9K38 Igla: Wikis

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Igla
Igla line drawing.png
Type Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS)
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1983- present
Production history
Manufacturer KBM
Unit cost USD 60,000–80,000 (as of 2003)
Specifications
Weight 10.8 kg (24 lb)
Length 1.574 m (5.16 ft)
Diameter 72 mm

Warhead 1.17 kg (2.6 lb) with 390 g (14 oz) explosive
Detonation
mechanism
contact and grazing fuzes

Engine solid fuel rocket motor
Operational
range
5.2 km (3.2 mi)
Flight ceiling 3.5 km (11,000 ft)
Speed 800 m/s (peak), about Mach 2.3
Guidance
system
two color infrared

The 9K38 Igla (Russian: Игла́, needle) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). "9K38" is the Russian GRAU designation of the system. Its US DoD designation is SA-18 and its NATO reporting name is Grouse; a simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet.

Contents

History

The development of the Igla short-range man-portable air defense system (MANPADS) began in the Kolomna OKB in 1972. Contrary to what is commonly reported, the Igla is not an improved version of the earlier Strela family (Strela-2/SA-7 and Strela-3/SA-14), but an all new project. The main goals were to create a missile with better resistance to countermeasures and wider engagement envelope than the earlier Strela series MANPADS systems.

Technical difficulties in the development quickly made it obvious that the development would take far longer than anticipated however, and in 1978 the program split in two: while the development of the full-capability Igla would continue, a simplified version (Igla-1) with a simpler IR seeker based on that of the earlier Strela-3/SA-14 would be developed to enter service earlier than the full-capability version could be finished.

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Igla-1

The 9K310 Igla-1 system and its 9M313 missile were accepted into service in the Soviet army on 11 March 1981. The main differences from the Strela-3 included an optional Identification Friend or Foe system to prevent firing on friendly aircraft, an automatic lead and super elevation to simplify shooting and reduce minimum firing range, a slightly larger rocket, reduced drag and better guidance system extend maximum range and improve performance against fast and maneuverable targets, an improved lethality on target achieved by a combination of delayed impact fuzing, terminal maneuver to hit the fuselage rather than jet nozzle, an additional charge to set off the remaining rocket fuel (if any) on impact, an improved resistance to infrared countermeasures (both decoy flares and ALQ-144 series jamming emitters), and slightly improved seeker sensitivity.

On the top a SA-18 (Igla) missile, launch tube and grip stick. Below is a SA-16 (Igla-1) missile and launch tube.

According to the manufacturer, South African tests have shown[citation needed] the Igla's superiority over the contemporary (1982 service entry) but smaller and lighter American FIM-92A Stinger missile. However, other tests in Croatia did not support[citation needed] any clear superiority, but effectively equal seeker performance and only marginally shorter time of flight and longer range for the Igla.

According to Kolomna OKB,[citation needed] the Igla-1 has a Pk (probability of kill) of 0.30 to 0.48 against unprotected targets which is reduced to 0.24 in the presence of decoy flares and jamming. In another report the manufacturer claimed[citation needed] a Pk of 0.59 against an approaching and 0.44 against receding F-4 Phantom II fighter not employing infrared countermeasures or evasive manoeuvers.

Igla

A soldier with an Igla-1 launcher

The full-capability 9K38 Igla with its 9M39 missile was finally accepted into service in the Soviet Army in 1983. The main improvements over the Igla-1 included much improved resistance against flares and jamming, a more sensitive seeker, expanding forward-hemisphere engagement capability to include straight-approaching fighters (all-aspect capability) under favourable circumstances, a slightly longer range, a higher-impulse, shorter-burning rocket with higher peak velocity (but approximately same time of flight to maximum range), and a propellant that performs as high explosive when detonated by the warhead's secondary charge on impact.

Tests in Finland have shown[citation needed] that in comparison with the French Mistral, the 9K38 Igla has inferior range and seeker sensitivity and smaller warhead, but it has a superior resistance to countermeasures.

The naval variant of 9K38 Igla has the NATO reporting name SA-N-10 Grouse.

Operational history

The most notable combat use of the SA-16 was during the Gulf War. On January 17, 1991, a Panavia Tornado bomber of the Royal Air Force was shot down by an Iraqi SA-16 MANPADS after an unsuccessful bombing mission.[1]

During Operation Deliberate Force in 1995, one French Mirage 2000 was lost over Bosnia to a 9K38 Igla fired by air defence units of the Army of Republika Srpska, prompting efforts to obtain improved defensive systems.

Other variants

An Igla-1S missile.

Several variants of the Igla were developed for specific applications:

Igla-1E
Export version.
Igla-1M
Improved version of 9K38 Igla. Entered service in Soviet Military during late 1980s.
Igla-1D
A version for paratroopers and special forces with separate launch tube and missile.
Igla-1V
Air-launched version, mainly for combat helicopters.
Igla-1N
A version with heavier warhead at the cost of a slight reduction in range and speed.
Igla-1A
Export version?
Igla-1S
The newest variant, which is a substantially improved variant with longer range, more sensitive seeker, improved resistance to latest countermeasures, and a heavier warhead.

Comparison chart to other MANPADS

9K34 Strela-3 9K38 Igla 9K310 Igla-1 FIM-92A Stinger
Service entry 1974 1983 1981 1982
Weight,
full system,
ready to shoot
16.0 kg (35 lb) 17.9 kg (39 lb) 17.9 kg (39 lb) 14.3 kg (32 lb)
Weight, missile 10.3 kg (23 lb) 10.8 kg (24 lb) 10.8 kg (24 lb) 10.1 kg (22 lb)
Weight, warhead 1.17 kg (2.6 lb),
390 g (14 oz) HMX
1.17 kg (2.6 lb),
390 g (14 oz) HMX
1.17 kg (2.6 lb),
390 g (14 oz) HMX
2–3 kg (4.4–6.6 lb),
450 grams (16 oz) HE
Warhead type Directed-energy
blast fragmentation
Directed-energy
blast fragmentation
Directed-energy
blast fragmentation
Annular blast fragmentation
Fuze type Impact and grazing fuze. Delayed impact,
magnetic and grazing.
Delayed impact,
magnetic and grazing.
Delayed impact.
Flight speed, average / peak 470 m/s (1,100 mph) sustained 600 m/s (1,300 mph)
/ 800 m/s (1,800 mph)
570 m/s (1,300 mph) sustained
(in +15°C temperature)
700 m/s (1,600 mph)
/ 750 m/s (1,700 mph)
Maximum range 4,100 m (13,500 ft) 5,200 m (17,100 ft) 5,000 m (16,000 ft) 4,500–4,800 m (14,800–15,700 ft)
Maximum target speed, receding 260 m/s (580 mph) 360 m/s (810 mph) 360 m/s (810 mph) ?
Maximum target speed, approaching 310 m/s (690 mph) 320 m/s (720 mph) 320 m/s (720 mph) ?
Seeker head type Nitrogen-cooled,
lead sulfide (PbS)
Nitrogen-cooled,
Indium antimonide (InSb)
and
uncooled lead sulfide (PbS)
Nitrogen-cooled,
Indium antimonide (InSb)
Argon-cooled,
Indium antimonide (InSb)
Seeker scanning FM-modulated FM-modulated FM-modulated FM-modulated
Seeker notes Aerospike to reduce
supersonic wave drag
Tripod-mounted nosecone
to reduce supersonic wave drag

Use in alleged plot against Air Force One

On August 12, 2003, as a result of a sting operation arranged as a result of cooperation between the American, British and Russian intelligence agencies, Hemant Lakhani, a British national, was intercepted attempting to bring what he had thought was an older-generation Igla into the USA. He is said to have intended the missile to be used in an attack on Air Force One, the American presidential plane, or on a commercial US airliner, and is understood to have planned to buy 50 more of these weapons.

Allegedly, after the Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti (FSB) detected the dealer in Russia, he was approached by US undercover agents posing as terrorists wanting to shoot down a commercial plane. He was then provided with a non-working Igla by undercover Russian agents, and arrested in Newark, New Jersey, when making the delivery to the undercover US agent. An Indian citizen residing in Malaysia, Moinuddeen Ahmed Hameed and an American Yehuda Abraham who allegedly provided money to buy the missile were also arrested[2] . Yehuda Anraham is President and CEO of Ambuy Gem Corp[3][4][5].

Operators

Igla and Igla-1 SAMs have been exported from the former Soviet Union to over 30 countries, including Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria (producing the system), Croatia, Cuba, East Germany, Egypt, Ecuador, Eritrea, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, the Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, North Korea, Peru, Poland, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea,Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand,Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Zimbabwe. Several guerrilla and terrorist organizations are also known to have Iglas. Alleged Operatives of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam a rebel organization fighting for a homeland for Tamils in the island of Sri Lanka were arrested in August 2006 by undercover agents of the FBI posing as arms dealers, while trying to purchase the Igla. In 2003 the unit cost was approximately USD 60,000 - 80,000.

Igla-1E (SA-16)

Igla (SA-18)

Other uses

References


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