The Full Wiki

8.2 kiloyear event: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Central Greenland reconstructed temperature.

The 8.2 kiloyear event is the term that climatologists have adopted for a sudden decrease in global temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present, or c. 6200 BCE, and which lasted for the next two to four centuries. Milder than the Younger Dryas cold spell that preceded it, but more severe than the Little Ice Age that would follow, the 8.2 kiloyear cooling was a significant exception to general trends of the Holocene climatic optimum.

A rapid cooling around 6200 BCE was first identified by Swiss botanist Heinrich Zoller in 1960, who named the event Misox oscillation (for the Val Mesolcina).[1] It is also known as Finse event in Norway.[2] Bond et al. argued that the origin of the 8.2 kiloyear event is linked to a 1,500-year climate cycle; it correlates with Bond event 5.[3]

The strongest evidence for the event comes from the North Atlantic region; the disruption in climate shows clearly in Greenland ice cores and in sedimentary and other records of the temporal and tropical North Atlantic.[4][5][6] It is less evident in ice cores from Antarctica and in South American indices.[7][8] The effects of the cold snap were global, however, most notably in changes in sea level during the relevant era.

The 8.2 Ka cooling event may have been caused by a large meltwater pulse from the final collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet of northeastern North America—most likely when the glacial Lake Ojibway & glacial Lake Agassiz suddenly drained into the North Atlantic Ocean.[9][10][11] (The same type of action produced the Missoula floods that created the Channeled scablands of the Columbia River basin.) The meltwater pulse may have affected the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, reducing northward heat transport in the Atlantic and causing significant circum-North Atlantic cooling. Estimates of the cooling vary and depend somewhat on the interpretation of the proxy data, but drops of around 1 to 5 °C (1 to 11 °F) have been reported. Further afield, some tropical records report a 3 °C (5 °F) from cores drilled into an ancient coral reef in Indonesia.[12] The event also caused a global CO2 decline of ~ 25 ppm by volume over ~ 300 years.[13] However, the dating and interpretation of this and other tropical sites are more ambiguous than the North Atlantic sites.

Cooler and drier conditions prevailed, as in the Younger Dryas though less extreme. Yet the changes may have been severe enough to impact one of the earliest settled human communities: the first phase of Catal Huyuk ended during the 8.2 kiloyear event. The site was abandoned and not re-occupied until about 5 centuries later, when climate conditions had improved markedly. This also saw increased aridity in the Middle East. Juris Zarins has suggested the development of a Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex of cultures in the period of the 6,200 BCE climatic crisis, stretching from Southern Palestine down the Red Sea shoreline and northeastward into Syria and Iraq, which spread Proto-Semitic languages through the region[14]. This complex may have developed from the fusion of Harifian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B cultures in Southern Palestine.

As Harifian used the Outacha retouch point technique found earlier in the Fayyum, it has been suggested that Proto-Semitic may have come from Egypt across the Sinai.[15] Given the fact that Semitic is most closely related to the Ancient Egyptian language of all the Afro-Asiatic languages,[16] this origin is also distinctly possible.

Drier conditions were notable in North Africa, while East Africa suffered five centuries of general drought. In West Asia and especially Mesopotamia, the 8.2ky event was a three-hundred year aridification and cooling episode, which provided the natural force for Mesopotamian irrigation agriculture and surplus production that were essential for the earliest class-formation and urban life. However multi-centennial changes around the same period are difficult to link specifically to the approximately 100-year abrupt event as recorded most clearly in the Greenland ice cores.

The initial meltwater pulse has caused between 0.5 and 4 meters of sea-level rise. Based on estimates of lake volume and decaying ice cap size, values of 0.4 - 1.2 meters (1-4 ft) circulate. Based on sea-level data from below modern deltas 2 - 4 (6-12 ft) meters of near-instantaneous rise is estimated, recorded superimposed on background 'normal' post-glacial sea-level rise. [17] Meltwater pulse sea level rise was experienced fully at great distance from the release area. Gravity and rebound effects associated to the shifting of watermasses make that the sea-level fingerprint is smaller in areas closer to the Hudson Bay. The Mississippi delta records ~20%, NW Europe records ~70% and Asia records ~105% of the global averaged amount.[18]. The cooling of the 8200 event was a temporary feature, the sea-level rise of the meltwater pulse was permanent.

In 2003, the Office of Net Assessment at the United States Department of Defense was commissioned to produce a study on the likely and potential effects of a modern climate change.[19] The study, conducted under ONA head Andrew Marshall, modelled its prospective climate change on the 8.2 kiloyear event, precisely because it was the middle alternative between the Younger Dryas and the Little Ice Age. The study caused a controversy when it was made public in 2004.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Zoller, Heinrich (1960). "Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Vegetationsgeschichte der insubrischen Schweiz" (in German). Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 83: 45–156. ISSN 0366-970X. 
  2. ^ Nesje, Atle; Dahl, Svein Olaf (2001). "The Greenland 8200 cal. yr BP event detected in loss-on-ignition profiles in Norwegian lacustrine sediment sequences". Journal of Quaternary Science 16 (2): 155–166. doi:10.1002/jqs.567. 
  3. ^ Bond, G.; et al. (1997). "A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates". Science 278 (5341): 1257–1266. doi:10.1126/science.278.5341.1257. http://rivernet.ncsu.edu/courselocker/PaleoClimate/Bond%20et%20al.,%201997%20Millenial%20Scale%20Holocene%20Change.pdf. 
  4. ^ Alley, R. B.; et al. (1997). "Holocene climatic instability; a prominent, widespread event 8,200 yr ago". Geology 25 (6): 483–486. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0483:HCIAPW>2.3.CO;2. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/6/483. 
  5. ^ Alley, Richard B.; Ágústsdóttir, Anna Maria (2005). "The 8k event: cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change". Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (10-11): 1123–1149. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.12.004. 
  6. ^ Sarmaja-Korjonen, Kaarina; Seppa, H. (2007). "Abrupt and consistent responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems to the 8200 cal. yr cold event: a lacustrine record from Lake Arapisto, Finland". The Holocene 17 (4): 457–467. doi:10.1177/0959683607077020. 
  7. ^ Burroughs, William J. [ed.] (2003). Climate: Into the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521792029. 
  8. ^ Ljung, K.; et al. (2007). "South Atlantic island record reveals a South Atlantic response to the 8.2kyr event". Climate of the Past 4: 35–45. http://www.clim-past.net/4/35/2008/cp-4-35-2008.html. 
  9. ^ Ehlers, Jürgen; Gibbard, Philip L. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations – Extent and Chronology. Part II: North America. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 257–262. ISBN 0444515925. 
  10. ^ Barber, D. C.; et al. (1999). "Forcing of the cold event 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide Lakes". Nature 400: 344–348. doi:10.1038/22504. 
  11. ^ Ellison, Christopher R. W.; Chapman, Mark R.; Hall, Ian R. (2006). "Surface and Deep Ocean Interactions During the Cold Climate Event 8200 Years Ago". Science 312 (5782): 1929–1932. doi:10.1126/science.1127213. 
  12. ^ Fagan, Brian (2004). The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization. New York: Basic Books. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0465022812. 
  13. ^ Wagner, Friederike; et al. (2002). "Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8,200-years-B.P. cooling event". PNAS 99 (19): 12011–12014. doi:10.1073/pnas.182420699. 
  14. ^ Zarins, Juris (1990), "Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia" (Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research), No. 280 (Nov., 1990), pp. 31-65
  15. ^ Midant-Reynes, Beatrix (2000), The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs (Wiley-Blackwell)
  16. ^ Ehret, Christopher, op cit.
  17. ^ Hijma, Marc P.; Cohen, Kim M. (March 2010). "Timing and magnitude of the sea-level jump preluding the 8.2 kiloyear event" (in English). Geology 38 (3): 275-278. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/38/3/275.abstract. 
  18. ^ Kendall, Roblyn A.; Mitrovica, J.X., Milne, G.A., Törnqvist, T.E., Li, Y., (May 2008). "The sea-level fingerprint of the 8.2 ka climate event" (in English). Geology 36 (5): 423-426. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/36/5/423.abstract. 
  19. ^ Schwartz, Peter; Randall, Doug (October 2003). An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security. http://www.grist.org/pdf/AbruptClimateChange2003.pdf. 
  20. ^ Stripp, David (February 9, 2004). "The Pentagon's Weather Nightmare". Fortune. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2004/02/09/360120/index.htm. 
Advertisements

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message