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Europe in 9th century
Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries: 8th century · 9th century · 10th century
Decades: 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s
850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.

Contents

Western Europe

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Britain

Britain experienced a great influx of Viking peoples in the ninth century as the Viking Age continued from the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were gradually conquered and puppet rulers were given power over these. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson and Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865 in East Anglia. After taking the kingdom there the army proceeded to capture the city of York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria and take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy left. Alfred the Great managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex and push back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of Mercia and the Danelaw was established which separated Mercia into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.

Ireland was affected also by the Viking expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out across the coastline and eventually permanent settlements were established, such as that of Dublin in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries on the western coast of Ireland as they provided a rich source for loot. On such raids the Vikings set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts by the Irish. This period of Viking raids on the coasts of Ireland has been named the longphort phase after these particular types of settlements. Ireland in the ninth century was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha. These kingdoms were sometimes grouped together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. Providing such a ruler can establish and maintain authority over a portion of these tuatha they were sometimes granted the title of High King (see High King of Ireland).

Scotland experienced significant Viking incursions during the ninth century also. The Vikings established themselves in coastal regions, usually in northern Scotland, and in the northern isles such as the Orkneys and Shetland. The Viking invasion and settlement in Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Picts, who inhabited most of Scotland at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking invasion and settlement may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin, the present king of Dál Riata, which had also been devastated by the Viking incursions. The kingdom of Dál Riata, located on the western coast of Scotland, had been destroyed after the death of their previous king Áed mac Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster, which may have made the new king Kenneth MacAlpin move to the east, and conquer the remnants of the Pictish realms. Kenneth MacAlpin became king of the Picts in 843 and later kings would be titled as the King of Alba or King of Scots.

Art of the "Dark Ages"

First and foremost, art was dedicated to the Church. The basic tools of the Roman Catholic mass, thousands of golden art objects were made. Sacred cups, vessels, reliqueries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of art from dying out in the period. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century. It took the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement.

Events

Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 9th century AD.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 9th century AD.
A bronze ceremonial vessel made around the 9th Century, one of the bronzes found at Igbo Ukwu.[1]

Significant people

Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. Tenth-century copy of a lost original from about 830.
Saint Clement of Ohrid

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

See also

Timeline of 9th century Muslim history

References

  1. ^ Apley, Alice. "Igbo-Ukwu (ca. 9th century)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/igbo/hd_igbo.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  
  2. ^ The Guinness Book Of Records, Published 1998, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2, P.242

Millennium: [[1Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: millennium|1Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: millennium]]
Centuries: [[8Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century|8Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century]]Template:· [[9Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century|9Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century]]Template:· [[10Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century|10Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst: century]]
Decades: 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s
850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
Categories: [[:Category:9Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century births|Births]] – [[:Category:9Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century deaths|Deaths]]
[[:Category:9Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century establishments|Establishments]] – [[:Category:9Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:Template:Safesubst:-century disestablishments|Disestablishments]]

The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.

Contents

West Africa

File:Igbo Ukwu
A bronze ceremonial vessel made around the 9th Century, one of the bronzes found at Igbo-Ukwu.[1]

Southeastern Nigeria

Around the 9th century the Igbo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria, develop bronze casts of humans, animals and mythical creatures. These bronzes which were used as vessels, amulets, pendants and sacrificial tools, are among some of the earliest made bronzes ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman, stemming form the Nri-Igbo culture in the northern part of Igboland. Long distance trading was also discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at the sites. The discovery of the bronzes were made by locals from Igbo Ukwu and they mark the start of the development of the Nri Kingdom.

Western Europe

Britain

Britain experienced a great influx of Viking peoples in the 9th century as the Viking Age continued from the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were gradually conquered and puppet rulers were given power over these. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson and Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865 in East Anglia. After taking the kingdom there the army proceeded to capture the city of York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria and take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy left. Alfred the Great managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex and push back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of Mercia and the Danelaw was established which separated Mercia into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.


Ireland was affected also by the Viking expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out across the coastline and eventually permanent settlements were established, such as that of Dublin in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries on the western coast of Ireland as they provided a rich source for loot. On such raids the Vikings set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts by the Irish. This period of Viking raids on the coasts of Ireland has been named the longphort phase after these particular types of settlements. Ireland in the 9th century was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha. These kingdoms were sometimes grouped together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. Providing such a ruler can establish and maintain authority over a portion of these tuatha they were sometimes granted the title of High King (see High King of Ireland).

Scotland experienced significant Viking incursions during the 9th century also. The Vikings established themselves in coastal regions, usually in northern Scotland, and in the northern isles such as Orkney and Shetland. The Viking invasion and settlement in Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Picts, who inhabited most of Scotland at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking invasion and settlement may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin, the present king of Dál Riata, which had also been devastated by the Viking incursions. The kingdom of Dál Riata, located on the western coast of Scotland, had been destroyed after the death of their previous king Áed mac Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster, which may have made the new king Kenneth MacAlpin move to the east, and conquer the remnants of the Pictish realms. Kenneth MacAlpin became king of the Picts in 843 and later kings would be titled as the King of Alba or King of Scots.

Art of the Dark Ages

First and foremost, art was dedicated to the Church. The basic tools of the Roman Catholic mass, thousands of golden art objects were made. Sacred cups, vessels, reliqueries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of art from dying out in the period. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century. It took the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement.

Events

Significant people

(left) and Pippin the Hunchback. Tenth-century copy of a lost original from about 830.]]

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

See also

Timeline of 9th century Muslim history

References

  1. ^ Apley, Alice. "Igbo-Ukwu (ca. 9th century)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/igbo/hd_igbo.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  2. ^ The Guinness Book Of Records, Published 1998, ISBN 0-553-57895-2, P.242


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries: 8th century · 9th century · 10th century
Decades: 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s
850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900.

Europe in 9th century

Contents

Western European

This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. It is housed in the Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington

"Dark Ages" applied later to this period

Starting about 400 years after the period, influential figures in the early phases of the Renaissance would refer back to these times, and the 3 centuries previous, as the "Dark Ages." The reference based on the eclipse of the Western Roman Empire, after AD 476, and the general loss of classical art forms, reduction of urban centers, and diffusion of political power to a petty level. Regional enities never grew to the level of nationhood, let alone empire. Only the Roman Catholic Papacy had true international power, and this was somewhat limited due to poor communications between the regions of Europe. Classical civilization's former record was preserved by the efforts of Catholic monks hand copying manuscripts, but since only a tiny percentage of the populace could read and write, little information or knowledge was disseminated. Most western people were engaged in rural agriculture, and the Roman cities were largely in ruins. Still, certain arts, related to the Church and the ruling class, led to at least a small degree of support to artisans. There is a legacy of brass and gold objects preserved in the world's museums from Europe's "Dark Ages."

Art of the "Dark Ages"

First and foremost, art existed because the Church required it. The basic tools of the Roman Catholic mass, thousands of golden art objects were made. Sacred cups, vessels, reliqueries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of art from dying out in the period. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century. It took the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement.

Worldwide Events

File:Brass "Griffin" Beverage Urn.jpg
Brass Griffin beverage urn from 9th century
3D red_cyan glasses recommended for your viewing pleasure
The Three Pagodas of Dali, Yunnan province, China, 9th and 10th centuries.
  • The Arab merchant Shulama wrote that Chinese junk ships could carry 600 to 700

passengers aboard for sailing missions into the Indian Ocean. He wrote that the draft of Chinese ships was too deep for entering the Euphrates River (modern-day Iraq), which forced them to land small boats on the banks of the river for passengers and cargo instead.

Significant people

Saint Clement of Ohrid

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Decades and years

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at 9th century. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

This article uses material from the "9th century" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century
Decades: 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s 860s 870s 880s 890s

The 9th century is the century from 801 to 900.

Decades and years

Note: years before or after the 9th century are in italics.

790s 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799
800s 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809
810s 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819
820s 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829
830s 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839
840s 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849
850s 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859
860s 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869
870s 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879
880s 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889
890s 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899
900s 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909

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