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A. R. Rahman

A.R. Rahman in 2007
Background information
Birth name A. S. Dileep Kumar
Also known as A. R. Rahman, ARR, AR
Born January 6, 1966 (1966-01-06) (age 44) Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Genres Film score, theatre, world music
Occupations Composer, record producer, music director, singer, instrumentalist, arranger, programmer
Years active 1985–present
Website arrahman.com

Allah Rakha Rahman (Tamil: ஏ.ஆர்.ரகுமான்; born 6 January 1966 as A. S. Dileep Kumar) is an Indian film composer, record producer, musician and singer. His film scoring career began in the early 1990s. He has won fourteen Filmfare Awards, four National Film Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, two Grammy Awards, and two Academy Awards.[1][2]

Working in India's various film industries, international cinema and theatre, by 2004, Rahman, in a career spanning over a decade, had sold more than 150 million records of his film scores and soundtracks worldwide,[3][4] and sold over 200 million cassettes,[5] making him one of the world's all-time top selling recording artists.

Time magazine has referred to him as the "Mozart of Madras" and several Tamil commentators have coined him the nickname Isai Puyal (Tamil: இசைப் புயல்; English: Music Storm).[6] In 2009, the magazine placed Rahman in the Time 100 list of 'World's Most Influential People'.[7]

Contents

Early life and influences

A. R. Rahman was born in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India to a musically affluent Mudaliar Tamil family.[8][9] His father R. K. Shekhar, was a Chennai based composer and conductor for Malayalam films. Rahman lost his father at a young age and his family rented out musical equipment as a source of income. He was raised by his mother Kareema (Kashturi).He then converted to Islam in the year 1989 at the age of 23 and changed his name to Rahman[10]. During these formative years, Rahman served as a keyboard player and an arranger in bands such as "Roots", with childhood friend and percussionist Sivamani, John Anthony, Suresh Peters, JoJo and Raja.[11] Rahman is the founder of the Chennai-based rock group, "Nemesis Avenue".[12] He played the keyboard and piano, the synthesizer, the harmonium and the guitar. His curiosity in the synthesizer, in particular increased because, he says, it was the “ideal combination of music and technology".[13] He began early training in music under Master Dhanraj. At the age of 11, he joined, as a keyboardist, the troupe of Ilaiyaraaja,[13] one of many composers to whom musical instruments belonging to Rahman's father were rented. Rahman later played in the orchestra of M. S. Viswanathan Ramesh Naidu and Raj Koti, accompanied Zakir Hussain, Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan and L. Shankar on world tours and obtained a scholarship to the Trinity College of Music where he graduated with a degree in Western classical music.[14]

Career

Film scoring and soundtracks

In 1992, Rahman began his own music recording and mixing studio attached to the backyard of his house called the Panchathan Record Inn, which was developed into India's most advanced recording studio.[15] He initially composed music jingles for advertisements, Indian Television channels and music scores in documentaries, among other projects. In 1992, he was approached by film director Mani Ratnam to compose the score and soundtrack for Ratnam's Tamil film Roja.[15] The debut led Rahman to receive the Rajat Kamal award for Best Music Director at the National Film Awards, the first time ever by a first-time film composer. Rahman has since then gone on to win the award three more times (for his scores for Minsaara Kanavu (Electric Dreams, Tamil) in 1997, Lagaan (Tax, Hindi) in 2002, Kannathil Muthamittal (A Peck on the Cheek, Tamil) in 2003, the most ever by any composer.[16]

Roja's score met with high sales and acclaim, in its original and dubbed versions, bringing about a marked change in film music at the time, and Rahman followed this with successful scores for Tamil–language films of the Chennai film industry including Ratnam's politically charged Bombay, the urbanite Kadhalan, Bharathiraaja's Karuththamma, the saxophonic Duet, Indira, and the romantic comedies Mr. Romeo and Love Birds, which gained him considerable notice.[17][18] His fanbase in Japan increased with Muthu 's success there.[19] His soundtracks gained him recognition in the Tamil Nadu film industry and across the world for his stylistic versatality in his pieces including in Western classical, Carnatic, Tamil traditional/folk, jazz, reggae and rock music.[20][21][22] The Bombay Theme—from Ratnam's Bombay—would later reappear in Deepa Mehta's Fire and various compilations and media. Rangeela, directed by Ram Gopal Varma, marked Rahman's debut for Hindi-language films made in the Mumbai film industry. Many successful scores for films including Dil Se and the percussive Taal followed.[23][24] Sufi mysticism would form the basis of Chaiyya Chaiyya from the former and the composition "Zikr" from his score of the film Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero for which he created large orchestral and choral arrangements.[11] Musical cues in scores for Sangamam and Iruvar employed Carnatic vocals and instruments such as the veena with leads of rock guitar and jazz.[25] In the 2000s Rahman created hit scores for Rajiv Menon's Kandukondain Kandukondain, Alaipayuthey, Ashutosh Gowariker's Swades and Rang De Basanti.[26] He composed songs with Hindustani motifs for Water (2005).

Rahman has worked with Indian poets and lyricists such as Javed Akhtar, Gulzar,Anand Bakshi,P.K.Mishra, Mehboob, Vairamuthu and Vaali. His collaborations with some film directors have always resulted in successful soundtracks, particularly with the director Mani Ratnam who he has worked with since Roja, all of which have been hits, and the director S. Shankar in the films Gentleman, Kadhalan, Indian, Jeans, Mudhalvan, Nayak, Boys and Sivaji.[27]

Rahman attached and opened a developed extension studio to his Panchathan Record Inn in 2005 called AM Studios in Kodambakkam, Chennai — considered to be the most developed, equipped and high tech studio in Asia.[28][29] In 2006, Rahman launched his own music label, KM Music.[30] Its first release was his score to the film Sillunu Oru Kaadhal. Rahman scored the Mandarin language picture Warriors of Heaven and Earth in 2003 after researching and utilizing Chinese and Japanese classical music, and co-scored the Shekhar Kapoor helmed Elizabeth: The Golden Age in 2007. His compositions have been reused in scores within India[31] and have made appearances in Inside Man, Lord of War, Divine Intervention and The Accidental Husband. In 2008, he scored the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack, for which he won a Golden Globe and two Academy Awards, becoming the first Indian citizen to do so. In the United States, the soundtrack topped the Dance/Electronic Albums chart [32] and reached #4 on the Billboard 200 chart.[33] The song "Jai Ho" reached #2 on the Eurochart Hot 100 Singles [34] and #15 on the US Billboard Hot 100.[35]

Other works

Rahman has been involved in several projects aside from film. He made an album Vande Mataram (1997) on India's 50th anniversary of independence to commercial success.[36][37] He followed it up with an album for the Bharat Bala–directed video Jana Gana Mana, a conglomeration of performances by many leading exponents/artists of Indian classical music. Rahman has written jingles for ads and composed several orchestrations for athletic events, T.V. and internet media publications, documentaries and short films.

In 1999 Rahman, along with choreographers Shobhana and Prabhu Deva Sundaram and a Tamil cinema dancing troupe performed with Michael Jackson in Munich, Germany, for his "Michael Jackson and Friends Concert." In 2002, he composed his maiden stage production Bombay Dreams (2002) following a commission from musical theatre composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, a success in London's West End. With Finnish folk music band Värttinä, he wrote the music for The Lord of the Rings theatre production and in 2004, Rahman composed the piece "Raga's Dance" for Vanessa-Mae's album Choreography.[16]

In the last six years, Rahman has performed three successful world tours of his concerts to audiences in Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, UK, Canada, the US (Hollywood Bowl and 3d tour) and India.[16] He has been collaborating with Karen David for her upcoming studio album. A two-disc soundtrack, Introducing A. R. Rahman (2006) featuring 25 pieces he composed from his Tamil film scores was released in May 2006. His non-film album, Connections was launched on 12 December 2008. Rahman is one of over 70 artists singing on "We Are the World: 25 for Haiti", a charity single in aid of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

Music style and impact

Skilled in Carnatic music,[38] Western classical, Hindustani music and the Qawwali style of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Rahman has been noted to write film songs that amalgamate elements of these music systems and other genres, layering instruments from differing music idioms in an improvisatory manner.[11] Symphonic orchestral themes have accompanied his scores, where he has employed leitmotif. In the 1980s, Rahman recorded and played arrangements on mono, synonymous with the era of predecessors such as K. V. Mahadevan and VishwanathanRamamoorthy, but later his methodology changed. Rahman worked and experimented on fusing traditional instruments with new electronic sounds and technology.[11]

His interest and outlook in music stems from his love of experimentation.[14] Rahman's compositions, in the vein of past and contemporary Chennai film composers, bring out auteuristic uses of counterpoint, orchestration and the human voice, evolving Indian pop music with unique timbres, forms and instrumentation. By virtue of these qualities, broad ranging lyrics and his syncretic style, his themes appeal to several sections of Indian society.[39]

His first soundtrack for Roja was listed in TIME's "10 Best Soundtracks" of all time in 2005. Film critic Richard Corliss felt the "astonishing debut work parades Rahman's gift for alchemizing outside influences until they are totally Tamil, totally Rahman."[40] Rahman's initial global reach is attributed to the South Asian diaspora. Described as one of the most innovative composers to ever work in the industry, his unique style and immense success transformed film music in the 1990s prompting several film producers to take film music more seriously.[41] The music producer Ron Fair considers Rahman to be "one of the world's great living composers in any medium".[42]

The director Baz Luhrmann notes

"I had come to the music of A. R. Rahman through the emotional and haunting score of Bombay and the wit and celebration of Lagaan. But the more of AR's music I encountered the more I was to be amazed at the sheer diversity of styles: from swinging brass bands to triumphant anthems; from joyous pop to West-End musicals. Whatever the style, A. R. Rahman's music always possesses a profound sense of humanity and spirit, qualities that inspire me the most.[43]

Awards

Rahman was the 1995 recipient of the Mauritius National Award and the Malaysian Award for contributions to music. He was nominated for a Laurence Olivier Award for his first West-End production. A four-time National Film Award winner and conferred the Padma Shri from the Government of India, Rahman has also received six Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, thirteen Filmfare Awards and twelve Filmfare Awards South for his music and scores. In 2006, he received an honorary award from Stanford University for contributions to global music.[44] In 2009, for his score of Slumdog Millionaire, Rahman won the Critics' Choice Award, the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score,[45] the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music, and two Academy Awards for Best Original Music Score and Best Original Song at the 2009 Oscars. Middlesex University and Aligarh Muslim University have announced that they plan to bestow honorary doctorates on Rahman.[46][47] He has also won two Grammy Awards, for Best Compilation Soundtrack Album and Best Song Written for a Visual Media.[1] Rahman was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian honor, in 2010.[48]

Personal life

He is married to Saira Banu and has three children, Khadijah, Rahima, and Aameen. Rahman is the uncle of composer G. V. Prakash Kumar, who is the son of Rahman's elder sister, A. R. Reihana. He had become an atheist as a result of childhood struggles, he eventually converted to Islam in 1989, the religion of his mother's family.[49] He is very devoted to his mother. During the Oscar Award, he paid her a tribute saying: "There is a Hindi dialogue 'mere pass ma hai' which means even if I have got nothing I have my mother here."[50]

Social service

Rahman is involved in various charitable causes. In 2004, he was appointed as the Global Ambassador of the Stop TB Partnership, a project by WHO.[16] He has shown support to charities including Save the Children, India, and worked with Cat Stevens / Yusuf Islam for his song "Indian Ocean". The song featured a-ha keyboard player Magne Furuholmen and Travis drummer, Neil Primrose. The proceeds of the song went towards helping orphans in Banda Aceh, one of the areas worst affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. He produced the single "We Can Make It Better" by Don Asian alongside Mukhtar Sahota.[51] In 2008, Rahman opened his KM Music Conservatory partnered with Audio Media Education facility to tutor and train aspiring musicians in vocals, instruments, music technology and sound design. The conservatory – with preeminent musicians on its panel and a newly founded symphony orchestra – is located near his studio in Kodambakkam, Chennai, offering courses at Beginners, Foundation and Diploma level.[52] Rahman composed the theme music for a short film for The Banyan in 2006, in aid of destitute women in Chennai. In 2008, Rahman, along with percussionist Sivamani created a song titled "Jiya Se Jiya", inspired by the Free Hugs Campaign and promoted it through a video shot in various cities in India [53].

Filmography

As music director

Year Film Language Notes
1992 Roja Tamil Winner, National Film Award for Best Music Direction
Winner, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Music Director
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Listed in TIME's "10 Best Soundtracks" of all time in 2005 [40]
Yodha Malayalam
1993 Pudhiya Mugam Tamil
Nippu Ravva Telugu Background score only[54]
Gentleman Tamil Winner, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Music Director
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Kizhakku Cheemayile Tamil
Uzhavan Tamil
Thiruda Thiruda Tamil
1994 Vandicholai Chinraasu Tamil
Super Police Telugu
Duet Tamil
May Madham Tamil
Kadhalan Tamil Winner, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Music Director
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Pavithra Tamil
Karuththamma Tamil
Pudhiya Mannargal Tamil
Palnati Pourusham Telugu
Gangmaster Telugu
1995 Bombay Tamil Winner, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Music Director
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Listed in The Guardian's "1000 Albums to Hear Before You Die" [55]
"Kehna Hi Kya" listed in The Guardian's "1000 Songs Everyone Must Hear" [55]
Indira Tamil
Rangeela Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Winner, Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent
Muthu Tamil Most successful Indian soundtrack in Japan [19]
1996 Love Birds Tamil
Indian Tamil
Kadhal Desam Tamil Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Fire Hindi
Mr. Romeo Tamil
1997 Anthimanthaarai Tamil
Minsara Kanavu (Sapnay) Tamil Winner, National Film Award for Best Music Direction
Winner, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Music Director
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Iruvar Tamil
Daud: Fun On The Run Hindi
Ratchagan Tamil
Vishwavidhaata Hindi
Kabhi Na Kabhi Hindi
1998 Jeans Tamil Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Dil Se Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
"Chaiyya Chaiyya" was 9th in BBC World Service top 10 songs of all time [56]
Earth Hindi
Doli Saja Ke Rakhna Hindi
1999 En Swasa Kaatre Tamil
Padayappa Tamil
Kadhalar Dhinam Tamil
Taal Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Sangamam Tamil Winner, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Music Director
Jodi Tamil
Thakshak Hindi
Mudhalvan Tamil Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Taj Mahal Tamil
2000 Pukar Hindi
Alaipayuthey Tamil Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Kandukondain Kandukondain Tamil
Fiza Hindi 1 song (Piya Haji Ali)
Rhythm Tamil
Thenali Tamil
Zubeidaa Hindi
2001 One 2 Ka 4 Hindi
Nayak: The Real Hero Hindi
Love You Hamesha Hindi
Lagaan Hindi Winner, National Film Award for Best Music Direction
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Ranked #44 on Amazon.com's "The 100 Greatest World Music Albums of All Time"[57][58]
Star Tamil
Parthale Paravasam Tamil
2002 Alli Arjuna Tamil
Kannathil Muthamittal Tamil Winner, National Film Award for Best Music Direction
Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
The Legend of Bhagat Singh Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Background Score Award
Baba Tamil
Kadhal Virus Tamil
Saathiya Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
2003 Parasuram Tamil
Boys Tamil
Warriors of Heaven and Earth Mandarin,
English,
Hindi
Enakku 20 Unakku 18 Tamil
Kangalal Kaithu Sei Tamil
Tehzeeb Hindi
2004 Udhaya Tamil
Lakeer - Forbidden Lines Hindi
Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities Hindi
Aayutha Ezhuthu Tamil
Yuva Hindi
New Tamil
Naani Telugu
Dil Ne Jise Apna Kahaa Hindi 4 songs
Swades Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Background Score Award
Nominated, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Kisna - The Warrior Poet Hindi 5 songs
2005 Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero Hindi
Mangal Pandey - The Rising Hindi
Anbe Aaruyire Tamil
Water Hindi 5 songs
Song Aayo Re Sakhi longlisted for 2006 Academy Award for Best Original Song nomination
2006 Rang De Basanti Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
2 songs longlisted for 2007 Academy Award for Best Original Song nomination [59]
Sillunu Oru Kaadhal Tamil Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Varalaru Tamil Winner, Just Plain Folks Music Award For Best Music Album
2007 Guru Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Winner, Filmfare Best Background Score Award
Sajni Kannada
Provoked Hindi
Sivaji: The Boss Tamil Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Azhagiya Thamizh Magan Tamil
Elizabeth: The Golden Age English With Craig Armstrong
2008 Jodhaa Akbar Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Background Score
Nominated, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Nominated, Asian Film Award for Best Composer [60]
Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
ADA: A Way of Life Hindi
Sakkarakatti Tamil Nominated, Filmfare Best Music Director Award (Tamil)
Yuvvraaj Hindi
Ghajini Hindi Nominated, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Slumdog Millionaire English,
Hindi
Winner, Academy Award for Best Original Music Score
Winner, Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Jai Ho"
Nominated, Academy Award for Best Original Song for "O...Saya"
Winner, Broadcast Film Critics Association Award
Winner, BAFTA Award for Best Film Music
Winner, Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score
Winner, World Soundtrack Award for Best Original Song Written Directly for a Film for "Jai Ho"
Winner, Grammy Award for Best Compilation Soundtrack Album
Winner, Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media
2009 Delhi 6 Hindi Winner, Filmfare Best Music Director Award
Blue Hindi
Passage English Short Film[61]
Couples Retreat English Song NaNa longlisted for 2010 Academy Award for Best Original Song nomination[62]
2010 Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa Tamil
Ye Maaya Chesave Telugu
Puli Telugu Post Production
Raavana Tamil Filming
Raavan Hindi Filming
Endhiran Tamil Filming
Sultan The Warrior Tamil Filming
1-800-Love Hindi Announced[63]
Rock Star Hindi Announced[64]
Nair San Japanese,
Malayalam,
Mandarin,
Mongolian
Filming
The Desire English,
Chinese
Filming
Background score only
The 19th Step English,
Tamil,
Japanese
Announced
2011 Kaaval Tamil Announced
Chennaiyil Oru Mazhaikalam Tamil Delayed
Yodha 2 Malayalam Announced
Komagata Maru[65] Hindi Delayed[66][67]
Bhasuram Malayalam Announced

Notes

  1. ^ a b "India's A.R. Rahman strikes Grammys gold". Agence France-Presse. 2010. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hGgeRMlZ8ASQ9a-5v5AnbvmL0K9Q. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  2. ^ "It's a bridge for Indian cinema: A R Rahman". Times of India. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4179888.cms. Retrieved 26 February 2008. 
  3. ^ Richard Corliss (May 3, 2004). "Culture: The Mozart of Madras". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,994077,00.html. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  4. ^ "Indian film composer for Rings". BBC. 2003-10-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3211258.stm. Retrieved 15 November 2008. 
  5. ^ Das Gupta, Surajeet; Sen, Soumik. "Composing a winning score". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/money/2002/sep/21bizsp.htm. Retrieved 15 November 2008. 
  6. ^ All About Rahman - Oscars 2009 Special
  7. ^ The 2009 TIME 100 - A.R. Rahman TIME.
  8. ^ http://www.malkoha.com/show_article.php?xi=47&xp=45&xs=A.R.+Rahman
  9. ^ http://www.hindilyrix.com/musicians/musician-a-r-rahman.html
  10. ^ http://rahmaniac.wordpress.com/2008/05/27/islam-gives-me-peace-a-r-rahman/
  11. ^ a b c d Rangan, Baradwaj; Suhasini, Lalitha (14 June 2008). "A R Rahman - The Rolling Stone Interview". http://www.desipundit.com/baradwajrangan/2008/06/07/ar-rahman-the-rolling-stone-interview/. Retrieved 16 November 2008. 
  12. ^ Ganti, T., Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, p. 112 
  13. ^ a b "Artist of the Month: AR Rahman". TFM Page Magazine. January 2006. http://tfmmagazine.mayyam.com/jan06/?t=5568. Retrieved 15 February 2007. 
  14. ^ a b Srinivasan, Gopal (November 2002). "Composer Extraordinaire: The Complete Biography of A.R. Rahman". http://members.tripod.com/gopalhome/arrbio.html. Retrieved 15 February 2007.. 
  15. ^ a b Eur, Andy Gregory, The International Who's Who in Popular Music 2002: A. R. Rahman, p. 419–420 
  16. ^ a b c d Iyer, Vijay. "A. R. Rahman". lotr.com. http://www.lotr.com/cast_creative/creative_bio_03.php. Retrieved 15 November 2008. 
  17. ^ Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. pp. 215. ISBN 9781851096367. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Sv7Uk0UcdM8C&pg=PA215&dq=A.+R.+Rehman+tamil&lr=. "Songs play as important a part in South Indian films and some South Indian music directors such as A. R. Rehman and Ilyaraja have an enthusiastic national and even international following" 
  18. ^ Chaudhuri, S., "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka", Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia, p. 149, "Now the South is believed to excel the North in many respects, including its colour labs, state of the art digital technology and sound processing facilities (which have improved the dubbing of Tamil and other South Indian languages into Hindi since the 1970s" 
  19. ^ a b Prasad, Ayappa (2003). "Films don't believe in borders". Screen. http://www.screenindia.com/old/fullstory.php?content_id=5670. Retrieved 15 November 2008. 
  20. ^ Ramaswamy, V., Historical Dictionary of the Tamils, p. 199 
  21. ^ Chaudhuri, S., "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka", Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia, p. 149, "Southern filmmakers like Mani Ratnam, Ram Gopal Varma and Priyadarshan have altered the profile of Indian 'national' cinema. So too have southern specialists... cinematographers Santosh Sivan, P. C. Sriram and music composer A. R. Rahman who formed a highly successful team with Ratnam and have all attained star status in their own right" 
  22. ^ Nambiar, Smitha. "A. R. Rahman - The Melody King". Indiainfo.com. http://movies.indiainfo.com/star_of_week/rahman.html. Retrieved 16 November 2008. 
  23. ^ Stafford, Roy, Understanding Audiences and the Film Industry, London: British Film Institute, p. 27, ISBN 9781844571413 
  24. ^ Arnold, Alison (2000). "Film music in the late Twentieth century". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. pp. 540. ISBN 9780824049461. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ZOlNv8MAXIEC&pg=RA2-PA555&dq=A.+R.+Rahman+tamil+film+music&lr=#PRA2-PA541,M1. "The recent success of the Tamil film music director A. R. Rehman in achieving widespread popularity in the world of Hindi film music is now possibly opening doors to new South-North relationships and collaborations" 
  25. ^ "The A R Rahman Chat". Rediff On The Net. Rediff. 17 August 1998. http://www.rediff.com/chat/rahmchat.htm. Retrieved 6 December 2008. 
  26. ^ Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. pp. 6. 
  27. ^ Ganti, T., Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, p. 112, "Rehman became a major star with his hit music in Roja followed by hit scores for Mani Ratnam's and Shankar's films in Tamil." 
  28. ^ "Film Composer A.R. Rahman Selects Bag End Bass Speakers". Mix. June 7 2006. http://mixonline.com/news/headline/bag-end-arrahman-060706/. Retrieved 18 November 2008. 
  29. ^ Omkar, Ashanti (March 2008), "Interview with A. R. Rahman", The Score Magazine (Chennai) 1 (1) 
  30. ^ Maria Verghis, Shana (11 August 2006), "A R Rahman Interview", The Pioneer (New Delhi), http://smaramra.blogspot.com/2006/08/r-rahman-interview.html 
  31. ^ "Cinemaya 1998", Cinemaya (New Delhi) (39-41): 9, 1998, ISSN 0970-8782, OCLC 19234070, "However, the song was lifted by a whole range of well-known music directors from Bombay so much so that the original composition in Tamil by AR Rahman..." 
  32. ^ billboard Top Electronic Album
  33. ^ Slumdog soundtrack on world charts
  34. ^ "Music Charts, Most Popular Music, Music by Genre & Top Music Charts". Billboard.com. http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/chart_display.jsp?f=European+Hot+100+Singles&pageNumber=Top+11-50&g=Singles. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  35. ^ Ayala Ben-Yehuda (5 March 2009). "Soulja Boy Climbs Hot 100". Billboard. http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/news/soulja-boy-climbs-hot-100-1003948235.story. Retrieved 2009-03-05. 
  36. ^ Allen, John; Uck Lun Chun, Allen Chun, Ned Rossiter, Brian Shoesmith, Refashioning pop music in Asia, p. 67 
  37. ^ "A. R. Rahman: Summary Biography". A. R. Rahman: A Biography. November 2002. http://members.tripod.com/gopalhome/arrbio.html. Retrieved 15 February 2007. "Particularly impressed with Vande Mataram, Jeremy Spencer, formerly of Fleetwood Mac stated that Rahman was the only Indian composer he knew about and liked" 
  38. ^ Viswanathan, T.; Harper Allen, Matthew, Music in South India, p. 139 
  39. ^ Rahman's work has evolved music "passed the relatively static makeup of Western ensembles such as jazz bands and symphony orchestras and the rigid formula of American pop songs." Todd Titon, Jeff; Linda Fujie, David Locke, David P. McAllester, "India/South India", Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples, p. 202–205 
  40. ^ a b Corliss, Richard (2005). "Best Soundtracks - ALL TIME 100 MOVIES - TIME". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/2005/100movies/0,23220,soundtracks,00.html. Retrieved 24 February 2008. 
  41. ^ Ganti, T., Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, p. 112, "Rehman is an innovative and phenomenally successful contemporary Tamil and Hindi composer whose style transformed film music in the 1990s...he is considered a genius in the Bombay film industry, and in terms of how much control and autonomy he is allowed over his compositions and working style, he holds tremendous power over film producers and directors" 
  42. ^ Smith, Ethan (27 February 2009), "'Slumdog' Remix: The Oscar-winning song 'Jai Ho' is reworked with help from a Pussycat Doll", The Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123568984902087603.html, retrieved 2009-03-01 
  43. ^ "Baz Luhrrman comments on A. R. Rahman". Charindaa. 2005. http://www.charindaa.org/news.html. Retrieved 15 November 2008. 
  44. ^ Prakash, B.S. (6 July 2006). "Stanford University honours A R Rahman". Rediff. Rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/jul/06bsp.htm. Retrieved 16 December 2008. 
  45. ^ "66th Annual Golden Globe Awards". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/features/rto/2009/globes. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
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References

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External links








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