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8 (number): Wikis

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8

−1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Cardinal 8
eight
Ordinal 8th
eighth
Numeral system octal
Factorization 23
Divisors 1, 2, 4, 8
Roman numeral VIII
Roman numeral (Unicode) Ⅷ, ⅷ
Arabic ٨,8
Amharic
Bengali
Chinese numeral 八,捌
Devanāgarī
Tamil
Hebrew ח (Het)
Hebrew שמונה (shmoneh)
Khmer
Korean
Thai
prefixes octa-/oct- (from Greek)

octo-/oct- (from Latin)

Binary 1000
Octal 10
Duodecimal 8
Hexadecimal 8

8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. The SI prefix for 10008 is yotta (Y), and for its reciprocal yocto (y). It is the root of two other numbers: eighteen (eight and ten) and eighty (eight tens). Linguistically, it is derived from Middle English eighte.[citation needed]

Contents

In mathematics

8 is a composite number, its proper divisors being 1, 2, and 4. It is twice 4 or four times 2. Eight is a power of two, being 23 (two cubed), and is the first number of the form p3. It has an aliquot sum of 7 in the 4 member aliquot sequence (8,7,1,0) being the first member of 7-aliquot tree. It is symbolized by the Arabic numeral (figure) 8.

All powers of 2 ;(2x), have an aliquot sum of one less than themselves.

Eight is the first number to be the aliquot sum of two numbers other than itself; the discrete biprime 10, and the square number 49.

8 is the base of the octal number system, which is mostly used with computers. In octal, one digit represents 3 bits. In modern computers, a byte is a grouping of eight bits, also called an octet.

The number 8 is a Fibonacci number, being 3 plus 5. The next Fibonacci number is 13. 8 is the only positive Fibonacci number, aside from 1, that is a perfect cube.[1]

8 and 9 form a Ruth–Aaron pair under the second definition in which repeated prime factors are counted as often as they occur.

A polygon with eight sides is an octagon. Figurate numbers representing octagons (including eight) are called octagonal numbers. A polyhedron with eight faces is an octahedron. A cuboctahedron has as faces six equal squares and eight equal regular triangles.

A cube has eight verticies.

Sphenic numbers always have exactly eight divisors.

8 is the dimension of the octonions and is the highest possible dimension of a normed division algebra.

The number 8 is involved with a number of interesting mathematical phenomena related to the notion of Bott periodicity. For example if O(\infty) is the direct limit of the inclusions of real orthogonal groups O(1)\hookrightarrow O(2)\hookrightarrow\ldots\hookrightarrow O(k)\hookrightarrow\ldots then \pi_{k+8}(O(\infty))\cong\pi_{k}(O(\infty)). Clifford algebras also display a periodicity of 8. For example the algebra Cl(p + 8,q) is isomorphic to the algebra of 16 by 16 matrices with entries in Cl(p,q). We also see a period of 8 in the K-theory of spheres and in the representation theory of the rotation groups, the latter giving rise to the 8 by 8 spinorial chessboard. All of these properties are closely related to the properties of the octonions.

The lowest dimensional even unimodular lattice is the 8-dimensional E8 lattice. Even positive definite unimodular lattice exist only in dimensions divisible by 8.

A figure 8 is the common name of a geometric shape, often used in the context of sports, such as skating. Figure-eight turns of a rope or cable around a cleat, pin, or bitt are used to belay something.

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In numeral systems

Base Numeral system
2 binary 1000 (number)
3 ternary 22 (number)
4 quaternary 20 (number)
5 quinary 13 (number)
6 senary 12 (number)
7 septenary 11 (number)
8 octal 10 (number)
over 8 (decimal, hexadecimal) 8 (number)

In culture

The figure eight is a popular move in ice skating.

Evolution of the glyph

Evo8glyph.svg

In the beginning, various groups in India wrote eight more or less in one stroke as a curve that looks like an uppercase H with the bottom half of the left line and the upper half of the right line removed. At one point this glyph came close to looking like our modern five. With the western Ghubar Arabs, the similarity of the glyph to five was banished by connecting the beginning and the end of stroke together, and it was only a matter of the Europeans rounding the glyph that led to our modern eight.[2]

Just as in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures the 8 character usually has an ascender, as, for example, in TextFigs148.svg. The "1" and "4" are old-style figures; the "8" is the same height in both old-style and modern figures. 1234567890 are all the same height; they are modern figures.

See also

References

  1. ^ Bryan Bunch, The Kingdom of Infinite Number. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company (2000): 88
  2. ^ Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer transl. David Bellos et al. London: The Harvill Press (1998): 395, Fig. 24.68

External links


Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

The number eight is a natural number that comes after the number seven, but before the number nine.

Math

In math, the number eight is an even number and a composite number. Eight is also a power of two, being 2 times itself 3 times.koi:8 (кыкьямыс)


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