down on the day.

US market indexes rose slightly, in part because the dollar index rose sharply against the pound and the euro. The Dow Jones Industrial Average gained 31.61 to 10,302.29. The Nasdaq Composite Index rose 7.01 to 2075.66. The S&P 500 rose 2.93 points to 1197.87 after declining up to 1%. Every benchmark gained 0.3%.[33]

The markets picked up again on 8 July as it became clear that the damage caused by the bombings was not as great as initially thought. By close of trading the market had fully recovered to above its level at start of trading on 7 July. Insurers in the UK tend to re-insure their terrorist liabilities in excess of the first £75,000,000 with Pool Re, a mutual insurer set up by the government with leading insurers. Pool Re has substantial reserves and newspaper reports indicated that claims would easily be covered.

On 9 July, the Bank of England, HM Treasury and the Financial Services Authority revealed that they had instigated contingency plans immediately after the attacks to ensure that the UK financial markets could keep trading. This involved the activation of a "secret chatroom" on the British Government's Financial Sector Continuity website, which allowed the institutions to communicate with the country's banks and market dealers.[34]

Media response

Rolling news coverage of the attacks was broadcast throughout 7 July, by both BBC One and ITV1 uninterrupted until 7pm. Sky News did not carry any advertisements for 24 hours. ITN later confirmed that its coverage on ITV1 was its longest uninterrupted on-air broadcast in its 50 year history. Television coverage was notable for the use of mobile phone video sent in from members of the public and live shots from traffic CCTV cameras. Local and national radio also generally either suspended regular programming for news reports, or provided regular updates as part of scheduled shows.

Many films and drama broadcasts were cancelled or postponed on grounds of taste. For example, BBC Radio 4 pulled its scheduled Classic Serial without explanation; it was to have been John Buchan's Greenmantle, the story of an attempt by German secret agents to engineer a jihad against the British in the Middle East during WW1. ITV replaced the movies The X Files, in which a building is partly destroyed by a bomb, with Stakeout; and replaced The Siege, where a bomb destroys a bus full of passengers, with Gone in 60 Seconds.

Even the BBC flagship soap EastEnders was forced to re-edit that night's episode, which contained a sequence involving a house explosion, ambulances and survivors choking from smoke inhalation. Big Brother 2005 that was going on at the time decided against telling the housemates of the day's attacks after the producers found out that all relatives and friends of the housemates were well. Sky One broadcast an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in place of Terror Attacks: Could You Survive ...?.

Also, Viacom-owned music channels MTV, VH1, TMF and all their sub-channels broadcasted a 'sombre' music playlist for the rest of the day, and into some of the next (the MTV studios were situated in Camden Town, close to some of the bomb sites). A two-part episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, directed by Quentin Tarantino and concerning a suicide bomber, and being trapped underground, due to be shown on 12 July on Five, was postponed for a week.

The BBC Online website recorded an all time bandwidth peak of 11 Gb/s at 12:00 on 7 July. BBC News received some 1 billion total hits on the day of the event (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 terabytes of data. At peak times during the day there were 40,000 page requests per second for the BBC News website. The previous day's announcement of the 2012 Olympics being awarded to London caused a peak of around 5 Gb/s. The previous all time high at bbc.co.uk was caused by the announcement of the Michael Jackson verdict, which used 7.2 Gb/s.[35]

On Tuesday 12 July it was reported that the far-right political party, the British National Party, released leaflets showing images of the "Number 30 Bus" after it was blown up. The slogan "Maybe now it's time to start listening to the BNP" was printed beside the photo. Then Home Secretary Charles Clarke described it as an attempt by the BNP to, "cynically exploit the current tragic events in London to further their spread of hatred".[36]

Governments and media outside the UK have regarded successive British governments as unduly lenient towards radical Islamist militants, so long as they were involved in activities outside the UK.[37] Britain's reluctance to extradite or prosecute terrorist suspects led to London being dubbed Londonistan.[38] The policies were believed to be a cynical quid pro quo, the UK accused of staving off attacks at home in exchange for refusal to extradite.[37]

Claims of responsibility

In the opinion of former Metropolitan Police Commissioner Lord Stevens of Kirkwhelpington, before the identity of the bombers became known, the bombers were almost certainly born or based in Britain.[39] The attacks would have required extensive preparation and prior reconnaissance efforts, and a familiarity with bomb-making and the London transport network as well as access to significant amounts of bomb-making equipment and chemicals.

Some newspaper editorials in Iran have blamed the bombing on British or American authorities seeking to further justify their War on Terrorism, and have claimed that the plan that included the bombings also involved increasing harassment of Muslims in Europe.[40]

On 13 August 2005 The Independent newspaper reported, quoting police and MI5 sources, that the 7 July bombers acted independently of an al-Qaeda terror mastermind someplace abroad.[41]

On 1 September 2005, it was reported that al-Qaeda officially claimed responsibility for the attacks in a videotape aired on the Arab television network al Jazeera. But an official inquiry by the British government reported that the tape claiming responsibility had been edited after the attacks, and that the bombers had no direct support from al Qaeda.[42] Zabi uk-Taifi, an al-Qaeda commander arrested in Pakistan in January 2009, may have had connections to the 7 July 2005 bombings, according to Pakistani intelligence sources.[43]

Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades

A second claim of responsibility was posted on the Internet on 9 July, claiming the attacks for another Al Qaeda-linked group, Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades. The group has previously falsely claimed responsibility for events that were the result of technical problems, such as the 2003 London blackout and Northeast Blackout of 2003.[44]

No public inquiry

The government has refused to hold a public inquiry, stating that... "it would be a drain on resources and tie up key officials and police officers". Former Prime Minister Tony Blair said an independent inquiry would undermine support for the security service[45] A group of survivors and relatives of those killed are now pursuing legal action in the High Court and European Courts for a full Public Inquiry to clear up conflicting accounts of this day. The Shadow Home Secretary, David Davis said "It is becoming more and more clear that the story presented to the public and Parliament is at odds with the facts." [46]

Conspiracy theories

There are various alternative explanations or conspiracy theories about the bombings, including the suggestion that the bombers were 'patsies', based on claims about timings of the underground trains and the train from Luton, supposed explosions under the carriages, and allegations of the faking of a photograph of the bombers.[47][48] A survey of 500 British Muslims by Channel 4 News found that 24% believed that the four men blamed for the attacks did not carry them out.[49]

The various theories about the 7/7 attacks including the claims made in the amateur conspiracy film 7/7 Ripple Effect were examined by the BBC documentary series The Conspiracy Files, in an episode titled 7/7 first broadcast on 30 June 2009. It raised concerns about some of the conspiracy theories, and their authorship.[50]

21 July 2005 bombings

On 21 July 2005, a second series of four explosions took place on the London Underground and a London bus. The detonators of all four bombs exploded, but none of the main explosive charges detonated, and there were no casualties: the single injury reported at the time was later revealed to be an asthma sufferer. All suspected bombers from this failed attack escaped from the scenes but were later arrested.

Londoners in Trafalgar Square during the two minute silence on the evening of 14 July 2005
The London Memorial Garden set up by the City of Westminster in the Victoria Embankment Park, in remembrance of the victims of the terrorist attacks of 7 July 2005.[51]
The Palazzo Valentini (the provincial seat of government in Rome) mourning the London Bombings. The posters read: "The Province of Rome (is) close to the suffering in London".
Memorial to victims,
Hyde Park, London
7/7 memorial's pillar

Memorials

Following the events of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, the United Kingdom and other nations have devised many ways to honour the dead and missing. Most of these memorials included moments of silence, candle-lit vigils, and laying of flowers at the bombing sites. Foreign leaders have also honoured the dead by ordering their flags to be half-staffed, signed books of condolences at embassies of the United Kingdom, and issued messages of support and condolences to the British people.

United Kingdom

  • The government ordered the Union Flag to be flown at half-mast on 8 July.[52]
  • On 9 July, the Bishop of London led prayers for the victims during a service paying tribute to the role of women during World War II.
  • A Vigil for the Victims of the London Bombings was held from 5pm on Saturday 9 July, at Friends Meeting House garden, Euston Road, opposite Euston station, London, UK. The vigil was called by Stop the War Coalition, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and Muslim Association of Britain.
  • A two minute silence for the victims of the bombings was held on 14 July 2005 throughout Europe.[53]
  • On 14 July, thousands attended a vigil at 18:00 on Trafalgar Square. After an initial silence there was a series of speakers for the next two hours. Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks speaking of London said: "It has the courage not to give terror the victory of making us angry and in our anger lose the values that make us what we are. Let that courage unite us now." His words were echoed by many of the other speakers.
  • A memorial service was held at St Paul's Cathedral, on 1 November 2005.[54]
  • A two minute silence was held at 12:00 BST on 7 July 2006 across the country to commemorate those who died, or who were affected by the events.[55]
  • A permanent memorial was opened by Charles, Prince of Wales on 7 July 2009, four years after the bombings, in Hyde Park, London.[56]

International

Condolence Books

Flag Half-staffing

  •  Canada - All federal government buildings and establishments across Canada, including the Peace Tower, and in the United Kingdom.[60]
  •  New Zealand - Prime Minister Helen Clark requested that flags in New Zealand fly at half mast the day following the bombings.[61]
  •  France - President Jacques Chirac requested that flags in France fly at half mast for 3 days.

Moments of Silence

Services

See also

References

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  2. ^ North, Rachel (15 July 2005). "Coming together as a city". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4670099.stm. Retrieved 12 November 2006. 
  3. ^ "Tube log shows initial confusion". BBC. 12 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/4674469.stm. Retrieved 12 November 2006. 
  4. ^ "Indepth London Attacks". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/london_blasts/what_happened/html/russell_sq.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  5. ^ a b Campbell, Duncan; Laville, Sandra (13 July 2005). "British suicide bombers carried out London attacks, say police". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/jul/13/july7.uksecurity6. Retrieved 15 November 2006. 
  6. ^ Image of bombers' deadly journey, BBC News, 17 July 2005, accessed 3 December 2006.
  7. ^ "Video of London bomber released". Guardian. 8 July 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jul/06/july7.uksecurity1. 
  8. ^ Video of London suicide bomber released, The Times, 6 July 2006, accessed 3 March 2007; a transcript of the tape is "available at Wikisource". Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013041202/http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Tape_of_Mohammad_Sidique_Khan. 
  9. ^ Intelligence and Security Committee (May 2006). "Report into the London Terrorist Attacks on 7 July 2005" (PDF). BBC News: p. 11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/11_05_06_isc_london_attacks_report.pdf. 
  10. ^ "List of the bomb blast victims". BBC News. 20 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4668245.stm. Retrieved 7 July 2007. 
  11. ^ Eggen, Dan; Scott Wilson (17 July 2005). "Suicide Bombs Potent Tools of Terrorists". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/16/AR2005071601363.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  12. ^ Muir, Hugh; Rosie Cowan (8 July 2005). "Four bombs in 50 minutes - Britain suffers its worst-ever terror attack". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071217222740/http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1523819,00.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  13. ^ "London bombers "were all British"". BBC News. 12 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4676577.stm. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  14. ^ "One London bomber died in blast". BBC News. 12 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4674463.stm. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  15. ^ Bennetto, Jason; Ian Herbert (13 July 2005). "The suicide bomb plot hatched in Yorkshire". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/the-suicide-bomb-plot-hatched-in-yorkshire-498616.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  16. ^ Leppard, David (17 July 2005). "MI5 judged bomber "no threat"". The Times Online (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2087-1697562,00.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  17. ^ "Three held over 7 July bombings". BBC News. 2007-03-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6481495.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  18. ^ a b "Police quiz 7 July bomber's widow". BBC News. 2007-05-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6637917.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  19. ^ "UK Man bailed over 'al-Qaeda manual'". BBC News. 21 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6675165.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  20. ^ "UK Race hate cleric Faisal deported". BBC News. 25 May 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6691701.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  21. ^ "England London | 'Hate preacher' loses his appeal". BBC News. 17 February 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/3494905.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  22. ^ MI5 judged bomber "no threat" The Times Online
  23. ^ New arrest in London bombings CBS News
  24. ^ Report: Israel was warned ahead of first blast Arutz Sheva - cached copy at [1]
  25. ^ "Gulf Times". Gulf Times. http://www.gulf-times.com/site/topics/article.asp?cu_no=2&item_no=43819&version=1&template_id=57&parent_id=56. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  26. ^ ELAINE SCIOLINO and DON VAN NATTA Jr. (10 July 2005). "For a Decade, London Thrived as a Busy Crossroads of Terror". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/10/international/europe/10qaeda.html?ex=1278648000&en=13dee055d2986d2b&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  27. ^ Terror Watch: The Real Target? - Newsweek National News - MSNBC.com at www.msnbc.msn.com - cached copy at [2]
  28. ^ at web.israelinsider.com
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ "Incidents in London". United Kingdom Parliament. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmhansrd/vo050707/debtext/50707-11.htm#column_465. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  31. ^ Peter Power 7/7 Terror Exercise; Peter Power 7/7 Terror Rehearsal; BBC Radio - Drills Ran on day of London bombings 7-7-05: "BBC Radio - Drills Ran on day of london bombings 7-7-05". BBC. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEbUQiYOGjU&feature=related. Retrieved 30 July 2008. 
  32. ^ "Police snipers track al-Qaeda suspects". The Times Online (London). 17 July 2005. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2087-1697326,00.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  33. ^ Lawrence, Dune (7 July 2005). "U.S. Stocks Rise, Erasing Losses on London Bombings; Gap Rises". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000103&sid=aflPCIrU37Ns&refer=us. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  34. ^ "Banks talked via secret chatroom". BBC News. 8 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4666225.stm. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  35. ^ "Statistics on BBC Webservers 7 July 2005". BBC Online. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070703070502/http://www.bbc.co.uk/feedback/07July_Statistics.shtml. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  36. ^ "Politics BNP campaign uses bus bomb photo". BBC News. 12 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/4674675.stm. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  37. ^ a b "For a Decade, London Thrived as a Busy Crossroads of Terror". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/10/international/europe/10qaeda.html?ei=5090&en=03dee04dd2987f2b&ex=1278648000&partner=rssuserland&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 8 July 2008. 
  38. ^ Philips, Melanie. Londonistan. Encounter Books, 2006, p. 189 ff.
  39. ^ "Police appeal for bombing footage". BBC News. 10 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4668675.stm. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  40. ^ "Iran press blames West for blasts". BBC News. 11 July 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4672037.stm. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  41. ^ Bennetto, Jason; Ian Herbert (13 August 2005). "London bombings: the truth emerges". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/london-bombings-the-truth-emerges-502660.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  42. ^ "Leak reveals official story of London bombings UK news The Observer". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/apr/09/july7.uksecurity. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  43. ^ "Al-Qaeda commander linked to 2005 London bombings led attacks on Nato convoys". The Telegraph. 22 January 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/pakistan/4313740/Al-Qaeda-commander-linked-to-2005-London-bombings-led-attacks-on-Nato-convoys.html. Retrieved 5 February 2009. 
  44. ^ Johnston, Chris (9 July 2005). "Tube blasts "almost simultaneous"". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/jul/09/july7.uksecurity12. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  45. ^ "7/7 leader: more evidence reveals what police knew The Guardian 3 May 2007". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/may/03/july7.topstories3. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  46. ^ Dodd, Vikram (3 May 2007). "7/7 leader: more evidence reveals what police knew". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/may/03/july7.topstories3. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  47. ^ Honingsbaum, Mark (27 June 2006). "Seeing isn't believing". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/jun/27/july7.uksecurity. Retrieved 12 August 2009. 
  48. ^ Soni, Darshna (4 June 2007). "7/7: the conspiracy theories". Channel 4 News. http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/society/law_order/77+the+conspiracy+theories/545762. Retrieved 12 August 2009. 
  49. ^ Soni, Darshna (4 June 2007). "Survey: 'government hasn't told truth about 7/7'". Channel 4 News. http://www.channel4.com/news/articles/society/religion/survey+government+hasnt+told+truth+about+77/545847. Retrieved 12 August 2009. 
  50. ^ "Unmasking the mysterious 7/7 conspiracy theorist". BBC News Magazine. 30 June 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8124687.stm. Retrieved 12 August 2009. 
  51. ^ (20 August 2005). "Bombings Memorial Garden Closes". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  52. ^ (7 July 2005). "Union Flag to Fly at Half-Mast". UTV. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  53. ^ (10 July 2005). "Europe to Mark Tragedy With Two Minutes of Silence". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  54. ^ (1 November 2005). "Tributes Paid to Bombing Victims". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  55. ^ (7 July 2006). "Nation Remembers 7 July Victims". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  56. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8137265.stm
  57. ^ (7 July 2005). "U.S. raises terror alert for transit systems - 7 July 2005". CNN.com. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
  58. ^ "President Signs Book of Condolence at British Embassy". whitehouse.gov. 8 July 2005. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2005/07/20050708-9.html. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  59. ^ Dodd, Mike (July 13, 2005). "Rating the game: Clemens, dugout humor spice it up". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/allstar/2005-07-13-rating-the-game_x.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  60. ^ (1 September 2005). "Half Masting of the Flag". Canadian Heritage. Retreieved 4 September 2007.
  61. ^ (8 July 2005). "No Known New Zealand Casualties in London". tvnz.co.nz. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  62. ^ (12 July 2005). "Government Calls for Two Minutes Silence". Department of the Taoiseach. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  63. ^ (13 July 2005). "Spain Royal Guard Honours London". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 4 September 2007.

Further reading

Support
Official reports
Police statements
Medical report
News articles
Radio broadcasts;
  • The Jon Gaunt show originally broadcast live at 9:00 a.m. on 7 July 2005 on BBC London. First mention of events at approximately 27 minutes into the broadcast.
Memoirs
Tributes and obituaries
Photos


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Contents

Speeches and offerings of condolence

United Kingdom

Royal Family

  • Queen Elizabeth II issued an official statement, saying "I know I speak for the whole nation in expressing my sympathy to all those affected and the relatives of the killed and injured. I have nothing but admiration for the emergency services as they go about their work." [1] On July 8, the Queen visited the Royal London Hospital, near Liverpool Street, where she visited some of the victims of the attacks, and emergency staff who responded to the attacks. She later made a speech described by the BBC as "unusually forthright", in which she called the bombings an outrage, and said that "those who perpetrate these brutal acts against innocent people should know that they will not change our way of life." [2] On July 10, the Queen again commented on the attacks, during the UK's commemoration services for the 60th anniversary of World War II. The Queen also ordered that the Union Flag on Buckingham Palace fly at half-mast. [3]
  • - The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall visited St Mary's Hospital in Paddington on July 8. The Prince said "It's been one of the things that many of us have dreaded for a long time and now they have finally got through," and added, "What I can never get over is the incredible resilience of the British people who have set us all a fantastic example of how to react to these kinds of tragedies." The Duchess also commented "It makes me very proud to be British" in response to the efforts of the emergency services.
  • File:Prince-william-standard.PNG - Prince William of Wales, on tour in New Zealand with the British and Irish Lions said, "At this time I'm sure that I'm joined by New Zealanders and Lions supporters alike in extending to the families and loved ones of all those directly involved, my heartfelt sympathies."
  • File:Duke of York standard.gif- The Duke of York visited the Transport for London staff and the Metropolitan Police at CentreComm, the London Buses Command and Control Complex in Buckingham Palace Road on July 8. The Duke met staff who co-ordinated the transport network in London following the attacks, and praised Londoners for their reactions, saying "The way that Londoners pulled together yesterday was quite extraordinary."
  • File:Duke-of-gloucester-standard.jpg- The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester visited the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital on July 9 to meet victims of the attack and to thank staff.

British Members of Parliament

  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg - The Prime Minister, Tony Blair, was at the G8 summit in Glenagles, Scotland on the morning of the attacks. He described the attacks as “barbaric.” “Our determination to defend our values and our way of life is greater than their determination to cause death and destruction to innocent people in a desire to impose extremism upon the world,” he said. The Prime Minister left the G8 summit in Gleneagles [4] despite Downing Street initially suggesting that reports he would return to London were false [5]. He arrived back in London to consult with emergency services. The summit continued in his absence and he returned to Gleneagles in the evening. [6]
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg - The leader of the Conservative Party, Michael Howard: "We express our deepest sympathy to the families and friends of those who have lost lives and those who have been injured. We express our thanks and admiration for the heroic work of the emergency services and we fully support the Prime Minister in what he has said about our determination to defend and to protect our way of life" [7]
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg - The leader of the Liberal Democrat Party, Charles Kennedy: "These bombs have exploded as world leaders meet at Gleneagles. The moral contrast between those who seek to disrupt and destroy and those who are trying to build for the future could not be more stark. The terrorists must not prevail" [8]
  • Flag of the United Kingdom.svg - MP George Galloway said that the attacks were linked to Britain's involvement in the war on Iraq. "We argued, as did the security services in this country, that the attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq would increase the threat of terrorist attack in Britain. Tragically Londoners have now paid the price of the government ignoring such warnings." [9] Other MPs refrained from linking Blair's actions in the Middle East with the bombing.

London authorities

  • Flag of the City of London.svg - Mayor Ken Livingstone, speaking from Singapore, where he had been promoting the city's Olympic bid, called it a “cowardly attack”. Using the media to speak directly to the bombers, he said "In the days that follow, look at our airports, look at our sea ports and look at our railway stations and, even after your cowardly attack, you will see that people ... will arrive in London to become Londoners and to fulfil their dreams and achieve their potential. They choose to come to London, ... because they come to be free, they come to live the life they choose, they come to be able to be themselves. They flee you because you tell them how they should live. They don't want that and nothing you do, however many of us you kill, will stop that flight to our city where freedom is strong and where people can live in harmony with one another. Whatever you do, however many you kill, you will fail." Full details.
  • Flag of the City of London.svg - The Lord Mayor of the City of London, Michael Savory, was also in Singapore, and issued a statement urging Londoners to be defiant, saying, "“I am sure that on Monday at 7.00am the City will be humming as usual to prove that Londoners just get on with it. That’s our best answer to terrorist bullies. I certainly shall by at my desk, opposite the Bank of England, working as I have done for 40 years. Terrorists have not won, cannot win and will not win." [10]

Home nations

  • Flag of Scotland.svg - Scottish First Minister Jack McConnell issued a statement in behalf of the Scottish Executive saying, "I had planned today (Thursday) to have a conversation with Mayor Ken Livingston to congratulate him on the success for London yesterday in Singapore in winning the Olympic Games for 2012. Instead I have sent a message of condolence on behalf of the people of Scotland to the people of London and the families of those who have been injured or deceased in the terrorist atrocities that were seen in different locations in central London today." [11]
  • Flag of Wales 2.svg - Welsh First Minister Rhodri Morgan issued a statement on behalf of the National Assembly for Wales, saying, "The whole of Wales will feel nothing but revulsion at these savage acts of terrorism targeted at commuters during London’s busy rush hour. On behalf of the people of Wales, I would like to express my deepest sympathies to the relatives of those killed and injured in this morning’s attacks."
  • Ulster banner.svg - The 4 major political parties in Northern Ireland condemned the attacks. William McCrea spoke on behalf of the Democratic Unionist Party, saying, "sympathise with those who have been bereaved as a result of this terrible atrocity and our thoughts are with the many families who have been so cruelly robbed of their loved ones." The DUP also used their statement to attack Sinn Fein and the IRA, whom they accused of "planting more bombs in London than anyone else" [12].
  • The Republican Sinn Fein also condemned the attacks, with the Mayor of Moyle District Council, saying "On behalf of Sinn Féin I offer my sincere condolences to the victims and the families of those killed and injured and to the people of London". [13]

Multinational Bodies

  • Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations.svg - Commonwealth of Nations Secretary-General Don McKinnon issued a statement saying, "All of us throughout the Commonwealth family are shocked by these barbaric and cowardly attacks. Our thoughts go to all the victims and their families and friends. Terrorism cannot be allowed to succeed. The Commonwealth has spoken out loudly and clearly against this scourge. The killing and maiming of innocent men, women and children is unjustifiable." [15]
  • G8 leaders prepared a statement, read on behalf of them all by Tony Blair, condemning the attacks as "an attack on civilised peoples everywhere", and saying that the G8 summit would proceed. [16]
  • The Gulf Co-operation Council "condemns the terrorist attacks which hit the British capital in several locations this morning".
  • - At NATO HQ in Brussels, the North Atlantic Council met for an extraordinary session, and issued a statement saying "The Council condemned in the strongest possible terms terrorism in all its forms. NATO Allies reaffirmed their determination to combat this scourge, and to defend with all means at their disposal the Alliance’s values of freedom, tolerance and democracy" [17]
  • Olympic flag.svg - The International Olympic Committee stated that "The IOC was appalled by the barbaric attack". The IOC also confirmed that the attacks would not affect London's successful Olympic bid for the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, stating "Security is one of the 17 themes of evaluating the Olympics and we have full confidence in the London authorities for a secure Olympic Games." [18]
  • Flag of the United Nations.svg - United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan described the bombings as "an attack on humanity itself", and joined other world leaders in condemning the attacks. He said that he was personally "devastated" by the events. [19]
  • Flag of the United Nations.svg - The United Nations Security Council condemned "without reservation" the terror attacks and urged nations to prosecute perpetrators of such "barbaric acts." In a resolution adopted by a 15-0 vote in an emergency meeting, the council expressed condolences to the victims of the bomb blasts. [20]

Heads of Government

Americas

  • Argentina Argentina - President Néstor Kirchner sent a press release that stated "We're convinced that the respect to life is the pillar of the democratic coexistance, and manifest our total condemn of any kind of terrorist act, such as the one suffered by the British citizenship, and hope for the people responsible to be aprehended and submitted to justice. The Argentine people feels deeply identified with the victims and their relatives, to whom we would like to express our deepest sentiments of consternation and solidarity."
  • Brazil Brazil - President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva said that "Brazil expresses its harshest condemnation of this most recent, deplorable terrorist act" and voiced "solidarity with the suffering of the victims' families."
  • Canada Canada - Prime Minister Paul Martin offered his condolences to the families of the victims of the bombings also calling the bombings "an unspeakable attack on the innocent and on a way of life," as well as "our collective freedom has come under attack by those who would use violence and murder to force extremism on the world." [21] Martin has also requested Canadian flags on all federal buildings be lowered to half-staff[22]
  • The Governor General, Adrienne Clarkson, said in a statement, "The world has once again witnessed the horrors of terrorism and we have all been shaken by these shocking and terrifying events. All Canadians are saddened to see this tragedy unfold and we give the people of Britain our heartfelt sympathy". [23]
  • Chile Chile- President Ricardo Lagos said that "every Chilean repudiates what has happened today at dawn in London."
  • Cuba Cuba- President Fidel Castro wrote, in a letter to the Queen, "I can assure you that the Cuban people, who have been a victim of terrorism for more than four decades, share your grief and condemn this unjustifiable attack on the British people". [24]
  • Flag of the Falkland Islands.svg- Falkland Islands - Governor Howard Pearce sent a message of condolence to Queen Elizabeth II, saying, "The people of the Falkland Islands are deeply shocked and outraged by the appalling attacks which took place in London earlier today. On behalf of all Falkland Islanders, I convey our sympathy to those who have suffered injury or trauma as a result of these events and our deepest condolences to the families of those who have lost their lives. While we may be many thousands of miles away in distance, we feel very close to all Londoners in spirit, and we know that they will respond with courage and fortitude."
  • Mexico Mexico - A spokesman for President Vicente Fox said that "on behalf of the people of Mexico, the president would like to express his solidarity and support to the people and government of the United Kingdom, terrorism and violence against civilian population have no possible justification, President Vicente Fox has already given his condolences to Prime Minister Blair."
  • Panama Panama - President Martín Torrijos visited the British ambassador to Panama, James Ian Malcom, to express condolences and solidarity with the UK. [25]
  • United States United States - President George W. Bush spoke at the 31st G8 summit in Scotland, saying "I spent some time recently with the Prime Minister, Tony Blair, and had an opportunity to express our heartfelt condolences to the people of London, people who lost lives. I appreciate Prime Minister Blair's steadfast determination and his strength. He's on his way now to London here from the G8 to speak directly to the people of London. He'll carry a message of solidarity with him." [26]

Europe

  • Cyprus Cyprus - President Tassos Papadopoulos stressed, that "the Government and the people of Cyprus strongly condemn such horrendous acts of terror and stand in full solidarity with the British people and the rest of the international community in the fight against terrorism of all kinds" [27]
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic - President Vaclav Klaus wrote in a statement for the Queen: "We are jointly facing those who would like to destroy the values upon which our civilisation rests by their coward inhuman acts." "Along with you, we are determined not to yield to the forces which are seeking to destroy everything in which we believe through violence," Klaus wrote in the letter, in which he voiced his deepest sympathies. [28]
  • Denmark Denmark - Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen has stated: "Again we're witnessing scruples' and barbaric attacks against completely innocent people – civilians, women and children... Terrorists use fear and terror as political pressure. We can't - and will not allow that. We shall never give in to terrorists." - Later he sent an official condolence letter to Tony Blair. [29]
  • Finland Finland - President Tarja Halonen expressed condolences in a letter to the Queen. In it she said "It is with profound sadness that we in Finland have received the news of the fatal bomb explosions in London, in which precious human lives were lost and many seriously injured." Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja also expressed condolences, stating: "I vehemently condemn these shocking and cruel acts."
  • France France - Jacques Chirac, describing the attackers as “savages” said that “these attacks have without any doubt reinforced the solidarity between the eight [heads of government]” at the G8 summit [30], adding that the attacks would also strengthen the fight against terrorrism.
  • Flag of Gibraltar.svg Gibraltar - Chief Minister Peter Caruana, send a message of condolence to the Queen, saying "Please accept the sympathy and solidarity of the people and Government of Gibraltar in the face of these cowardly and wicked attacks on London and its people. Please accept our condolences on the loss of life."
  • Greece Greece - Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis stated "On the part of the government and the Greek people, I would like to express my deepest condolences" and added "Our thoughts are with the families of the victims."
  • Hungary Hungary - Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány called the attacks "lowly and inhuman", and expressed his "sincere sympathy" with the families of victims and with the inhabitants of London. [31] Outgoing President Ferenc Mádl likewise condemned the attacks and expressed his condolences. [32]
  • Iceland Iceland - Iceland’s president, Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, says that terrorist attacks have paralyzed the city. “The British nation has shown great courage and is resolved to deny the terrorists success in their attack on the open and free society.” [33]
  • Iceland Iceland - Prime Minister Halldór Ásgrímsson says it is our duty to stand together in the fight against the forces that organize attacks such as the one that occurred in London today. He says that counter-terrorist preparations and surveillance will increase in Europe in the wake of the attacks, including Iceland.
  • Netherlands Netherlands - Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende stated: "Continuous intensive attention is required in the war against terrorism. Terrorism is an evil that can hit each European country. Cooperation in the EU and worldwide is crucial to counter this evil."
  • Norway Norway - Prime Minister Kjell Magne Bondevik has stated "On behalf of the Norwegian Government, I wish to express my deepest condolences and sympathy. My thoughts are with all those who were injured and the bereaved families, and with the people of the United Kingdom. We are mourning with you in this time of grief." [34]
  • Portugal Portugal - Prime Minister José Sócrates says, in a statement made from the national Parliament, "The terrorist threat is global and demands for a global response. If any doubt would existed about the priorities of Europe, this dramatic attack obligies all the 25 European Union states to stay together in this fight."
  • Romania Romania - President Traian Basescu expressed his solidarity with the British people and authorities.
  • Russia Russia - President Vladimir Putin has expressed his condolences over the attacks and has called on all countries to unite in the fight against international terrorism.
  • Spain Spain - Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero has stated "I want to express the condolences of the Government and the Spanish people to relatives of the victims of this horrible attacks. I absolutely share the sentiments stated by my colleague Tony Blair. Moral strength of democracy is far superior than such vile and cowardly methods of terrorism."
  • Sweden Sweden - Prime Minister Göran Persson stated: "It's is an attack on our open society. It's an attack on a democracy that's hosting a meeting to discuss such difficult issues as the climate change and the poverty of Africa. In this situation it's important that we hold together, that we're steady in the fight against terror and that we give all the support that we can give to British authorities but also to the people who has been affected, and we of course also express our sympathy with the British people and all the single people who today have received messages that near and dear have been affected by serious injuries or death. [...] The same icy feeling as after 9/11, the same definite opinion: this is not something that we'll give away for. If this will become the future norm for how to decide the political agenda, then we'll live in a whole other Europe, a whole other world, and that's something none of us wishes. Now we defend the open society."
  • Turkey Turkey - Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said that "we have always stressed that the fight against terror is something we all have to join into together. I believe especially that our mutual intelligence organizations need to pool their information and knowledge to be better able to support one another against attacks of this kind." [35]

Middle East

  • Israel Israel - Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said "In these moments, Israel entirely expresses its solidarity with the people of Britain, aching with their pain, and sending condolences to the families of the dead and wishes of fast recovery to the wounded."
  • Lebanon Lebanon - President Emile Lahoud said that "Lebanon, which has been the victim of violence for years, shares with the British their pain."

Asia

  • People's Republic of China China - Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Jianchao has said that "China is shocked" by this tragedy and "strongly condemns" any terrorist attacks targeted at civilians.
  • India India - Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speaking at the G8 summit in Scotland said, "Just a couple of days back, India faced a major terrorist attack and these incidents show that global terrorism does not recognize international boundaries and we all need to work together to counter it."
  • Indonesia Indonesia - Foreign Ministry spokesman Marty Natalegawa has said, "We're shocked to hear the bombing attacks. We condemned them," He also expressed condolences to the victims and their relatives, and pray for the wounded for their early recovery. [36] [37]
  • Japan Japan - Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has said, "This terrorist action will never be forgiven, but remembered with great indignation. I offer Mr. Blair my full support to his response, and will gladly cooperate in any way possible."
  • Malaysia Malaysia - Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said all Malaysians were saddened and distressed over the bomb attacks in London. He said every Malaysian hates violence and condemns it because violence is not the solution. He stated "I believe all countries and races condemn what had happened in London although we do not know yet who is responsible for the bombing."
  • Pakistan Pakistan - Information Minister Sheikh Rashid said "We offer our heartfelt sympathies to those who suffered due to such acts."
  • Singapore Singapore - Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong condemned the terrorist attacks in London and expressed Singapore's sympathy to the victims of the attacks and their families, and to the British people and government.

Africa

  • Morocco Morocco - Communication Minister Nabil Benabdallah gave a statement on behalf of the Moroccon government, saying that "these heinous attacks underline the need for the international community to...unite its efforts to fight these acts and abort their objectives."
  • South Africa South Africa - President Thabo Mbeki has condemned the series of explosions on London's transport system: "As South Africa, we join the rest of the international community in condemning any acts of terrorism"

Oceania

  • Australia Australia - Prime Minister John Howard, in a live-to-air broadcast, expressed his "horror and disgust at this cowardly attack on innocent people." Mr Howard also stated that "It's important that we stand shoulder to shoulder with our British allies at a time such as this" and that "these types of attacks will not alter the determination of free countries to do the right thing." Recognising an Australian connection to the British capital, Mr. Howard said "Australians will feel very deeply about this because London is the city, above all others outside our own country, we know and identify with." [38] A small contingent of experts from the Australian Federal Police was dispatched to London to assist British authorities.

Other National Officials

  • Canada Canada - Deputy Prime Minister Anne McLellan said,"Acts of terrorism are completely without conscience...terrorism is a scourge on our civilization. Those who commit the acts do not care whom they kill or how much damage they inflict on those who are truly innocent.".
  • Canada Canada - Conservative Party leader Stephen Harper said,"We should not be under any illusion that we couldn't just as easily be a target, and certainly, obviously, we could be a basis from which terror could be launched," and "those who oppose the war in Iraq also oppose the war in Afghanistan, and Canada is very involved in that."
  • Canada Canada - w:New Democratic Party leader Jack Layton felt,"repulsed by the violence we have witnessed today in London...we will not allow it to undermine Canadian society, our institutions or our beliefs in democracy, human rights, tolerance, and equality. Indeed, we must go forward today with greater determination to build a world that embraces these ideals."
  • France France - w:French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin called the attack "a tragedy for Great Britain" and "a tragedy for Europe as a whole which had already been hit in Madrid in March 2004." In a letter to Prime Minister Tony Blair, De Villepin also offered "immediate, full and total collaboration of French services in helping you identify the authors of these crimes."
  • United States United States - Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld has said: "Before long, I suspect that those responsible for these acts will encounter British steel. Their kind of steel has an uncommon strength. It does not bend or break. The British have learned from history that this kind of evil must be confronted. It cannot be appeased. Our two countries understand well that once a people give in to terrorists’ demands, whatever they are, their demands will grow. The British people are determined and resolute. And I know the people of the United States are proud to stand at their side."[40]
  • United States United States - Democratic Party Chairman Howard Dean stated, "I join all Americans today in offering my condolences to the victims of today's vicious terrorist attacks in London. Our thoughts and prayers are with the victims, their friends and their families. We remain steadfast in our commitment to defeating those who threaten our freedom and values. At a time when world leaders were working together to help make our world a better place, these terrorists were plotting to disrupt that effort by killing and injuring innocent people. We will continue to stand with our allies around the world to defeat terrorism and protect our liberty and freedom."
  • Australia Australia - Australian Labor Party leader Kim Beazley said the terrorists were "sub-human filth who must be captured and eliminated." He also stated: "The evil that they stand for must be confronted and they need to know that nothing they can do changes our values and nothing they do eliminates our resolve to deal with them."

Religious leaders

  • The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, spoke of his horror and grief. Amid widespread speculation that the bombings were the work of Islamic extremists, he said that, as it happened, he had "spent this morning with Muslim colleagues and friends in West Yorkshire; and we were all as one in our condemnation of this evil and in our shared sense of care and compassion for those affected in whatever way. Such solidarity and common purpose is vital for us all at this time of pain and sorrow and anger." [41] On Friday he gave the "Thought for the Day" on BBC radio 4 in which he spoke of the difference between shocked silence and calmness. [42]
  • The Anglican Bishop of London, Richard Chartres, issued a statement early on Thursday saying "The attack on London is not an attack on Presidents and men of power but an attack on ordinary Londoners travelling to work by bus and tube...On Wednesday evening St Paul’s Cathedral was packed with Londoners come to listen to the Secretary General of the UN and the Chancellor of the Exchequer on what can be done to tackle poverty in the world. The atmosphere was electric and the determination to do something practical to help was obvious. That is the real agenda in today’s world. By contrast this act of violence is a cruel irrelevance." [44]
  • The Australian Muslim Civil Rights Advocacy Network have issued a public statement condemning the attacks, offering their condolences to the British people, and pledging their support in bringing the terrorists to justice. [45]
  • The Council on American-Islamic Relations condemned the attacks, stating "We join Americans of all faiths, and all people of conscience worldwide, in condemning these barbaric crimes that can never be justified or excused. American Muslims offer their sincere condolences to the loved ones of those who were killed or injured in today's attacks and call for the swift apprehension and punishment of the perpetrators."[46]
  • The Islamic Circle of North America released a statement saying, "The Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) is shocked and horrified at the several attacks on the people of London during the rush hour mass transit. We join everyone in condemning such acts of terror and senseless violence. Our thoughts and prayers are with the victims and their loved ones at this tragic moment. We trust that the authorities will determine those responsible for these barbaric acts and bring them to justice quickly." [47]

Other leaders

  • Moussa Abu Marzouk, a spokesman for the Palestinian Islamist organization Hamas, has condemned the bombings, saying "Targeting civilians in their transport means and lives is denounced and rejected."[48]
  • Mayor of Toronto David Miller stated,"residents of Toronto stand in solidarity with people around the world in their condemnation of this and every act of terror."
  • Bertrand Delanoë, mayor of Paris: "Today, we're all Londoners."

Online

  • When the news reporter said "Shopkeepers are opening their doors bringing out blankets and cups of tea" I just smiled. It's like yes. That's Britain for you. Tea solves everything. You're a bit cold? Tea. Your boyfriend has just left you? Tea. You've just been told you've got cancer? Tea. Coordinated terrorist attack on the transport network bringing the city to a grinding halt? TEA DAMMIT! And if it's really serious, they may bring out the coffee. The Americans have their alert raised to red, we break out the coffee. That's for situations more serious than this of course. Like another England penalty shoot-out.
- "jslayeruk," on LiveJournal - a quotation widely circulated after the attacks

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English

7 July 2005 London bombings
File:Russell square
Emergency vehicles at Russell Square
Location London, England
Date 7 July 2005, 8:50 am–9:47 am (GMT)
Attack type Suicide bombings
Deaths 52
Injured around 700
Perpetrator(s) Hasib Hussain, Mohammad Sidique Khan, Germaine Lindsay, Shehzad Tanweer

The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks. They were aimed at London's public transport system during the morning rush hour. They were carried out by British Muslim extremists.

At 08:50, three bombs exploded within fifty seconds of each other on three London Underground trains. Then a fourth exploded an hour later at 09:47 on a bus in Tavistock Square. The explosions were caused by home-made bombs. The bombs were packed into rucksacks and set off by the bombers themselves.

A memorial was made in Hyde Park, London on the 7 July 2009. This had 52 stainless steel pillars, one for each murder victim. They were arranged in four clusters for the four bomb sites.[1] 52 died and over 700 were injured in the attack.[2][3]

After this attack there was a huge police reform which still exists in the UK at the present day. The terror threat is at 'severe' and a large number of police in London are authorised to carry firearms. London is always on high alert for terrorism and pro-actively combats it with the help of the Serious Organised Crime Agency (similar to the American FBI) and MI6.

References



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