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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Classification and external resources

The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS.
ICD-10 B24.
ICD-9 042
DiseasesDB 5938
MedlinePlus 000594
eMedicine emerg/253
MeSH D000163
List of abbreviations used in this article
.Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).^ Commission on Human Rights, resolution 1997/33, "The protection of human rights in the context of human ; immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)," paragraph 5.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AIDS is caused by infection with a virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Hiv Aids Ceus, Hiv Aids Continuing Education, Continuing Education for Hiv Aids Ceu Course 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.getceusnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32 (Suppl 1), S24-32.
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

[1][2][3]
.This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This slowly leads to a persistent, progressive ; and profound impairment of the immune system, making an individual susceptible to ; infections and conditions such as cancer.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When immune system damage is severe, opportunistic infections can take hold, resulting in “full-blown AIDS.” This process typically takes from 7 to 10 years after being infected with HIV. The presence of these diseases is the main indicator that HIV has progressed to AIDS status.
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome / AIDS Information 10 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.herbalremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.^ The fluids that transmit HIV are primarily blood, semen, and vaginal secretions.
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ HIV is transmitted by blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and in some cases, breast milk.
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ HIV is transmitted by the semen (the fluid which comes from your ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

[4][5]
.This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids.^ He received a transfusion of blood during the surgery.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ HIV transmission probabilities for oral and anal sex by stage of infection .
  • ; Oral transmission of HIV : AIDS; 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC journals.lww.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV transmission by oral sex [letter] .
  • ; Oral transmission of HIV : AIDS; 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC journals.lww.com [Source type: Academic]

AIDS is now a pandemic.[6] .In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children.^ At the end of 2002, an estimated 42 million people were living with HIV infection or AIDS. .
  • Hiv Aids Ceus, Hiv Aids Continuing Education, Continuing Education for Hiv Aids Ceu Course 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.getceusnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An estimated 3.1 million adults and children died of HIV/AIDS in 2002.
  • Hiv Aids Ceus, Hiv Aids Continuing Education, Continuing Education for Hiv Aids Ceu Course 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.getceusnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 2003, approximately 2.9 million people worldwide ; died of AIDS—490,000 were children.
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa,[7] retarding economic growth and destroying human capital.^ Over ; 5,200 volunteers in 63 countries now offer their services in ; three major world regions: Africa (Sub- Saharan Africa), ; Inter- America (Central and South America), and NANEAP ; (North Africa, Near East, Asia, and the Pacifi c).
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data on HIV/AIDS suggest that, in 2006, globally there were 2.9 million ; deaths from AIDS, with nearly three quarters of these deaths, or 2.1 million ; people, occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now it is the second ; most affected region in the world after sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.^ The banjo as we know it originated from a single-string, gourd-bodied African lute (sometimes called the "hodu") which the Griots of West Africa played to accompany storytelling.

^ Irrespective of the simian or other origins of HIVs the view that; AIDS in the clinical pattern now observed was already prevalent in Africa; is entirely speculative.
  • HIV & AIDS - The Epidemiology and Transmission of AIDS: A hypothesis linking behavioural and biological determinants to time, person and place 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Future Research ; The original mandate of the Institute was to determine ; if there is a correlation between incarceration and HIV ; infection.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[9][10] .AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s.^ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007a).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1992.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease transmission, Vertical - prevention and control.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

[11]
.Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease, there is currently no vaccine or cure.^ Which form of hepatitis is there currently no inoculation (vaccination) for?
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevention There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. But it's possible to protect yourself and others from infection.
  • HIV/AIDS 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But HIV/AIDS is still a terminal illness for which there is no vaccine and no cure.
  • HIV/AIDS 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive and routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.^ As of 2003, antiretroviral drugs have been approved for treating HIV infection.
  • Hiv Aids Ceus, Hiv Aids Continuing Education, Continuing Education for Hiv Aids Ceu Course 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.getceusnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduce deaths from HIV infection.

^ HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy): Aggressive anti-HIV treatment usually including a combination of drugs called protease inhibitors and reverse transcriptase inhibitors whose purpose is to reduce viral load infection to undetectable levels.

[12] .Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes in attempts to slow the spread of the virus.^ AIDS is caused by infection with a virus called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Hiv Aids Ceus, Hiv Aids Continuing Education, Continuing Education for Hiv Aids Ceu Course 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.getceusnow.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention ; of HIV infection.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ [HIV testing] (HIV Prevention and Safe Sex Forum) Is negative, conclusive?
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, HIV) articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 11 September 2009 22:48 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Symptoms

Main symptoms of AIDS.
.
A generalized graph of the relationship between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the average course of untreated HIV infection; any particular individual's disease course may vary considerably.
^ This is unrelated; to the stage of disease, CD4 count and cellular HIV load in the seropositive; subjects.; .
  • HIV & AIDS - The Epidemiology and Transmission of AIDS: A hypothesis linking behavioural and biological determinants to time, person and place 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In vitro sensitivity results vary greatly depending upon the time between virus infection and zidovudine treatment of cell cultures, the particular assay used, the cell type employed, and the laboratory performing the tests.
  • Urine Therapy, AIDS 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC users.erols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic diarrhoea with weight loss (often known as "slim disease") ; Some of the opportunistic infections are: ; ; ; Natural History of HIV Infection and AIDS in Untreated Patients ; The primary infection (Acute Phase) is characterized by a peak in viral load, which ; decreases over time, stabilizing at different levels (set-point) in different individuals.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

                     CD4+ T Lymphocyte count (cells/mm³)                      HIV RNA copies per mL of plasma
.The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems.^ The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems.

^ In individuals with normal immune ; systems there may be no symptoms.
  • ; CEUFast - CEUFast Course - AIDS/HIV, 4 Hour ; 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ceufast.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The infection is called AIDS when a person has certain conditions or symptoms that result from a weakened immune system.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP082 -- HIV and Women 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages.^ These women are the most vulnerable to HIV ; infection.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possessing a normal immune system.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS.[13] These infections affect nearly every organ system.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AIDS does not affect healthy people.
  • Urine Therapy, AIDS 19 January 2010 9:47 UTC users.erols.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas.^ AIDS-RELATED CANCERS: Several cancers are more common or more aggressive in people infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. These malignancies include certain types of immune system cancers known as lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma and anogenital cancers primarily affecting the cervix and the anus.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Just thonk of all those poor Africans that have; been fed the deadly chemotherapy AIDS cocktails that destroy the immune system.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV): A herpes virus that is a common cause of opportunistic diseases in people with AIDS and other people with immune suppression.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.^ A term, not officially defined or recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, that has been used to describe a variety of symptoms and signs found in some persons infected with HIV. These may include recurrent fevers, unexplained weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and/or fungus infection of the mouth and throat.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ They also suffer chest pain, night sweats, ; fever, and fatigue.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CMV infection can affect both eyes and is the most common cause of blindness among people with AIDS. CYTOPENIA: Deficiency in the cellular elements of the blood.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[14][15] .The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.^ These local remedies can be very helpful in relieving many of ; the symptoms associated with opportunistic infections.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Campaigns should also be developed that target personal attitudes toward HIV/AIDS through ; education about and exposure to people living with the virus.

^ Factors that Affect Disease Prevalence ; The typically slow progression of HIV infection to AIDS, ; along with the absence in many patients of symptoms ; associated with HIV infection, have challenged classic ; methods of determining the prevalence of infectious ; diseases.

Pulmonary infections

.
X-ray of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).
^ PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII PNEUMONIA (PCP): 1.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ PENTAMIDINE: An approved antiprotozoal drug used for the treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) infection.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ An approved antiprotozoal drug used for the ; treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) ; infection.

There is increased white (opacity) in the lower lungs on both sides, characteristic of PCP
.Pneumocystis pneumonia (originally known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and still abbreviated as PCP, which now stands for Pneumocystis pneumonia) is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals.^ ITP is very common in HIV-infected people.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ PCP: See Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ See also Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
.Before the advent of effective diagnosis, treatment and routine prophylaxis in Western countries, it was a common immediate cause of death.^ Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the herpes virus family that was a familiar cause of blindness and death in patients with advanced AIDS in Western countries in the 1980s and 1990s, when it occurred in roughly one-third of patients with AIDS. .

^ PROPHYLAXIS: Treatment that helps to prevent a disease or condition before it occurs or recurs.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A particular focus should be placed on tracking patients from initial diagnosis to initiation of effective treatment and then monitoring them for treatment breaks or loss to follow-up.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals, although it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per µL of blood.^ CD4 Cell Count ; Care ; The number of CD4 cells per one cubic millimeter of blood.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Aid for AIDS considers a patient ready for treatment if his or her CD4 count is less than 250.
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A CD4 ; count of 200 or less is an AIDS-defining condition.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.Tuberculosis (TB) is unique among infections associated with HIV because it is transmissible to immunocompetent people via the respiratory route, is not easily treatable once identified,[17] may occur in early-stage HIV disease, and is preventable with drug therapy[citation needed].^ HIV Transmission and prevention ; in prisons.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease transmission, Vertical - prevention and control.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Explaining how to prevent HIV transmission.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, multidrug resistance is a serious problem. .Tuberculosis with HIV co-infection (TB/HIV) is a major world health problem according to the World Health Organization: in 2007, 456,000 deaths among incident TB cases were HIV-positive, a third of all TB deaths and nearly a quarter of the estimated 2 million HIV deaths in that year [18].^ Geneva, ; World Health Organization, 2008.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ All are were tested for HIV and were positive.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even though its incidence has declined because of the use of directly observed therapy and other improved practices in Western countries, this is not the case in developing countries where HIV is most prevalent.^ Even though its incidence has declined because of the use of directly observed therapy and other improved practices in Western countries, this is not the case in developing countries where HIV is most prevalent.

^ Most HIV cases are found in men.
  • Women and HIV/AIDS - AIDS Worldwide 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: News]

^ May be used in HIV therapies or for HIV vaccines.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.In early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per µL), TB typically presents as a pulmonary disease.^ As related to HIV: Infection typically begins ; when HIV encounters a CD4+ cell.

^ As related to HIV: Infection typically begins when HIV encounters a CD4+ cell.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As the HIV infection progresses, TB reactivates.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In advanced HIV infection, TB often presents atypically with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature.^ Patients often present late, already with advanced HIV disease, because of this fear.
  • HIV/AIDS: 3 Apr 2008: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the HIV infection progresses, TB reactivates.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symptoms are usually constitutional and are not localized to one particular site, often affecting bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system.^ It can spread from the lungs to the brain, the central nervous system, the skin, skeletal system and urinary tract.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ TB may occur also in lymph nodes, bones, kidneys and the central ; nervous system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lymphomas can also be referred to by the organ where they are active such as CNS lymphomas, which are in the central nervous system, and GI lymphomas, which are in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Gastrointestinal infections

.Esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the lower end of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach).^ Pharynx is a tube that connects the mouth and nasal passages with the esophagus, the connection to the stomach.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.In HIV infected individuals, this is normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections.^ To ; these have been added scabies, herpes genitalis and anorectal herpes ; and warts, pediculosis, trichomoniasis, genital candidiasis, ; molluscum contagiosum, nonspecific urethritis, chlamydial ; infections, cytomegalovirus and AIDS. See also Herpes Simplex Virus ; II; Molluscum Contagiosum.

^ To these have been added scabies, herpes genitalis and anorectal herpes and warts, pediculosis, trichomoniasis, genital candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, nonspecific urethritis, chlamydial infections, cytomegalovirus and AIDS. See also Herpes Simplex Virus II; Molluscum Contagiosum.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ But in the body of an infected person,; antibodies neutralize HIV years before AIDS appears, if it comes at all.; In persons with antibody against HIV, the virus is inactive, not making; any viral DNA at all.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.[20]
.Unexplained chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacterial (Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Campylobacter) and parasitic infections; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and viruses,[21] astrovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, (the latter as a course of colitis).^ TUBERCULOSIS (TB): A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A common opportunistic infection caused by two ; very similar mycobacterial organisms, Mycobacterium avium and ; Mycobacterium intracellulare.

^ CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS: An opportunistic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases, diarrhea may be a side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV, or it may simply accompany HIV infection, particularly during primary HIV infection.^ Report and refer drug side effects, and ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Side effects can be problematic for ; some patients.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, secondary infections such as pneumonia may develop.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may also be a side effect of antibiotics used to treat bacterial causes of diarrhea (common for Clostridium difficile).^ As the number of psychotropic drugs increases steadily and their effects and appropriate ; prescriptive uses are often not fully known, some patients may not be adequately treated and ; others may become over-medicated.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SULFA DRUG: Any of a class of synthetic chemical substances derived from sulfanilamide and used to treat bacterial infections.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CARE FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH HIV-RELATED ; ILLNESS ; Most HIV-related illnesses are caused by common infections, which can be ; prevented or treated at home or in a health centre.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the later stages of HIV infection, diarrhea is thought to be a reflection of changes in the way the intestinal tract absorbs nutrients, and may be an important component of HIV-related wasting.^ "HIV related illness" means any illness that may result from or may be associated with HIV infection.

^ AIDS is the end stage of HIV infection.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "HIV related test" means any laboratory test or series of tests for any virus, antibody, antigen or etiologic agent whatsoever thought to cause or to indicate the presence of AIDS. .

[22]

Neurological and psychiatric involvement

.HIV infection may lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, either by infection of the now susceptible nervous system by organisms, or as a direct consequence of the illness itself.^ "HIV related illness" means any illness that may result from or may be associated with HIV infection.

^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occasionally acute infections of ; the nervous system (e.g.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii; it usually infects the brain, causing toxoplasma encephalitis, but it can also infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.^ TOXOPLASMOSIS: Toxoplasmosis is an infection that is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ When T. gondii invades the brain, causing inflammation, the condition is called toxoplasmic encephalitis.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ ISOLATE: An individual (as a spore or a single organism), viable part of an organism (as a cell) or a strain that has been isolated (as from diseased tissue, contaminated water or the air).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[23] .Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.^ Cryptococcal disease is caused by a fungus (Cryptococcus neoformans).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS: A life-threatening infection of the membranes (meninges) that line the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS): Composed of the brain, spinal cord and its coverings (meninges).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.It can cause fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting.^ Symptoms ; Seasonal flu affects people to varying degrees, with symptoms including headache, fever, fatigue, ; sore throat, and runny nose.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Course of disease ; Campylobacter infection causes severe watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, ; abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Course of disease ; Common influenza symptoms include fever, headache, cough, fatigue, aches ; and pains, runny nose, and sore throat.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Patients may also develop seizures and confusion; left untreated, it can be lethal.^ Among infants, congenital infection can ; also cause developmental delay, seizures, and death if ; left untreated.

.Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses.^ However, even ; though the inhibitors have the ability to help decrease the ; symptoms of lower levels of acetylcholine, they cannot stop ; the destruction of nerve cells, so eventually they become ineffective ; as the disease progresses.
  • Reading minds? Ethical implications of recent advances in neuroimaging 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.bioethicsjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may also include primary central nervous system lymphoma, ; cytomegalovirus encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and ; tuberculous meningitis.

^ The risk of transmission of HIV through breastfeeding increases with advanced ; maternal disease, low CD4 cell count, high viral load and mixed feeding.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients.^ Human Immunodeficiency Virus - the virus which causes AIDS - is not ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ AIDS patients who do not die of the consequences of immune deficiency; show the same damage to the brain, lungs, intestines, and kidneys that occurs in sheep; affected with Visna.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It progresses rapidly, usually causing death within months of diagnosis.^ ISSUE I: Is the portion of the death certificate which contains the medical certification of cause of death confidential within the meaning of the Florida Public Records Act and therefore exempt from public inspection?
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ HOLDING: The medical certification portion of the death certificate which contains the cause of death is confidential within the meaning of the Florida Public Records Act and therefore exempt from public inspection.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

[24]
.AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia.^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AIDS is the end stage of HIV infection.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These cells are productively infected by HIV and secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin.^ But in the body of an infected person,; antibodies neutralize HIV years before AIDS appears, if it comes at all.; In persons with antibody against HIV, the virus is inactive, not making; any viral DNA at all.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the course of HIV disease, viral strains may emerge in an infected individual that differ widely in their ability to infect and kill different cell types, as well as in their rate of replication.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These data document the occurrence of the homozygous delta32 genotype among children of HIV-1-infected mothers and suggest that this mutant genotype may confer protection from mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.

[25] .Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and are associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads.^ HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA: Abnormally low levels of immunoglobulins.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Transmission is increased in women with more clinically ; advanced disease, low CD4 cell counts, and high HIV viral load.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ As related to HIV: Infection typically begins when HIV encounters a CD4+ cell.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Prevalence is 10–20% in Western countries[26] but only 1–2% of HIV infections in India.^ Downtown Eastside rates of HIV and hepatitis C infection are the ; highest of any neighbourhood in Canada, with the HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs roughly that of adults ; in the hardest hit countries of Southern Africa.
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence indicates that child participation in school is decreasing in countries with high ; HIV/AIDS prevalence in comparison to countries with lower prevalence.

^ Also in individual countries, such as Viet Nam ; and Indonesia, the prevalence of HIV is growing.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

[27][28] .This difference is possibly due to the HIV subtype in India.^ Box 2 documents the spread of HIV due to the use ; of contaminated blood in different countries.

.AIDS related mania is sometimes seen in patients with advanced HIV illness; it presents with more irritability and cognitive impairment and less euphoria than a manic episode associated with true bipolar disorder.^ Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms .
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "HIV related illness" means any illness that may result from or may be associated with HIV infection.

^ Glossary of HIV/AIDS-related Terms: .
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike the latter condition, it may have a more chronic course.^ This may be similarly true for chronic diseases, which share the inherent passage of time which marks them apart from acute, and therefore more readily identifiable, episodes of care.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Managing diarrhoea ; Chronic persistent diarrhoea is common in infants, children and adults living with HIV, and may be ; more difficult to diagnose and manage.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ However, unlike ; hepatitis A, hepatitis B may lead to chronic illness, ; scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis), liver cancer, liver ; failure, and death.

.This syndrome is less often seen with the advent of multi-drug therapy.^ A: often seen as individual's fault; linked to perversion; linked to personal ; irresponsibility; potentially life threatening illness; linked to stigmatized behaviours ; (IV drug use).
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tumors and malignancies

.Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased incidence of several cancers.^ One finding referred to the increased risk of HIV infection because many ; street children were involved in prostitution, unsafe sex and injecting drug use.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have also shown that psychiatric patients have a ; greater risk for HIV infection.

^ We also asked consultation participants a number of more detailed questions, such as: Does the type of prostitution ; someone engages in increase his or her vulnerability to HIV infection?
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]), and human papillomavirus (HPV).^ Have human immunodeficiency virus - HIV - infection.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infection appears to have been with an "AIDS-associated virus".
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29][30]
.Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor in HIV-infected patients.^ What are the most common symptoms in HIV-infected children?
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCLUSIONS: Most STD clinic patients fail to receive an HIV test result.

^ CARE FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH HIV-RELATED ; ILLNESS ; Most HIV-related illnesses are caused by common infections, which can be ; prevented or treated at home or in a health centre.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The appearance of this tumor in young homosexual men in 1981 was one of the first signals of the AIDS epidemic.^ Recent trends in the HIV epidemic in adolescent and young ; adult gay and bisexual men.
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Young people are increasingly at the center ; of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

^ HIV infection in homosexual and bisexual men 18 to 29 years of age: the San Francisco Young Men's Health Study .
  • ; Oral transmission of HIV : AIDS; 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC journals.lww.com [Source type: Academic]

.Caused by a gammaherpes virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), it often appears as purplish nodules on the skin, but can affect other organs, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs.^ It is suspected that the cause of ; Kaposi's sarcoma is a newly found herpes virus.

^ Mycoplasma cause a variety of illnesses, especially of the ; lungs and sexual organs.

^ People with AIDS often suffer infections of the ; lungs, brain, eyes and other organs, and frequently suffer ; debilitating weight loss, diarrhea and a type of cancer called ; Kaposi's sarcoma.

.High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Burkitt's-like lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and primary central nervous system lymphoma present more often in HIV-infected patients.^ People infected with HIV often experience abnormalities in the central nervous system.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV infects both the central and the peripheral nervous ; system early in the course of infection.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People infected with HIV often experience abnormalities in ; the central nervous system.

.These particular cancers often foreshadow a poor prognosis.^ These people often have limited social support, ; live on the margins of society, are poor, less educated, with little or no political ; representation.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most studies of these mailing lists have investigated lists dedicated to one type of cancer, most often breast cancer.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or KSHV cause many of these lymphomas.^ EPSTEON-BARR VIRUS (EBV): A herpes-like virus that causes one of the two kinds of mononucleosis (the other is caused by CMV).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ K ; aspersky Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 ; It must be noted that these signs can arise from causes other than viruses.
  • Kaspersky Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC downloads.kaspersky-labs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kaspersky® Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data2.kaspersky.com:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This disease, which is most common in Central Africa, is thought to be possibly caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.In HIV-infected patients, lymphoma often arises in extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract.^ In HIV-infected infants, the symptoms common to many treatable conditions, such as ; recurrent fever, diarrhoea and generalized dermatitis, tend to be more persistent ; and severe.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patients, needless to say, often found out what they were taking; by such clues.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a recent case in India, see DH News Service, "HIV-infected blood sold to patient," Deccan Herald, April ; 23, 2003.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] When they occur in an HIV-infected patient, KS and aggressive B cell lymphomas confer a diagnosis of AIDS.
.Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women is also considered AIDS-defining.^ HIV/AIDS and Aboriginal women in Canada.
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Cohen et al., "Domestic Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse in HIV-Infected Women and ; Women at Risk for HIV," American Journal of Public Health 90, no.

^ But in the body of an infected person,; antibodies neutralize HIV years before AIDS appears, if it comes at all.; In persons with antibody against HIV, the virus is inactive, not making; any viral DNA at all.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).^ Caused by the ; human papilloma virus (HPV), it is infectious and autoinoculable ; (i.e., capable of being transmitted by inoculation from one part of ; the body to another).

^ Caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), it is infectious and autoinoculable (i.e., capable of being transmitted by inoculation from one part of the body to another).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Human Papillomavirus Infection ; Genital HPV infection, which can be caused by more ; than 30 strains of the human papillomavirus, usually ; is asymptomatic; however, some infected persons ; have visible genital warts and precancerous changes ; in the cervix, vulva, anus, or penis.

[32]
.In addition to the AIDS-defining tumors listed above, HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of certain other tumors, notably Hodgkin's disease, anal and rectal carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, head and neck cancers, and lung cancer.^ Risk factors for HIV infection among patients infected with hepatitis C virus.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver cancer.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KILLER T CELLS: Killer cells infected with HIV or other viruses or transformed by cancer.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Some of these are causes by viruses, such as Hodgkin's disease (EBV), anal/rectal cancers (HPV), head and neck cancers (HPV), and hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B or C).^ HCC: Hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver cancer.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some protozoa can cause human disease.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ "This booklet is aimed at people with HIV who also have hepatitis B or hepatitis C, viruses ; which can cause serious disease of the liver.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other contributing factors include exposure to carcinogens (cigarette smoke for lung cancer), or living for years with subtle immune defects.^ Other barriers ; Other barriers that can help protect skin against exposure to infectious ; material include gowns and aprons.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, the risk chart in Table 1 shows that women who ; never smoked have a much smaller risk of lung cancer than do ; smokers, but that risk still is not zero.

^ If the body's immune system is impaired because of infection with HIV, aging, malnutrition or other factors, the TB bacterium may begin to spread more widely in the lungs or to other tissues.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Interestingly, the incidence of many common tumors, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, does not increase in HIV-infected patients.^ In such ; circumstances, HIV transmission is common.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When there are many HIV-infected people, the demand for services increases.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ During 1998, 6 million people were newly ; infected with HIV - this equates to 16,000 people being infected every day, a 10% ; increase on the previous year.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In areas where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies has decreased, but at the same time malignant cancers overall have become the most common cause of death of HIV-infected patients.^ Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms .
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the most common symptoms in HIV-infected children?
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people infected with HIV do not know that they have become infected.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .In recent years, an increasing proportion of these deaths have been from non-AIDS-defining cancers.^ Since 1981, 288 children ( <13 years of age) have been reported with HIV/AIDS. Of ; these, 94.4% have been due to perinatal exposure.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Total ; 14,917 ; 14,917 ; 7,607 ; 3,247 2,561 61 ; 1 ; Data in recent years is incomplete due to delay in the reporting of cases and/or deaths.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, there has been an ; increase in injection cocaine use in recent years.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

Other infections

.AIDS patients often develop opportunistic infections that present with non-specific symptoms, especially low-grade fevers and weight loss.^ Chronic diarrhoea with weight loss (often known as "slim disease") ; Some of the opportunistic infections are: ; ; ; Natural History of HIV Infection and AIDS in Untreated Patients ; The primary infection (Acute Phase) is characterized by a peak in viral load, which ; decreases over time, stabilizing at different levels (set-point) in different individuals.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These local remedies can be very helpful in relieving many of ; the symptoms associated with opportunistic infections.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After contact by the AIDS Discrimination Unit with the employer's house counsel for labor matters, an AIDS employee education program (which had been developed by the employer but not yet presented in Mr. X's unit) was presented in Mr. X's work unit.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

.These include opportunistic infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV).^ A common opportunistic infection caused by two ; very similar mycobacterial organisms, Mycobacterium avium and ; Mycobacterium intracellulare.

^ A common opportunistic infection caused by two very similar mycobacterial organisms, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many possible causes of diarrhea in people who have AIDS. The most common infectious organism causing AIDS-related diarrhea include cytomegalovirus (CMV); the parasites Cryptosporidium, Microsporidia and Giardia lamblia; and the bacterium Mycobacterium avium-inracellulare (MAC).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.CMV can cause colitis, as described above, and CMV retinitis can cause blindness.^ CMV infection can affect both eyes and is the most common cause of blindness among people with AIDS. CYTOPENIA: Deficiency in the cellular elements of the blood.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV) RETINITIS: Most adults in the US have been infected by cytomegalovirus, although the virus usually does not cause disease in healthy people.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ While CMV can infect most organs of the body, people with AIDS are most susceptible to CMV retinitis (disease of the eye) and colitis (disease of the colon).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Penicilliosis due to Penicillium marneffei is now the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals within the endemic area of Southeast Asia.^ I am an HIV positive individual.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TB is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections and the HIV ; positive child is very susceptible to contracting this disease.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common reported ; behavior of inmates in prison that may constitute ; HIV risk is tattooing.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.An infection that often goes unrecognized in AIDS patients is Parvovirus B19.^ Decades before the appearance of AIDS, chemotherapy; patients often died of the same Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; that later killed young homosexual men.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How the news of HIV infection is accepted often depends on the ; following: ; Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS for Nurses & Midwives ; 74 ; •The person's physical health.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV positive patients had AIDS. ; ; ; ; ; ; LESOTHO ; Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a rural community in the Lesotho highlands, 2000, Sex Transm Infect.
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its main consequence is anemia, which is difficult to distinguish from the effects of antiretroviral drugs used to treat AIDS itself.^ Also used to treat megaloblastic anemias.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As the number of psychotropic drugs increases steadily and their effects and appropriate ; prescriptive uses are often not fully known, some patients may not be adequately treated and ; others may become over-medicated.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antiretroviral therapy (ARV) ; Treatment of HIV infection includes the use of drugs specifically active on the virus ; itself.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]

Cause

Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1, colored green, budding from a cultured lymphocyte.
.AIDS is the most severe acceleration of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells.^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CD4+ T cells ; are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted ; during HIV infection.

^ HIV may induce apoptosis in both infected and uninfected ; immune system cells.

It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells.[36]
.Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microliter (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost.^ White blood cells killed or disabled during ; HIV infection.

^ White blood cells killed or disabled during HIV infection.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The result is ; the killing of many CD4+ lymphocytes.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the presence of certain infections, as noted above.^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As related to HIV: Infection typically begins ; when HIV encounters a CD4+ cell.

^ White blood cells killed or disabled during ; HIV infection.

[37]
.In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the HIV infection progresses, TB reactivates.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years.^ Overall, HIV prevalence in persons aged 20 and 25 years declined by only 14% between 1988 and 1993.

^ Hepatitis A rates among American Indians/ ; Alaska Natives have declined from 60 cases ; per 100,000 in the years leading up to 1995 ; to 0.5 cases per 100,000 in 2006.

^ During the course of HIV disease, viral strains may emerge in an infected individual that differ widely in their ability to infect and kill different cell types, as well as in their rate of replication.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Many factors affect the rate of progression.^ Many factors affect the rate of progression.
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - Psychology Wiki 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many factors affect the timeframe to develop AIDS, including medications and the person's general health and lifestyle.
  • HIV/AIDS - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Infection - Body & Health 6 February 2010 12:32 UTC bodyandhealth.canada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factors that Affect Disease Prevalence ; The typically slow progression of HIV infection to AIDS, ; along with the absence in many patients of symptoms ; associated with HIV infection, have challenged classic ; methods of determining the prevalence of infectious ; diseases.

.These include factors that influence the body's ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person's general immune function.^ The chances that the blood was from a person infected with HIV ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ These challenges include the ; following factors: ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once a person is infected with HIV, it's for life.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][40] .Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people.^ For instance, does being gay, transgendered, an Aboriginal person ; or an immigrant have a greater impact on someone's risk of contracting HIV than the fact he or she is a sex worker?
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reasons for this are: ; undocumented people are not registered; from the dubious debtors and AWBZ fund many other things ; are paid than that of care provided for undocumented people and is therefore difficult to estimate.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An illness caused by an organism that usually ; does not cause disease in a person with a normal immune system.

.Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progression.^ Over the past decade, infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and ; new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) have drawn considerable policy ; attention.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with lower CD4 cells have a faster ; progression of HCV. While HCV acts like an opportunistic infection it is not ; considered an indicator of AIDS. ; ; ; I ; 133 I APRIL 2009 ; Cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C is the leading cause of both morbidity - ; diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause - and mortality in ; patients with HIV infection on HAART therapy.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many of the ; health care problems people will have as a result of HIV infection will be familiar to ; nurses because of their knowledge and experience of caring for people with other ; chronic, progressive diseases.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38][41][42] .The infected person's genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the homozygous CCR5-Δ32 variation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIV.[43] HIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.^ Important practical information for people with HIV infection ; must be provided.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nationally, it is estimated that 25% of HIV infected persons are not aware of their infection.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As the HIV infection progresses, TB reactivates.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44][45][46]

Sexual transmission

.Sexual transmission occurs with the contact between sexual secretions of one person with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another.^ Sexual assault - Forcing another person to have any type of intimate contact.
  • Teacher Reference Materials On School-Related Gender-Based Violence 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC pdf.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It spreads through ; direct contact and droplet transmission, when the saliva of an infected person ; contacts the mucous membranes of another person's mouth or nose.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONTAGIOUS: Any infectious disease capable of being transmitted by casual contact from one person to another.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Unprotected sexual acts are riskier for the receptive partner than for the insertive partner, and the risk for transmitting HIV through unprotected anal intercourse is greater than the risk from vaginal intercourse or oral sex.^ Q: if i have have unprotected sex with an hiv infected partner but did not ejaculate, what are my ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Transmit HIV during Oral Sex?
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ While females were more ; likely to have been involved in oral sex, males were more ; likely to engage in anal and vaginal sexual intercourse.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.However, oral sex is not entirely safe, as HIV can be transmitted through both insertive and receptive oral sex.^ [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention and Safe Sex Forum) HIV Transmission through a cut [STD Prevention] (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Forum) HIV Transmission Through Bleeding Gums [STD - General] (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Forum) HIV transmission through fingering and masturbation [STD Prevention] (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Forum) Hiv transmission through semen contact with fresh cut [HIV transmission] (HIV Prevention Forum) HIV transmission?
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, HIV) articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 11 September 2009 22:48 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual behavior trends among men who have sex ; with men in Lima, Peru.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention and Safe Sex Forum) Need some advice [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention Forum) Need some help [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention Forum) need some help [STD - General] (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Forum) Need some help [STD - General] (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Forum) Need some help!!
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, HIV) articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 11 September 2009 22:48 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

[47][48] Sexual assault greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely employed and physical trauma to the vagina or rectum occurs frequently, facilitating the transmission of HIV.[49]
.Other sexually transmitted infections (STI) increase the risk of HIV transmission and infection, because they cause the disruption of the normal epithelial barrier by genital ulceration and/or microulceration; and by accumulation of pools of HIV-susceptible or HIV-infected cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) in semen and vaginal secretions.^ The fluids that transmit HIV are primarily blood, semen, and vaginal secretions.
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Sexually Transmitted Infections , ; 82(Suppl.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They have also shown that psychiatric patients have a ; greater risk for HIV infection.

.Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and North America suggest that genital ulcers, such as those caused by syphilis and/or chancroid, increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV by about fourfold.^ In the most recent of these articles, two prominent denialists, David Rasnick and Peter Duesberg, along with several co-authors, claim ludicrously that HIV and AIDS have had no significant effect on public health in Africa and that antiviral medication has had no effect on AIDS mortality in North America and Europe.
  • Denying AIDS and other oddities: Goodbye Duesberg's and Ruggiero's Articles! Did You Ever Exist? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC denyingaids.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seropositivity was significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis, syphilis, gonorrhoea and/or Chlamydia trachomatis infection, warts and genital ulcers.
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among other things, the Bank has supported studies and analysis ; in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, health sector reform in East Asia and the Pacific, capacity ; building in South Asia, advocacy in the Middle East and North Africa, and Multi-Country ; HIV/AIDS Programs (MAP) in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa.

.There is also a significant although lesser increase in risk from STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis, which all cause local accumulations of lymphocytes and macrophages.^ We also found that the correlation between the WAB score and the popularity of a Web site is statistically significant (r = 0.28, P < 0.05), although there is no correlation between the WAB score and the importance of the Web sites (r = 0.15, P = 0.111).
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ When a child who has been performing well in school suddenly starts ; dropping in performance, or when there is evidence of increasing delinquency, ; it is appropriate to investigate what may be causing such behavior.
  • Teacher Reference Materials On School-Related Gender-Based Violence 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC pdf.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention Forum) What is causing all of this?
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, HIV) articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 11 September 2009 22:48 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

[50]
.Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner.^ Women Health 1998;27(1-2):87-103 ; Sex partners of Alaskan drug users: HIV transmission between white men and Alaska Native women.

^ There is no evidence that compulsory treatment programmes are effective for treating drug ; dependence of any kind, or for preventing HIV transmission.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Some now require patients to sign waivers releasing the hospital from liability in case of the ; transmission of HIV or other diseases.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals.^ Variations in its disease course make it difficult to impossible to accurately determine the prognosis of individual patients.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A continuum of care ; includes care between hospital and home over the course of the illness.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions.^ At present, it is not clear in which situations targeted or ; routine viral load testing will be of benefit in low- and middle-income countries.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma viral load and CD4+ cell count as prognostic indicators for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and infectious disease deaths.

^ A temporary increase in T­cells does; not necessarily indicate the patient is improving.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, each 10-fold increase in the level of HIV in the blood is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission.^ However, HIV infection rates have been estimated to be between 2% and 10%.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Each of these increases the chance of HIV ; transmission.

^ The reason that caused her leg to ; increase did not become clear to me; however, it is important that the blood tests indicated that she was ; HIV-positive.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50][51] .Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.^ Sexually Transmitted Infections , ; 82(Suppl.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sexual intercourse with untreated sexually transmitted infections.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STI — sexually transmitted infection.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52][53]
.People who have been infected with one strain of HIV can still be infected later on in their lives by other, more virulent strains.^ One other factor that should ; be addressed within the team approach is the involvement ; of the school's administration, counselor, psychologist, and ; social worker in providing emotional and social support to ; the HIV- infected child and children who make up his or ; her peer or support group, or classmates (Walker, 1991).
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since people living with HIV are more likely to have smear-negative extrapulmonary TB, the ; reliance on smear microscopy is a concern.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Who are the primary ; caretakers of children born to HIV-infected mothers?
  • Guide to Future Care and Custody Planning for Children 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC aia.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

Infection is unlikely in a single encounter. .High rates of infection have been linked to a pattern of overlapping long-term sexual relationships.^ This is when hepatitis C is considered to be long-term infection.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HCV+ PEOPLE Long term infection.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HCV infection rates are as high as 90%.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

.This allows the virus to quickly spread to multiple partners who in turn infect their partners.^ A large proportion of women with HIV ; appear to have acquired the virus from regular partners who were infected during ; paid sex.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What does it mean if I am a chronic carrier of hepatitis B? ; A: Individuals who become chronically infected with HBV are considered 'carriers' of ; the virus.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user of an infected computer might unknowingly send ; infected emails to friends or coworkers who in turn send more infected ; emails.
  • Kaspersky Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC downloads.kaspersky-labs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kaspersky® Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data2.kaspersky.com:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A pattern of serial monogamy or occasional casual encounters is associated with lower rates of infection.^ Annually ; reported (rather than estimated) new infections ; in the Russian Federation have been growing ; again in recent years, but at a lower rate than at ; the turn of the century.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of this low rate of infection, we were unable to determine the association between methadone treatment factors and HIV seroincidence.

^ In addition to school-based programs that specifically focus on HIV/AIDS, recent studies ; confirm that better-educated people have lower rates of infection.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]
.HIV spreads readily through heterosexual sex in Africa, but less so elsewhere.^ Though there has been modest progress in reducing AIDS incidence in some parts of SSA, it ; remains a widespread crisis, spread mainly through heterosexual sex.

^ Other Barrier Methods ; Other barrier methods exist to help reduce the sexual transmission of HIV, but these ; are less reliable, and often not as readily available.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worldwide, sexual transmission accounts for about 75% of cases, and three-quarters ; of those are through heterosexual sex and one quarter through sex between men.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One possibility being researched is that schistosomiasis, which affects up to 50% of women in parts of Africa, damages the lining of the vagina.^ If the care is not necessary then it will not be ; provided, this only when it does not affect the health of the women, since their health is of course ; number one priority.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ; problem was that it was very difficult to get into contact with undocumented women, and then it even ; remained unsure if she shows up; which happened one time for still unknown reasons.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SESSION WRAP-UP: ; Congratulate participants on being part of a workshop that will be ; 1.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55][56]

Exposure to blood-borne pathogens

CDC poster from 1989 highlighting the threat of AIDS associated with drug use
.This transmission route is particularly relevant to intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions and blood products.^ Implications for transmission among ; injection drug users.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Implications for transmission among injection drug users.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Women Health 1998;27(1-2):87-103 ; Sex partners of Alaskan drug users: HIV transmission between white men and Alaska Native women.

Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood represents a major risk for infection with HIV.
.Needle sharing is the cause of one third of all new HIV-infections in North America, China, and Eastern Europe.^ New evidence of rising HIV infection rates in North America, parts ; of Europe and Australia is emerging.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The women completed an anonymous questionnaire that revealed that one third of them were at high risk for HIV either because they had multiple partners or because of the high-risk behaviors of their regular partner.

^ In some areas, particularly Latin ; America and the Caribbean, about one-quarter of all families receive remittances.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The risk of being infected with HIV from a single prick with a needle that has been used on an HIV-infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150 (see table above).^ Once a person is infected with HIV, it's for life.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children were not identified as being HIV infected.

^ Campaigns should also be developed that target personal attitudes toward HIV/AIDS through ; education about and exposure to people living with the virus.

.Post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-HIV drugs can further reduce this risk.^ [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention Forum) HIV exposure?
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, HIV) articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 11 September 2009 22:48 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [HIV exposure and risks] (HIV Prevention Forum) ?
  • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, HIV) articles, Information and Resources from MedHelp 11 September 2009 22:48 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This practice reduces the risk of HIV transmission.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

[57]
.This route can also affect people who give and receive tattoos and piercings.^ For example, "those of us who have been ; affected by HIV," not "people with HIV" with a negative connotation ; or as if they are different from you or the group of participants.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Getting an estimate of the extent of HIV/AIDS will give an indication of ; the number of people who need care and will also help identify the area the care ; programme should cover.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Give some examples of people who have power in the world, ; the community and the school (e.g., elected leaders, village elders, head ; teachers).
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Universal precautions are frequently not followed in both sub-Saharan Africa and much of Asia because of both a shortage of supplies and inadequate training.^ Both ; were originally known as ; universal precautions.
  • Controlling Exposure: Protecting Workers from Infectious Disease 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.worksafebc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over ; 5,200 volunteers in 63 countries now offer their services in ; three major world regions: Africa (Sub- Saharan Africa), ; Inter- America (Central and South America), and NANEAP ; (North Africa, Near East, Asia, and the Pacifi c).
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Now it is the second ; most affected region in the world after sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The WHO estimates that approximately 2.5% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are transmitted through unsafe healthcare injections.^ Nearly 90% of all ; HIV-positive children live in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the number of people ; diagnosed with HIV who report being infected ; though unsafe heterosexual intercourse is on the ; rise, with the majority of infections occurring ; outside the country, primarily in Asia and ; sub-Saharan Africa (Ministry of Health New ; Zealand, 2007).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Downtown Eastside rates of HIV and hepatitis C infection are the ; highest of any neighbourhood in Canada, with the HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs roughly that of adults ; in the hardest hit countries of Southern Africa.
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Because of this, the United Nations General Assembly has urged the nations of the world to implement precautions to prevent HIV transmission by health workers.^ Explaining how to prevent HIV transmission.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Nations General Assembly 2001.

^ Universal precautions are procedures for health workers that are designed to prevent the transmission of HIV and other ; bloodborne pathogens in the course of provision of health care or first aid.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]
.The risk of transmitting HIV to blood transfusion recipients is extremely low in developed countries where improved donor selection and HIV screening is performed.^ HIV is transmitted primarily by contact with the blood, ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ HIV risk from fesh blood on food .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ This holds for people with low- ; risk behavior, such as blood donors.

.However, according to the WHO, the overwhelming majority of the world's population does not have access to safe blood and between 5% and 10% of the world's HIV infections come from transfusion of infected blood and blood products.^ The chances that the blood was from a person infected with HIV ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ FACTS: Cheney is the wife of a hemophiliac who was transfused with HIV infected blood and who died as a result of the infection.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Transfusion of HIV-contaminated blood, blood products and body tissues.
  • Teacher Reference Materials On School-Related Gender-Based Violence 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC pdf.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]

Perinatal transmission

.The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth.^ Mother to child transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, labour ; and delivery, and as a result of breastfeeding.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children can contract HIV from their infected mothers either during pregnancy or birth, or postnatally, via breastfeeding.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These regimens ; ; ; reduce the risk of MTCT by decreasing viral replication in the mother and through ; prophylaxis of the infant during and after exposure to the virus.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the absence of treatment, the transmission rate between a mother and her child during pregnancy, labor and delivery is 25%.^ Mother to child transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, labour ; and delivery, and as a result of breastfeeding.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1998 the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ; announced that a short oral course of zidovudine given late in pregnancy and during ; delivery reduced the rate of HIV transmission to infants of infected mothers by half ; and is safe for use in the developing world.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The benefits of VCT in antenatal care include: ; Estimated Risk and Timing of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV ; ANTENATAL CARE ; Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS for Nurses & Midwives ; 93 ; Transmission rate (%) ; Timing ; No breastfeeding ; Breast feeding ; through 6 months ; Breast feeding ; through ; 18 to 24 months ; During pregnancy ; 5 to 10 ; 5 to 10 ; 5 to 10 ; During labour ; 10 to 20 ; 10 to 20 ; 10 to 20 ; Through ; breastfeeding ; 5 to 10 ; 5 to 10 ; Early ; (first 2 months) ; 1 to 5 ; 5 to 10 ; Late ; (after 2 months) ; Overall ; 15 to 30 ; 25 to 35 ; 30 to 45 ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when the mother takes antiretroviral therapy and gives birth by caesarean section, the rate of transmission is just 1%.^ Pregnancy also does not appear to affect the course of most women's HCV. ; However women who are taking ribavirin therapy are advised not to become ; pregnant because ribavirin is known to cause birth defects.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who are taking antiretroviral therapy can breastfeed their infants if replacement feeding is not ; AFASS, but they should be made aware that some antiretroviral medicines are found in the mother's ; milk.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ After publication of results of zidovudine prophylaxis of mother-to-child transmission, pregnancy rates did not increase, but the incidence of therapeutic abortion dropped from 4.3/100 PY to 1.4/100 PY (p = .009).

[61] .The risk of infection is influenced by the viral load of the mother at birth, with the higher the viral load, the higher the risk.^ Certain groups of adolescents are at higher risk for HIV infection.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These regimens ; ; ; reduce the risk of MTCT by decreasing viral replication in the mother and through ; prophylaxis of the infant during and after exposure to the virus.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recorded infection is largely confined to individuals with higher risk behaviour: e.g.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.Breastfeeding also increases the risk of transmission by about 4 %.^ The risk of transmission also ; increases with prolonged duration of breastfeeding.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk: Recent trends in risk information when adjusted for missing information ; indicate that about 50% of cases have a history of IDU. About 25% are ; associated with MSM and about 25% with heterosexual transmission.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite increasing HIV incidence among ; two-spirit youth, little is understood about how their migration experiences might heighten their risk for HIV ; infection.
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

[62]

Misconceptions

.A number of misconceptions have arisen surrounding HIV/AIDS. Three of the most common are that AIDS can spread through casual contact, that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS, and that HIV can infect only homosexual men and drug users.^ The issues of sexuality and HIV/aIDs can be sensitive.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is transmitted only through blood-to-blood ; contact.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the most common symptoms in HIV-infected children?
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other misconceptions are that any act of anal intercourse between gay men can lead to AIDS infection, and that open discussion of homosexuality and HIV in schools will lead to increased rates of homosexuality and AIDS.[63]

Pathophysiology

.The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes.^ As of November 2002 there were more than 150 prisoners living ; with HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan, 56% of all known cases in the country.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ In Wisconsin, 59% percent of all cases of AIDS have ; been among men who have sex with men (with an additional 7% in the exposure category ; of men who have sex with men and inject drugs) (Wisconsin AIDS/HIV Update, 2005).
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 89 percent of all children with AIDS ; are perinatal cases—children who contracted the virus from ; their mother during pregnancy or birth.
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

[64] .Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes.^ HIV AIDS cause .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ T lymphocytes are CD3+ and can be separated into the ; CD4+ T helper cells and the CD8+ cytotoxic/suppresssor cells.

^ In these patients, the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts remained high and their viral burdens were remarkably lower than in non-SS HIV-1-seropositive individuals.

.This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus ; (HIV), aIDs leaves an infected person vulnerable to opportunistic ; infections—infections by microbes that take advantage of a weakened ; immune system.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), AIDS leaves an ; infected person vulnerable to opportunistic infections—infections by microbes that ; take advantage of a weakened immune system.
  • Teacher Reference Materials On School-Related Gender-Based Violence 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC pdf.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells.^ Nonanti-body mediators of immune responses, released by activated ; lymphocytes.

^ This receptor enables the cell to recognize ; foreign bodies and fight of infection.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonanti-body mediators of immune responses, released by activated lymphocytes.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases.^ CD4+ T cells ; are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted ; during HIV infection.

^ The disease is characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions in the acute phase (primary and secondary [P&S] syphilis) and lesions of the bone, viscera, and cardiovascular and neurologic systems in the chronic phase.

^ CD4+ T cells are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted during HIV infection.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[65]
.During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor.^ CD4+ T cells ; are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted ; during HIV infection.

^ HIV may induce apoptosis in both infected and uninfected ; immune system cells.

^ White blood cells killed or disabled during ; HIV infection.

.During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers.^ CD4+ T cells ; are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted ; during HIV infection.

^ Her immune system and; general health declined, though more slowly.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CD4+ T cells are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted during HIV infection.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of infection, especially in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors the majority of the lymphocytes found in the body.^ CD4+ T cells ; are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted ; during HIV infection.

^ Although CD4+ cells are predominantly T ; lymphocytes, some monocytes are also CD4+.

^ His first symptoms of AIDS appeared about 1989.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .The reason for the preferential loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells is that a majority of mucosal CD4+ T cells express the CCR5 coreceptor, whereas a small fraction of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream do so.^ Normally when CD4+ T cells mature in the thymus gland, a small proportion of these cells are unable to distinguish self from nonself.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Normally when CD4+ T cells mature in the thymus gland, a small ; proportion of these cells are unable to distinguish self from ; nonself.

^ Mutations in this gene may alter expression or function of the protein product, thereby altering chemokine binding/signaling or HIV-1 infection of cells that normally express CCR5 protein.

[67]
.HIV seeks out and destroys CCR5 expressing CD4+ cells during acute infection.^ As well, organisations/businesses from or outside Africa seeking to exhibit their products or services during the symposium/trade fair are invited to formally express their interest.
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV's preferred targets are CD4+ cells, ; which have a docking molecule on their surface.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ AIDS cases presenting each month or year, or the numbe r of ; new HIV infections being detected during a sp e cified period of time.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A vigorous immune response eventually controls the infection and initiates the clinically latent phase.^ An immune response that completely eliminates an ; infection.

^ A group of genes that control aspects of the ; immune response.

^ Approaches to reducing the risk ; of latent TB infection progressing to TB-disease include treatment of the latent TB itself and, also, ; improvement in immune function as a result of antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.However, CD4+ T cells in mucosal tissues remain depleted throughout the infection, although enough remain to initially ward off life-threatening infections.^ Physicians prefer to use the ; term AIDS for cases where a person has reached the final, life-threatening ; stage of HIV infection.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He continued practicing dentistry while remaining discreet; about his sexual life and failing health, making sure to follow the standard; guidelines for protecting his patients from infection.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the course of infection, crucial immune ; cells called CD4+ T cells are disabled and killed, and their numbers ; progressively decline.

.Continuous HIV replication results in a state of generalized immune activation persisting throughout the chronic phase.^ It noted that the defendant had spent a number of years in prison as a result of previous convictions and that HIV is prevalent in state prisons.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ISSUE IV: Whether defendant violated state Health and Safety Code bar against using the results of HIV tests to determine employment suitability?
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His employer had requested to be notified of the results of his HIV test, and when the employer was informed that the test results were confidential under state law, the employment was terminated.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

[68] .Immune activation, which is reflected by the increased activation state of immune cells and release of proinflammatory cytokines, results from the activity of several HIV gene products and the immune response to ongoing HIV replication.^ Nonanti-body mediators of immune responses, released by activated ; lymphocytes.

^ Subset of T cells that halt antibody production and other immune responses.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonanti-body mediators of immune responses, released by activated lymphocytes.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.Another cause is the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells during the acute phase of disease.^ CD4+ T cells ; are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted ; during HIV infection.

^ The disease is characterized by skin and mucous membrane lesions in the acute phase (primary and secondary [P&S] syphilis) and lesions of the bone, viscera, and cardiovascular and neurologic systems in the chronic phase.

^ The; flowchart is the absolute missing link in proving the existence of a coordinated research; program to develop a cancer virus that depletes the immune system.
  • Aids; The Manufactured Virus 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.apfn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69]
.This results in the systemic exposure of the immune system to microbial components of the gut’s normal flora, which in a healthy person is kept in check by the mucosal immune system.^ While the disease can occur in persons with healthy immune systems, it can normally be cured successfully.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Possessing a normal immune system.
  • GENESIS OF AIDS :: GLOSSARY 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Yeast-like fungi commonly found in the normal ; flora of the mouth, skin, intestinal tract and vagina, but can ; become clinically infectious in immune compromised people.

.The activation and proliferation of T cells that results from immune activation provides fresh targets for HIV infection.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CD4+ T cells are the critical immune system cells targeted by HIV and depleted during HIV infection.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It has potent effects on the proliferation, differentiation and activity of a number of immune system cells, including T cells, B cells and natural killer cells.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.However, direct killing by HIV alone cannot account for the observed depletion of CD4+ T cells since only 0.01–0.10% of CD4+ T cells in the blood are infected.^ The chances that the blood was from a person infected with HIV ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ White blood cells killed or disabled during ; HIV infection.

^ White blood cells killed or disabled during HIV infection.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

.A major cause of CD4+ T cell loss appears to result from their heightened susceptibility to apoptosis when the immune system remains activated.^ It has potent effects on the proliferation, differentiation and activity of a number of immune system cells, including T cells, B cells and natural killer cells.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The result is a colorful map of the brain ; that is thought to show a correlation between activated neural system ; and mental activity.
  • Reading minds? Ethical implications of recent advances in neuroimaging 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.bioethicsjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELL-MEDIATED CYTOTOXICITY (ADCC): An immune response in which antibodies bind to target cells, identifying them for attack by the immune system.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

Although new T cells are continuously produced by the thymus to replace the ones lost, the regenerative capacity of the thymus is slowly destroyed by direct infection of its thymocytes by HIV. Eventually, the minimal number of CD4+ T cells necessary to maintain a sufficient immune response is lost, leading to AIDS

Cells affected

The virus, entering through which ever route, acts primarily on the following cells:[70]

The effect

.The virus has cytopathic effects but how it does it is still not quite clear.^ But the ads fail to provide the most ; fundamental information consumers need to make informed ; decisions: How well does the drug work, and what are the side ; effects?

^ It is still unknown what effect HCV has upon HIV although it may help the hepatitis ; C virus to multiply unchecked.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If one of AZT's main side effects is; bone marrow toxicity, how does a doctor know which cells the AZT will affect?; (How does the AZT know?
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can remain inactive in these cells for long periods, though.^ Their ; intent was to remain in these sanctuaries for a brief period ; of time (e.g., a week or two) and then return to their homes ; and land.
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

This effect is hypothesized to be due to the CD4-gp120 interaction.[70]
.
  • The most prominent effect of HIV is its T-helper cell suppression and lysis.^ Since the immunosuppressive drugs suppress the ; production of immune cells, HIV virus does not produce as quickly (Bruce and ; Montanarelli, 2007, p.275).
    • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ EBV infection did not have an independent effect on mean CD4 cell counts, percent CD4, IgG levels, HIV-1 RNA levels, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly.

    ^ Among the most important laboratory tests are measurements of HIV in plasma (viral load) in conjunction with peripheral blood CD4+ helper T lymphocyte counts.

    .The cell is simply killed off or deranged to the point of being function-less (they do not respond to foreign antigens).^ The thymus processes white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, which kill foreign cells and stimulate other immune cells to produce antibodies.
    • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They then ferry the foreign substance to the lymph nodes to stimulate T cells and initiate an immune response.
    • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTE (CTL): A lymphocyte that is able to kill foreign cells that have been marked for destruction by the cellular immune system.
    • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

    .The infected B-cells can not produce enough antibodies either.^ PLASMA CELLS: Large antibody-producing cells that develop from B cells.
    • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The thymus processes white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, which kill foreign cells and stimulate other immune cells to produce antibodies.
    • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ People afflicted ; with Alzheimer's disease have a decreased amount of ; acetylcholine available to carry messages, because the cells ; used to produce and use it are either damaged or destroyed.
    • Reading minds? Ethical implications of recent advances in neuroimaging 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.bioethicsjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Thus the immune system collapses leading to the familiar AIDS complications, like infections and neoplasms (vide supra).
  • Infection of the cells of the CNS cause acute aseptic meningitis, subacute encephalitis, vacuolar myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
    • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
    • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AIDS-related opportunistic infections that affect the central nervous system range from ; toxoplasma encephalitis, a parasitic infection that is the most frequent form of mass brain lesion ; for PLWHA, to cryptococcal meningitis, the third most common neurological complication for ; AIDS patients.

    .Later it leads to even AIDS dementia complex.
  • The CD4-gp120 interaction (see above) is also permissive to other viruses like Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis virus, Herpes simplex virus, etc.^ They are not all scary about HIV and AIDS and even Hepatitis ; C. They understand eh.
    • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The same worrisome ; trends have been observed for the MDGs for HIV/AIDS, TB, and other diseases (see Annex 1).

    ^ RNA viruses like hepatitis C mutate rapidly.
    • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These viruses lead to further cell damage i.e. cytopathy.

Molecular basis

For details, see:

Diagnosis

.The diagnosis of AIDS in a person infected with HIV is based on the presence of certain signs or symptoms.^ The chances that the blood was from a person infected with HIV ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Once a person is infected with HIV, it's for life.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Campaigns should also be developed that target personal attitudes toward HIV/AIDS through ; education about and exposure to people living with the virus.

.Since June 5, 1981, many definitions have been developed for epidemiological surveillance such as the Bangui definition and the 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition.^ Geneva, ; World Health Organization, 2008.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, clinical staging of patients was not an intended use for these systems as they are neither sensitive, nor specific.^ Many undocumented pregnant patients however ; never show up at the Bureau, because they are afraid of being registered.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These preliminary results encourage further studies to identify specific diseases or circumstances where this system could be useful in patients' distance monitoring.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, although these tips are for parents, they can be used by adults more generally in ; their relationships with teenagers.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In developing countries, the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease, using clinical and laboratory data, is used and in developed countries, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Classification System is used.^ Geneva, ; World Health Organization, 2008.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) .
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

WHO disease staging system

.In 1990, the World Health Organization (WHO) grouped these infections and conditions together by introducing a staging system for patients infected with HIV-1.[71] An update took place in September 2005. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that are easily treatable in healthy people.^ Geneva, ; World Health Organization, 2008.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients and non-health care settings were the most common groups of people studied.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have been diagnosed with a recent infection.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

CDC classification system

.There are two main definitions for AIDS, both produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).^ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007a).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1992.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease transmission, Vertical - prevention and control.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.The older definition is to referring to AIDS using the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.^ Infection appears to have been with an "AIDS-associated virus".
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the past decade, infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and ; new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) have drawn considerable policy ; attention.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72][73] .In 1993, the CDC expanded their definition of AIDS to include all HIV positive people with a CD4+ T cell count below 200 per µL of blood or 14% of all lymphocytes.^ Cells from which all blood cells derive.

^ CD4 Cell Count ; Care ; The number of CD4 cells per one cubic millimeter of blood.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ STEM CELLS: Cells from which all blood cells derive.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[74] .The majority of new AIDS cases in developed countries use either this definition or the pre-1993 CDC definition.^ For example, universal ; access to ART in Brazil has, since 1996, ena bled ; the country to avert more than 60,000 ; new cases of AIDS and 90,000 HIV-related ; deaths.

^ An expert consultative group will ; be formed to help develop carefully ; planned and scientifically sound prospect ive ; evaluations of new HIV/AIDS ; projects.

^ A. Clinical use of blood and its products ; Most transfusions in developing countries are administered for hemorrhage as a complication of ; pregnancy, to children with severe anemia, and serious trauma.

.The AIDS diagnosis still stands even if, after treatment, the CD4+ T cell count rises to above 200 per µL of blood or other AIDS-defining illnesses are cured.^ CD4 Cell Count ; Care ; The number of CD4 cells per one cubic millimeter of blood.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A CD4 ; count of 200 or less is an AIDS-defining condition.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The AIDS case definition ; consists of either HIV positive with a low CD4-positive cell count (below 200 ; cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes), or HIV positive and a diagnosis ; with one of several opportunistic infections or conditions (for example, Pneumocystis ; carinii pneumonia or cervical carcinoma).
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

HIV test

.Many people are unaware that they are infected with HIV.[75] Less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested, and this proportion is even lower in rural populations.^ When there are many HIV-infected people, the demand for services increases.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people living with HIV will remain sexually active.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people infected with HIV do not know that they have become infected.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counseled, tested or receive their test results.^ Only seven facilities have been established for the purpose of voluntary ; counselling and testing voluntary counselling and testing.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the care is not necessary then it will not be ; provided, this only when it does not affect the health of the women, since their health is of course ; number one priority.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documentation of test results will be submitted to the Human Resource Office for inclusion in the employee's health file.

.Again, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities.^ (C) ; E. Hospital negligence and HIV transmission ; Internal Chinese surveys have shown that a large percentage of the injections performed in rural health care ; facilities are unsafe.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] Therefore, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened for HIV.
.HIV tests are usually performed on venous blood.^ No surrogate HIV tests were done on the blood.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ISSUE II: Is the result of the court ordered blood test not relevant to the petitioner's visitation rights because HIV cannot be transmitted by casual family contact?
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason that caused her leg to ; increase did not become clear to me; however, it is important that the blood tests indicated that she was ; HIV-positive.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many laboratories use fourth generation screening tests which detect anti-HIV antibody (IgG and IgM) and the HIV p24 antigen.^ P24 antigen testing .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ The p24 antigen test is used for HIV-1 - in cases like that you described in an earlier ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Revised recommendations for the selection and use of HIV antibody tests.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.The detection of HIV antibody or antigen in a patient previously known to be negative is evidence of HIV infection.^ Evidence of intraprison spread of HIV infection.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ B core antigen negative) and have not been vaccinated ; previously.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ ANTIBODY: Proteins produced by the body in response to new proteins - ; Antigens - that the body has not seen previously.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Individuals whose first specimen indicates evidence of HIV infection will have a repeat test on a second blood sample to confirm the results.^ No surrogate HIV tests were done on the blood.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Samples found positive by a first test are retested with a second confirmatory test.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence of intraprison spread of HIV infection.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The window period (the time between initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies against the infection) can vary since it can take 3–6 months to seroconvert and to test positive.^ The test period was 3 months.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Q: in what cases would it take longer then 4-6 months for hiv antibodies to be detected on a lab test?
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Syphilis tests detect antibodies to syphilis bacteria.

.Detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the window period is possible, and evidence suggests that an infection may often be detected earlier than when using a fourth generation EIA screening test.^ These generally test for antibodies to the virus, rather than ; the virus itself.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tests for ; detecting RNA in blood samples are often referred to as polymerase chain reaction or ; PCR testing.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RT-PCR: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Positive results obtained by PCR are confirmed by antibody tests.^ SEROSTATUS: Results of a test for specific antibodies.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ These cases are ; defined by confirmed antibody positive test results.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Disclosure of HIV-positive test results .
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

[76] .Routinely used HIV tests for infection in neonates and infants (i.e., patients younger than 2 years),[77] born to HIV-positive mothers, have no value because of the presence of maternal antibody to HIV in the child's blood.^ No surrogate HIV tests were done on the blood.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He obtained a blood test and demonstrated to his employer that he was not HIV-positive.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Revised recommendations for the selection and use of HIV antibody tests.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR, testing for HIV pro-viral DNA in the children's lymphocytes.^ Table 2.8.1: Reason for HIV Testing 1 in Newly Diagnosed HIV ; Cases, Connecticut, 2005-2006.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But in the body of an infected person,; antibodies neutralize HIV years before AIDS appears, if it comes at all.; In persons with antibody against HIV, the virus is inactive, not making; any viral DNA at all.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Testing for HIV infection should be organized in such a way that minimizes the ; possibility of information disclosure or of discrimination.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]

Prevention

Estimated per act risk for acquisition
of HIV by exposure route (US only) [79]
Exposure Route Estimated infections
per 10,000 exposures
to an infected source
Blood Transfusion 9,000[80]
Childbirth (to child) 2,500[61]
Needle-sharing injection drug use 67[81]
Percutaneous needle stick 30[82]
Receptive anal intercourse* 50[83][84]
Insertive anal intercourse* 6.5[83][84]
Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse* 10[83][84][85]
Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse* 5[83][84]
Receptive oral intercourse 1[84]
Insertive oral intercourse 0.5[84]
* assuming no condom use
§ source refers to oral intercourse
performed on a man
.The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period.^ Other modes of HIV transmission include unprotected sexual relations and mother-to-child ; perinatal transmission.

^ The risk of HIV transmission following ; mucous membrane or skin exposure to HIV-infected blood, body fluids or tissues is ; even lower.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transmitted primarily through sexual ; contact and exchange of body fluids.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible.^ As there was no contact with her blood or vaginal secretions, you are at no risk.
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Recorded infection is largely confined to individuals with higher risk behaviour: e.g.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk associated with ; HIV infection is known in 88% of cases.
  • HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data by Year 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Academic]

[86]

Sexual contact

.The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations between partners, one of whom has HIV. The primary mode of HIV infection worldwide is through sexual contact between members of the opposite sex.^ Q: if i have have unprotected sex with an hiv infected partner but did not ejaculate, what are my ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ The majority of HIV ; infections are estimated to occur through the use ; of contaminated injecting equipment, unprotected ; paid sex and, to a lesser extent, unprotected ; sex between men.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A person who has been previously counseled in accordance with the standard counseling statement would thus be aware that his semen is highly likely to contain HIV, that he is potentially infectious to others through intimate sexual contact, and that he should inform potential sexual partners of his infection so they may give informed consent to have sexual relations.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

[87][88][89]
.During a sexual act, only male or female condoms can reduce the chances of infection with HIV and other STDs and the chances of becoming pregnant.^ The aim of this component of clinic visits is to reduce STD/HIV ; infection.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Male Circumcision can offer between 30% and 60% protection against Female to Male Transmission of HIV. Ultimately circumcision protects women from HIV as HIV prevalence in men declines.
  • Denying AIDS and other oddities: Goodbye Duesberg's and Ruggiero's Articles! Did You Ever Exist? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC denyingaids.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than half ; (59%) of HIV infections reported in 2006 were ; attributed to unprotected sexual transmission ; (EuroHIV, 2007).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

.The best evidence to date indicates that typical condom use reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission by approximately 80% over the long-term, though the benefit is likely to be higher if condoms are used correctly on every occasion.^ Evidence of HIV transmission in an Australian prison.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Which populations are most at risk for HIV transmission?
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol use is also a risk factor for unsafe sex and HIV transmission.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

[90]
.The male latex condom, if used correctly without oil-based lubricants, is the single most effective available technology to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.^ Sexually Transmitted Infections , ; 82(Suppl.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sexual intercourse with untreated sexually transmitted infections.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STI — sexually transmitted infection.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Manufacturers recommend that oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, butter, and lard not be used with latex condoms, because they dissolve the latex, making the condoms porous.^ Freedoms of expression and association ; The illegal nature of activities such as prostitution, homosexuality and drug use can ; impede the formation of community organizations based on this shared activity.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First of all remember that hepatitis C is rarely transmitted through sexual ; transmission (see above), however to avoid the transmission of STIs using a latex or ; polyurethane condom is strongly recommended.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ; authors concluded that many of these women faced their greatest HIV risk at home ; because of their reluctance to insist on condom use outside the sphere of their ; work.
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If necessary, manufacturers recommend using water-based lubricants.^ Using condoms with a water-based lubricant such as KY jelly (which is water-based and not an ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Drop some water based lubricant inside the tip for increased sensation.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use water soluble lubricant for intercourse if you find there is excessive dryness.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oil-based lubricants can however be used with polyurethane condoms.^ First of all remember that hepatitis C is rarely transmitted through sexual ; transmission (see above), however to avoid the transmission of STIs using a latex or ; polyurethane condom is strongly recommended.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, 30 per cent of total respondents did not ; use condoms regularly during sexual intercourse.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because it can be inserted hours before ; intercourse, it can provide protection in situations where consumption of alcohol or ; drugs may reduce the chances that a male condom will be used.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91]
.The female condom is an alternative to the male condom and is made from polyurethane, which allows it to be used in the presence of oil-based lubricants.^ Using condoms with a water-based lubricant such as KY jelly (which is water-based and not an ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Few differences existed in condom use among males and ; females.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Few differences existed in condom use among ; males and females.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They are larger than male condoms and have a stiffened ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina.^ Use fingers to insert condom into vagina or anus.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are particularly important ; to female youth, who often face greater barriers to education and ; less access to resources overall than males.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because it can be inserted hours before ; intercourse, it can provide protection in situations where consumption of alcohol or ; drugs may reduce the chances that a male condom will be used.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The female condom contains an inner ring, which keeps the condom in place inside the vagina – inserting the female condom requires squeezing this ring.^ For vaginal intercourse, keep jelly ring inside condom.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: I inserted my hand into a womans vagina and then used the same hand to touch the condom i used ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Such methods might include the female ; condom and vaginal microbicides (a virus-killing cream or foam) that women can ; insert vaginally before intercourse.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, at present availability of female condoms is very low and the price remains prohibitive for many women.^ The ; problem was that it was very difficult to get into contact with undocumented women, and then it even ; remained unsure if she shows up; which happened one time for still unknown reasons.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J Womens Health 1998 Apr;7(3):371-8 ; Sexual coercion, domestic violence, and negotiating condom use among low-income African American women.

^ However, many women learn of their HIV status ; during pregnancy, and will not be diagnosed in time to be offered termination.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Preliminary studies suggest that, where female condoms are available, overall protected sexual acts increase relative to unprotected sexual acts, making them an important HIV prevention strategy.^ The reason that caused her leg to ; increase did not become clear to me; however, it is important that the blood tests indicated that she was ; HIV-positive.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than half ; (59%) of HIV infections reported in 2006 were ; attributed to unprotected sexual transmission ; (EuroHIV, 2007).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The findings from the focus groups will ; provide in-depth information needed to make specific ; recommendations for HIV prevention in Illinois prisons.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[92]
.Studies on couples where one partner is infected show that with consistent condom use, HIV infection rates for the uninfected partner are below 1% per year.^ The study also included HIV-uninfected female partners of the men.
  • Denying AIDS and other oddities: Goodbye Duesberg's and Ruggiero's Articles! Did You Ever Exist? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC denyingaids.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The women completed an anonymous questionnaire that revealed that one third of them were at high risk for HIV either because they had multiple partners or because of the high-risk behaviors of their regular partner.

^ A study reported in 1995 determined the seroprevalence of HIV infection and hepatitis ; Camong prisoners of a federal penitentiary for women.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

[93] Prevention strategies, like are well-known in developed countries, but epidemiological and behavioral studies in Europe and North America suggest that a substantial minority of young people continue to engage in high-risk practices despite HIV/AIDS knowledge, underestimating their own risk of becoming infected with HIV.[94][95]
.Randomized controlled trials have shown that male circumcision lowers the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men by up to 60%.^ Male circumcision ; Randomized trials in areas of high HIV prevalence have demonstrated that male circumcision ; reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV in men by approximately 60%.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV infection than men.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Teacher Reference Materials On School-Related Gender-Based Violence 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC pdf.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor had; any infections shown up.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96] .It is expected that this procedure will be actively promoted in many of the countries affected by HIV, although doing so will involve confronting a number of practical, cultural and attitudinal issues.^ One finding referred to the increased risk of HIV infection because many ; street children were involved in prostitution, unsafe sex and injecting drug use.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There should be a commitment among the political leaders of both ; countries to address the issue of HIV/AIDS. Their vision should be ; included in their election manifesto.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Learning about HIV/AIDS in the Classroom ; HIV/AIDS represents a huge challenge to ; many countries, and the classroom is an ; appropriate setting as a first line of defence ; against its spread.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, programs to encourage condom use, including providing them free to those in poverty, are estimated to be 95 times more cost effective than circumcision at reducing the rate of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.^ Most of the time used a condom ; 6.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, HIV infection rates have been estimated to be between 2% and 10%.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ It is estimated that individuals ; co-infected with TB and HIV are 10-30 times more likely to develop clinical TB than ; those without HIV. Fortunately, anti-TB drugs are just as effective in HIV-infected ; individuals as in those not infected with HIV, and are considered cost effective, even ; in the poorest countries.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]
.Some experts fear that a lower perception of vulnerability among circumcised men may result in more sexual risk-taking behavior, thus negating its preventive effects.^ Frank discussions about sexual practices, drug ; taking, and other risky behaviours are more likely to be explored and understood ; within these safe environments.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common reported ; behavior of inmates in prison that may constitute ; HIV risk is tattooing.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is some chance that, if your sexual partner was infected with HIV, you may have had ...
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

[98] .However, one randomized controlled trial indicated that adult male circumcision was not associated with increased HIV risk behavior.^ The reason that caused her leg to ; increase did not become clear to me; however, it is important that the blood tests indicated that she was ; HIV-positive.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common reported ; behavior of inmates in prison that may constitute ; HIV risk is tattooing.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of the studies conducted ; assessed HIV risk behaviors prior to incarceration.
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[99]

Exposure to infected body fluids

.Health care workers can reduce exposure to HIV by employing precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood.^ HIV risk from fesh blood on food .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Risk of HIV transmission in the health care setting ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Peace - indeed, in health care, workers are sometimes exposed to HIV infected blood.
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

.These precautions include barriers such as gloves, masks, protective eyeware or shields, and gowns or aprons which prevent exposure of the skin or mucous membranes to blood borne pathogens.^ Use of protective barriers such as gloves, gowns, aprons, masks, goggles ; for direct contact with blood and other body fluids; ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous ; membranes.

^ Prevention of occupational exposure to HIV also includes risk ; assessment and risk reduction activities such as: ; UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS ; Universal Precautions are simple standards of infection control practices to be used ; in the care of all patients, at all times, to reduce the risk of transmission of blood- ; borne infections.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frequent and thorough washing of the skin immediately after being contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of infection.^ C. Testing for blood borne infections 39 ; Standard blood safety principles provide that blood services screen blood and blood products for ; at least HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis contamination.

^ Use of protective barriers such as gloves, gowns, aprons, masks, goggles ; for direct contact with blood and other body fluids; ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steps to be taken on Exposure to Blood/Body Fluids and ; Contaminated Sharps ; Evaluating "sharps" practices ; If the same accident occurs more than twice, "sharps" practices must be evaluated.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, sharp objects like needles, scalpels and glass, are carefully disposed of to prevent needlestick injuries with contaminated items.^ Operations manual for the delivery of HIV prevention, care and treatment at primary health centres in high-prevalence resource- ; constrained settings ; http://www.who.int/hiv/capacity/IMAIsharepoint/en ; 1.2.4.3 Occupational health of healthcare workers ; For health workers, exposure to the blood of those receiving care occurs most often via accidental ; injuries from sharps, such as syringe needles, scalpels, lancets, broken glass or other objects ; contaminated with blood.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore the risk of needle stick injuries by ; syringes not properly disposed of is very low.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ ANS: Sharing needles; transfusions; needle-stick injury; sharing personal items such as ; razors/toothbrushes; occasionally sexual intercourse.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[100] .Since intravenous drug use is an important factor in HIV transmission in developed countries, harm reduction strategies such as needle-exchange programmes are used in attempts to reduce the infections caused by drug abuse.^ Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention ; of HIV infection.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention of HIV infection.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Needle and syringe exchange programmes.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101][102]

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)

.Current recommendations state that when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant.^ Where alternatives such as replacement feeding exist, HIV- ; positive mothers should avoid or limit breast feeding their infants.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some countries, ; substitutes for breast milk may be recommended for infants of HIV-infected mothers.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for HIV-infected women for the first six months of life unless ; replacement feeding is Acceptable, Feasible, Affordable, Sustainable and Safe (AFASS) for mothers ; and their infants before that time.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.However, if this is not the case, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and discontinued as soon as possible.^ When replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable ; and safe, avoidance of all breastfeeding by HIV-infected mothers is ; recommended; otherwise, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during ; the first months of life.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if a ; woman's nipples are cracked or bleeding it is recommended that breast feeding be ; suspended until the nipples have healed.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Written performance reviews are required a minimum of three (3) times during the first year of employment, at three (3) months, six (6) months and twelve (12) months.

[103] .It should be noted that women may breastfeed other children who are not their own; see wetnurse.^ Governments should establish or strengthen programmes to educate young people in the ; cultural heritage of their own and other societies and the world.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who are taking antiretroviral therapy can breastfeed their infants if replacement feeding is not ; AFASS, but they should be made aware that some antiretroviral medicines are found in the mother's ; milk.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it should be noted that 15,000 adults have also benefited, ; along with a huge number of other school-aged children and adults in the community.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Education, health literacy and cognitive ability

.The most important way to change risky behavior is health education.^ Also stated as ; priority in the health strategy is to reduce the administrative load for health care providers: why doe the ; new policy not reduce the administrative load by changing the ways(e.g.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The underlying determinants (nutrition, education, and housing) play an important role in the ; progression of the pregnancy and health of a pregnant woman.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Module 2: attitudes Towards y ; oung People ; 32 ; Last and most important, tell participants that they can change their ; 6.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several studies have shown the positive impact of education and health literacy on cautious sex behavior.^ Periurban child ; ; ; this episode was the first time such explicit sex education material was ever ; shown on television in South Africa.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In trying to understand the impact of ; relationships on behavior change, this ; program strives for positive social values.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This study illustratesa fundamental problem in health care: ; Many physicians do not know the probabilities that a person has ; a disease given a positive screening test—that is, the positive ; predictive value.

.Education itself does not work, only if it leads to higher health literacy and general cognitive ability.^ If the care is not necessary then it will not be ; provided, this only when it does not affect the health of the women, since their health is of course ; number one priority.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, there needs to be education for both ; health care workers and women in general.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Article 31) ; • He is being deprived of his right to freedom from harmful work; the ; work is affecting his schoolwork and health because he does not get ; enough sleep.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ability is relevant to understand the relationship between own risky behavior and possible outcomes like HIV-transmission.^ Possible HIV transmission .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ HIV transmission possibilities> .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Higher rates of reported risky drug and sexual behaviors than in the general population make this a particularly relevant sample within which to explore correlates of perceived risk for getting HIV and AIDS. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the relationship between perceived risk and a variety of demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables.

[104]

Treatment

See also HIV Treatment and Antiretroviral drug.
.There is currently no publicly available vaccine for HIV or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or, failing that, an antiretroviral treatment directly after a highly significant exposure, called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).^ Which form of hepatitis is there currently no inoculation (vaccination) for?
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A vaccine is available to prevent ; infection with this virus.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No vaccination available.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105] PEP has a very demanding four week schedule of dosage. .It also has very unpleasant side effects including diarrhea, malaise, nausea and fatigue.^ Possible Side Effects: Diarrhoea, headache, irritability and nausea.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other side effects may include, but are not limited to, fatigue and irritability, skin ; rashes, itching nasal congestion, cough, and shortness of breath.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this program, infectious disease specialists ; discuss the latest scientific and clinical data including treatment options and their side effects.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106]

Antiviral therapy

Abacavir – a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI or NRTI)
The chemical structure of Abacavir
.Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.[107] This has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available.^ Antiretroviral therapy is a combination treatment, i.e.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Highly active antiretroviral therapies -HAART - allow people ; with HIV to live much longer.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antiretroviral therapy, Highly active.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Current optimal HAART options consist of combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of antiretroviral agents.^ The best combination is considered an association of ; three drugs usually belonging to two different classes.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HAART usually combines three or more anti-HIV drugs.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some malicious programs ; combine features of two or even three of these classes.
  • Kaspersky Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC downloads.kaspersky-labs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kaspersky® Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data2.kaspersky.com:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Typical regimens consist of two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) plus either a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI).^ WHO recommends that the PEP ARV regimen contain two Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase ; Inhibitor (NRTI) drugs.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ African Americans in general, African American women, or African Americans with 12 years of schooling were more likely never to have heard of didanosine (ddI)/zalcitabine (ddC), stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC), protease inhibitors, and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).

^ WHO recommends that all infants ; diagnosed with HIV start immediate ART. ; Currently recommended first-line regimens for adults, adolescents and children contain two ; nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase ; inhibitor (NNRTI) drug.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.Because HIV disease progression in children is more rapid than in adults, and laboratory parameters are less predictive of risk for disease progression, particularly for young infants, treatment recommendations are more aggressive for children than for adults.^ Certain ; conditions are common in infants, children or adults living with HIV and may herald disease ; progression.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ WHO recommendations for initiating antiretroviral treatment in infants and children ; Criteria to start ART in infants and children ; Age ; Infants <12 ; months ; 12 months ; through 35 ; months ; 36 months ; through 59 ; months ; 5 years or over ; % CD4 ; <20 ; <20 ; <15 ; Absolute CD4 # ; All ; <750mm3 ; <350mm3 ; As in adults ; ( <200) ; # Absolute CD4 count is naturally less constant and more age-dependent than %CD4; it is not therefore appropriate to define a ; single threshold.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary of recommendations ; Regular periodic clinical and immunological staging to determine need for treatment is recommended ; for adults and children with HIV. Where laboratory services are available and affordable, determining ; viral load may provide additional information.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

[108] .In developed countries where HAART is available, doctors assess the viral load, rapidity in CD4 decline, and patient readiness while deciding when to recommend initiating treatment.^ Initiating ; treatment after 72 hours is not recommended.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At present, it is not clear in which situations targeted or ; routine viral load testing will be of benefit in low- and middle-income countries.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ In eight of 11 active patients (group A), the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were normal and viral burdens were low for an average of 10.25 years following diagnosis.

[109]
.Standard goals of HAART include improvement in the patient’s quality of life, reduction in complications, and reduction of HIV viremia below the limit of detection, but it does not cure the patient of HIV nor does it prevent the return, once treatment is stopped, of high blood levels of HIV, often HAART resistant.^ Establishing national standards for HIV prevention, treatment and care.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Understand that the goal of screening is not simply the early ; detection of disease; it is mortality reduction or improvement of ; quality of life.

^ Q: Can treatment be stopped once started?
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110][111] Moreover, it would take more than the lifetime of an individual to be cleared of HIV infection using HAART.[112]
.Despite this, many HIV-infected individuals have experienced remarkable improvements in their general health and quality of life, which has led to the plummeting of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality.^ Once a person is infected with HIV, it's for life.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1996 a new treatment, Protease Inhibitors, (commonly called “the cocktail”) is introduced which dramatically changes health and life expectancy of many HIV+ people.

^ Sexual and reproductive health facilities should have up-to-date policies and procedures for managing ; and assisting individuals who have experienced significant mucous membrane exposure to HIV ; through sexual violence.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

[113][114][115] .In the absence of HAART, progression from HIV infection to AIDS occurs at a median of between nine to ten years and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the HIV infection progresses, TB reactivates.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .HAART is thought to increase survival time by between 4 and 12 years.^ The model's estimates of survival at 20 years for 1391 members of the Whickham survey cohort between the ages of 35 and 65 were compared with the observed survival at 20-year follow-up.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Written performance reviews are required a minimum of three (3) times during the first year of employment, at three (3) months, six (6) months and twelve (12) months.

^ Last year, she crossed border between 80 to 100 times for her work.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116][117]
.For some patients, which can be more than fifty percent of patients, HAART achieves far less than optimal results, due to medication intolerance/side effects, prior ineffective antiretroviral therapy and infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Non-adherence and non-persistence with therapy are the major reasons why some people do not benefit from HAART.[118] The reasons for non-adherence and non-persistence are varied.^ Report and refer drug side effects, and ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 92 percent of HIV- ; contaminated transfusions result in infection, while less than 1 percent of intravenous drug ; injections with a contaminated syringe do.

^ People with HIV/HCV coinfection may have more adverse side effects to therapy.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major psychosocial issues include poor access to medical care, inadequate social supports, psychiatric disease and drug abuse.^ BACKGROUND: Internet disease management has the promise of improving care in patients with heart failure but evidence supporting its use is limited.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet, substantial barriers exist to providing adequate mental health care and ; psychosocial support to PLWHA. The following sections outline some of the major challenges in ; meeting the mental health and psychosocial needs of AIDS-affected populations.

^ Multi-faceted strategies are the best way to approach issues as complex as ; drug abuse.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HAART regimens can also be complex and thus hard to follow, with large numbers of pills taken frequently.^ Reversal of downward trend in number of abortions in England ; and Wales following the 1995 pill scare.

^ The pilot project at the high school was the most successful of the four pilot projects in introducing MedlinePlus to a large number of people, followed by the community center project.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[119][120][121]
.Side effects can also deter people from persisting with HAART, these include lipodystrophy, dyslipidaemia, diarrhoea, insulin resistance, an increase in cardiovascular risks and birth defects.^ These people risk criminal charges.
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The common finding is ; that relative risk reductions lead people to systematically ; overestimate treatment effects.

^ These things may increase one's risk of liver cancer.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[122] Anti-retroviral drugs are expensive, and the majority of the world's infected individuals do not have access to medications and treatments for HIV and AIDS.

Experimental and proposed treatments

.It has been postulated that only a vaccine can halt the pandemic because a vaccine would possibly cost less, thus being affordable for developing countries, and would not require daily treatments.^ The ; treatment of nonprogressive cancers results in unnecessary ; surgery and other invasive treatments—treatments that can only ; harm patients since they are being treated fora ''disease''that ; would never have harmed them if left untreated.

^ Informed shared decision making thus requires that patients and ; doctors understand the benefits and harms of different treatment ; options.

^ This long-course regimen is often not available for ; women in developing countries because of cost and/or lack of adequate ; infrastructure.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, even after almost 30 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine.^ The ; problem was that it was very difficult to get into contact with undocumented women, and then it even ; remained unsure if she shows up; which happened one time for still unknown reasons.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Barbados , the number of persons newly ; diagnosed with HIV each year has remained ; relatively stable since the late 1990s (Ministry of ; Health Barbados, 2007).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Employed as a vector in HIV vaccine research to transport HIV genes into the body.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[123]
.Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, and determining the best sequence of regimens to manage drug resistance.^ Report and refer drug side effects, and ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drugs can have serious side effects [43] .
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome - Psychology Wiki 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Includes informationa about side effects.

.A number of studies have shown that measures to prevent opportunistic infections can be beneficial when treating patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B is advised for patients who are not infected with these viruses and are at risk of becoming infected.^ They have also shown that psychiatric patients have a ; greater risk for HIV infection.

^ A vaccine is available to prevent ; infection with this virus.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124] .Patients with substantial immunosuppression are also advised to receive prophylactic therapy for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), and many patients may benefit from prophylactic therapy for toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcus meningitis as well.^ PCP: See Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ French: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/imai/imai_chronic_fr.pdf ; 1.3.1.1 Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis ; Cotrimoxazole is an effective, well tolerated and inexpensive antibiotic used to prevent Pneumocystis ; pneumonia (PCP) and toxoplasmosis in adults and children with HIV. It is also effective against other ; infectious and parasitic diseases, and should be an essential part of pre-antiretroviral therapy care.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Casual employees are not eligible to receive health or dental insurance benefits but may pay the cost of the plan if the number of hours worked corresponds to the health insurance company's regulations.

[106]
.Researchers have discovered an abzyme that can destroy the protein gp120 CD4 binding site.^ GP120: Glycoprotein 120, a protein that protrudes from the surface of HIV and binds to CD4+ T cells.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The HIV surface protein gp120 binds tightly to the CD4 molecule on the cell's surface.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Potential applications of discriminative motif discovery include discovering transcription factor binding site motifs in ChIP-chip data and finding protein motifs involved in thermal stability using sets of orthologous proteins from thermophilic and mesophilic organisms.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.This protein is common to all HIV variants as it is the attachment point for B lymphocytes and subsequent compromising of the immune system.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proteins used for communication by cells of the immune system.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also meant to control ; blood sugar in adults, reduce the risk of various cancers, improve exercise performance ; and enhance the immune system.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125]
.In Berlin, Germany, a 42-year-old leukemia patient infected with HIV for more than a decade was given an experimental transplant of bone marrow with cells that contained an unusual natural variant of the CCR5 cell-surface receptor.^ Bone marrow is rich in stem cells.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Of 507 patients, 54% were infected with HIV of which 84% had AIDS. HIV-infected patients were significantly younger (34.9 years) than uninfected patients (47.1 years) and had significantly higher risks for oral/oesophageal candidiasis (risk ratio [RR] 18.6), generalized lymphadenopathy (RR 7.1), unexplained fever (RR 7.0), chronic diarrhoea (RR 6.2) and pulmonary tuberculosis (RR 3.1).
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The severe toxicity of AZT to bone marrow, as well as unexpected; interactions of other drugs with AZT, indicate the importance of knowing; more about the effects of the compound.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This CCR5-Δ32 variant has been shown to make some cells from people who are born with it resistant to infection with some strains of HIV. Almost two years after the transplant, and even after the patient reportedly stopped taking antiretroviral medications, HIV has not been detected in the patient's blood.^ They have also shown that psychiatric patients have a ; greater risk for HIV infection.

^ People who have been diagnosed with a recent infection.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV infection can be detected by a blood ; test (described in this Fact Sheet).
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[126]

Alternative medicine

.In the US, approximately 60% of HIV patients use various forms of alternative medicine.^ FACTS: Beardon went to the city dental clinic for treatment, filled out a patient information form and disclosed his HIV-positive status.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Male circumcision ; Randomized trials in areas of high HIV prevalence have demonstrated that male circumcision ; reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV in men by approximately 60%.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of varying concentrations ; of bleach on in vitro HIV-1 replication and the relevance to injection drug use.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

[127] .Despite the widespread use of CAM by people living with HIV/AIDS, the effectiveness of these therapies has not been established.^ What percentage of this is allocated to treatment and care for people living with HIV/AIDS? ; 3.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The DDO guarantees the right of people living with HIV/AIDS to not be ; verbally or physically harassed, and protects rights to equal access to services, facilities, and equal opportunity in ; 432 ; Human Rights Watch interview with Barry Lee, Hong Kong, 2002.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Campaigns should also be developed that target personal attitudes toward HIV/AIDS through ; education about and exposure to people living with the virus.

[128] .A 2005 Cochrane review of existing high-quality scientific evidence concluded: "There is insufficient evidence to support the use of herbal medicines in HIV-infected individuals and AIDS patients."^ Are there current plans for review and reform of existing laws on HIV/AIDS? If so, what are they?
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Support universal HIV/AIDS education.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AIDS patient treatment.

[129] Acupuncture has only been proposed for symptomatic relief, but not to treat or cure HIV or AIDS.[130]
.Morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults with adequate dietary nutritional intake is unaffected by multivitamin supplementation.^ Summary of recommendations ; WHO recommends that the criteria for HIV-infected adults be adapted depending on the disease ; burden in different settings.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ In sub-Saharan Africa, for every 10 adult males living with HIV, there are ; approximately 14 adult females who are infected with the virus.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criteria for ; starting Isoniazid for HIV-infected adults may be adapted for different country settings.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] A large Tanzanian trial in immunologically and nutritionally compromised pregnant and lactating women showed a number of benefits to daily multivitamin supplementation for both mothers and children.^ Henkel, Pregnant women and children.

^ At first merely women who needed medicines in order to ; treat HIV were able to apply: women with a very low CD4 count; or pregnant women taking medicines ; in order to prevent mother-to child-transmission.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is ; the first barrier undocumented pregnant women face: at the Bureau personal details are needed to make ; a registration.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[131] .Dietary intake of micronutrients at RDA levels by HIV-infected adults is recommended by the World Health Organization.^ Geneva, ; World Health Organization, 2008.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132] .There is some evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children reduces mortality and improves growth.^ Though there has been modest progress in reducing AIDS incidence in some parts of SSA, it ; remains a widespread crisis, spread mainly through heterosexual sex.

^ There are ; some differences in the curricula that "make the list" as effective or "evidence-based" ; because of differences in inclusion criteria, evaluation criteria, and other factors.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While CT ; scans can clearly find more early-stage cancers, there is no ; evidence for reduced mortality rates.

[131] .Daily doses of selenium can suppress HIV viral burden with an associated improvement of the CD4 count.^ In eight of 11 active patients (group A), the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were normal and viral burdens were low for an average of 10.25 years following diagnosis.

^ BRANCHED DNA ASSAY: A sensitive, rapid test that can be used to monitor the amount of HIV in a patient's bloodstream (i.e., the viral burden).
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In these patients, the CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts remained high and their viral burdens were remarkably lower than in non-SS HIV-1-seropositive individuals.

.Selenium can be used as an adjunct therapy to standard antiviral treatments, but cannot itself reduce mortality and morbidity.^ Antiretroviral therapy (ARV) ; Treatment of HIV infection includes the use of drugs specifically active on the virus ; itself.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DESIGN: Three gold standard corpora were constructed using the SSOAB bibliography, the ACPJ-cited treatment articles, and the ACPJ-cited etiology articles.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Approaches to reducing the risk ; of latent TB infection progressing to TB-disease include treatment of the latent TB itself and, also, ; improvement in immune function as a result of antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

[133]

Prognosis

.Without treatment, the net median survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype,[7] and the median survival rate after diagnosis of AIDS in resource-limited settings where treatment is not available ranges between 6 and 19 months, depending on the study.^ Moreover, the global rate of HIV/AIDS ; infection is growing.

^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134] .In areas where it is widely available, the development of HAART as effective therapy for HIV infection and AIDS reduced the death rate from this disease by 80%, and raised the life expectancy for a newly diagnosed HIV-infected person to about 20 years.^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Canada, AIDS is diagnosed if a person is HIV positive and has one or ; more opportunistic infections.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[135]
.As new treatments continue to be developed and because HIV continues to evolve resistance to treatments, estimates of survival time are likely to continue to change.^ Over the past decade, infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and ; new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) have drawn considerable policy ; attention.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1996 a new treatment, Protease Inhibitors, (commonly called “the cocktail”) is introduced which dramatically changes health and life expectancy of many HIV+ people.

^ Some ; cultural and social events may change because of a perception of risk among ; some afraid that social activity may spread the HIV virus.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without antiretroviral therapy, death normally occurs within a year.^ Many additionally required that death be likely to ; occur within two years (See pp.
  • Guide to Future Care and Custody Planning for Children 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC aia.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ AIDS-related deaths decreased by 50 percent within three years when a concerted ; effort was made to provide drug treatment to all PLWHA in Brazil.

^ Parental illness as a basis for appointing a standby guardian ; Several of the earliest standby guardianship laws required a parent to provide medical evidence of a ; terminal disease—even of death likely to occur within two years—to establish eligibility.
  • Guide to Future Care and Custody Planning for Children 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC aia.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

[38] .Most patients die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system.^ HIV infection affects the immune system.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These local remedies can be very helpful in relieving many of ; the symptoms associated with opportunistic infections.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the course of infection, crucial immune ; cells called CD4+ T cells are disabled and killed, and their numbers ; progressively decline.

[136] .The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function[39][40][43] health care and co-infections,[38][136] as well as which particular strain of the virus is involved.^ Many health care workers ; neglect to report such injuries.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many of the ; health care problems people will have as a result of HIV infection will be familiar to ; nurses because of their knowledge and experience of caring for people with other ; chronic, progressive diseases.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many of the health care problems PLHAs will present as ; a result of HIV infection will be familiar to nurses, because of their knowledge and ; experience of caring for people with other chronic, progressive diseases.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45][137][138]
.Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected patients may experience neurocognitive disorders, osteoporosis, neuropathy, cancers, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.^ TB treatment is almost as effective in ; the HIV-infected patient as in the uninfected.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AIDS patient treatment.

^ Others may not identify or socialize with this community and may have female ; partners on a long- or short-term basis.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.It is not always clear whether these conditions result from the infection, related complications, or are side effects of treatment.^ Potential Ethical Concerns ; If these drugs really provide the benefits that are suggested ; of them and the current known short-term side effects are ; tolerated, the ethical question becomes whether ordinary ; people should be allowed to use these drugs?
  • Reading minds? Ethical implications of recent advances in neuroimaging 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.bioethicsjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You are living with HCV and have ; currently been placed on HCV treatment ; but are now experiencing some minor side ; effects that are beginning to interfere with ; your work.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alert categories most often triggered were related to risks of central nervous system side-effects such as over-sedation (20%).
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[139][140][130][29][30][141][122][142]
.The largest cause of AIDS morbidity today, globally, is tuberculosis co-infection.^ A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium ; tuberculosis.

^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TRP reporting form, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, November 6, 2002.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

AIDS#Pulmonary_infections

Epidemiology

Estimated prevalence of HIV among young adults (15–49) per country at the end of 2005
.
Disability-adjusted life year for HIV and AIDS per 100,000 inhabitants.
^ But in the body of an infected person,; antibodies neutralize HIV years before AIDS appears, if it comes at all.; In persons with antibody against HIV, the virus is inactive, not making; any viral DNA at all.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 1998, 6 million people were newly ; infected with HIV - this equates to 16,000 people being infected every day, a 10% ; increase on the previous year.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I came back, I ; set up a support group for people with HIV/AIDS. ; In the last three years, AIDS Concern has been guiding the group to grow.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

     no data      ≤ 10      10-25      25-50      50-100      100-500      500-1000      1000-2500      2500-5000      5000-7500      7500-10000      10000-50000      ≥ 50000
.The AIDS pandemic can also be seen as several epidemics of separate subtypes; the major factors in its spread are sexual transmission and vertical transmission from mother to child at birth and through breast milk.^ Mother to infant: During pregnancy, birth or through breast milk.
  • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VERTICAL TRANSMISSION: Transmission of infections from mother to child at birth.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worldwide, sexual transmission accounts for about 75% of cases, and three-quarters ; of those are through heterosexual sex and one quarter through sex between men.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS pandemic claimed an estimated 2.1 million (range 1.9–2.4 million) lives in 2007 of which an estimated 330,000 were children under 15 years.^ What percentage of this is allocated to treatment and care for people living with HIV/AIDS? ; 3.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AIDS treatment and care ; 4.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment costs for AIDS are high, ; despite reductions in antiretroviral (ARV) prices in recent years.

[7] .Globally, an estimated 33.2 million people lived with HIV in 2007, including 2.5 million children.^ Overall in Asia, an estimated 4.9 million [3.7 million-6.7 million] people were living with ; HIV in 2007, including the 440 000 [210 000-1.0 million] people who became newly infected in the past ; year.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fourth and fifth ; annexes provide brief descriptions of the partners responsible for the development of ; this Handbook: UNAIDS and the IPU. ; 15 ; UNAIDS / IPU ; EXECUTIVE ; SUMMARY ; ; ; (i) Gravity of the Global Problem ; At the end of 1998 UNAIDS and WHO estimated that 33.4 million people were currently ; living with HIV infection, including 13.8 million women (43%) and 1.2 million ; children.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Service delivery model on access to care and antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS ; http://www.ifrc.org/cgi/pdf_pubshealth.pl?
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

.An estimated 2.5 million (range 1.8–4.1 million) people were newly infected in 2007, including 420,000 children.^ In 2003, an estimated 4.8 ; million people became newly infected with HIV—630,000 of ; them were children.
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Overall in Asia, an estimated 4.9 million [3.7 million-6.7 million] people were living with ; HIV in 2007, including the 440 000 [210 000-1.0 million] people who became newly infected in the past ; year.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The 92 000 [21 000-220 000] adults and children ; estimated to be newly infected with HIV in East ; Asia in 2007 represent an increase of almost ; 20% over the 77 000 [49 000-130 000] people ; who acquired HIV in 2001.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst affected region.^ Now it is the second ; most affected region in the world after sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sub-Saharan afrIca ; Sub-SAHArAN AFrIcA ; Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most affected region in the global AIDS epidemic.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sub-Saharan ; Africa continues to be the region most affected ; by the AIDS pandemic.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 2007 it contained an estimated 68% of all people living with AIDS and 76% of all AIDS deaths, with 1.7 million new infections bringing the number of people living with HIV to 22.5 million, and with 11.4 million AIDS orphans living in the region.^ New estimates of AIDS orphans .
  • Guide to Future Care and Custody Planning for Children 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC aia.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike other regions, most people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa in 2007 (61%) were women.^ Now it is the second ; most affected region in the world after sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people living with HIV will remain sexually active.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Sub-Saharan afrIca ; Sub-SAHArAN AFrIcA ; Sub-Saharan Africa remains the most affected region in the global AIDS epidemic.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

.Adult prevalence in 2007 was an estimated 5.0%, and AIDS continued to be the single largest cause of mortality in this region.^ HIV/AIDS Epi Update May, 2001 (National HIV prevalence and incidence estimates for ; 1999: No evidence of a decline in overall incidence) .
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The MRC Mortality Report was up-front about the fact the ASSA600 model was probably over-estimating the extent of AIDS mortality (see p.30).
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fact Sheets on HIV/AIDS for Nurses & Midwives ; 12 ; ; ; Latin America and the Caribbean ; An estimated 1.8 million adults and children are living with HIV in Latin America and ; the Caribbean a region that is experiencing diverse epidemics.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.South Africa has the largest population of HIV patients in the world, followed by Nigeria and India.^ Human Rights Watch has conducted previous investigations into human rights aspects of HIV/AIDS in the United States, ; India, Kazakhstan, Canada, Togo, Congo, Kenya, Zambia, and South Africa.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children were also engaged in informal border ; ; ; ** ; Population Movements and the Threat of HIV/AIDS Virus at the Bangladesh-India Border ; RSIS Monograph No.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ E. Stillwagon, "HIV Transmission in Latin America: comparison with Africa and policy ; implications," South African Journal of Economics 68, no.

[143] .South & South East Asia are second worst affected; in 2007 this region contained an estimated 18% of all people living with AIDS, and an estimated 300,000 deaths from AIDS.[7] India has an estimated 2.5 million infections and an estimated adult prevalence of 0.36%.^ New, more accurate estimates of HIV indicate ; that approximately 2.5 million (2 million-3.1 ; million) people in India were living with HIV ; in 2006, with national adult HIV prevalence of ; 0.36%.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV/AIDS in the South-East Asia region .
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Each day, approximately 2 000 people in the South-East Asia Region die ; due to TB. ; !
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Life expectancy has fallen dramatically in the worst-affected countries; for example, in 2006 it was estimated that it had dropped from 65 to 35 years in Botswana.^ In 1996 a new treatment, Protease Inhibitors, (commonly called “the cocktail”) is introduced which dramatically changes health and life expectancy of many HIV+ people.

^ The model's estimates of survival at 20 years for 1391 members of the Whickham survey cohort between the ages of 35 and 65 were compared with the observed survival at 20-year follow-up.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the total difference in ; the estimates published in 2006 and 2007, 70% are ; due to changes in six countries: Angola , India , ; Kenya , mozambique , Nigeria , and Zimbabwe .
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.In the United States, young African-American women are also at unusually high risk for HIV infection.^ Women in fluid relationships were at particularly high risk, with lower rates of condom use relative to women not in a relationship and greater sexual risk for HIV. Implications for HIV-risk reduction interventions with African American women are discussed.; MeSH Terms: ; ; Adolescence; Adult; Blacks/statistics & numerical data*; Condoms/utilization*; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Human; HIV Infections/prevention & control*; Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Middle Age; Multivariate Analysis; Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; United States; Women*; ; Grant support: ; ; 1 R01 HD48842MH/HD/NICHD; ; PMID: 9574496, UI: 98235585; .

^ Community Health Program, Jackson State University, USA.; This study compared a sample of low-income African American women in the southeastern United States who had and had not yet undergone HIV counseling and testing on risk-related cognitive mediating variables and self-reported sexual behaviors.

^ The racial and gender disparities in adolescent health are readily apparent in the reported rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, poor nutrition, victimization and exposure to traumatic violence, incarceration, and mortality among young African-American women, especially those who are poor and living in inner cities.

.This is due in part to a lack of information about AIDS and a perception that they are not vulnerable, as well as to limited access to health-care resources and a higher likelihood of sexual contact with at-risk male sexual partners.^ Improve access to health information.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See contact ; information in Part d.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Engagement in sexual risk behavior was low, but was significantly higher among males.

[144]
.There are also geographic disparities in AIDS prevalence in the United States, where it is most common in rural areas and in the southern states, particularly in the Appalachian and Mississippi Delta regions and along the border with Mexico.^ In which region is genotype 1 most common?
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Politicisation of AIDS ; Malan states that HIV is quite possibly the most politicised disease in history.
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately, 20-26% of people living with HIV/AIDS ; in the United States of America have spent time in the ; correctional system (Kantor, 2003).
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[145] .Approximately 1.1 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States, and more than 56,000 new infections occur every single year.^ AIDS cases or ; number of HIV infections at the end of the year.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV/AID infection.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jürgens R. HIV/AIDS in prisons: more new developments.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

[146]

History

.AIDS was first reported June 5, 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded a cluster of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (now still classified as PCP but known to be caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii) in five homosexual men in Los Angeles.^ See ; also Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia.

^ See Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia.

^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) .
  • State of Illinois African American HIV/AIDS Response Act: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.csu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[147] .In the beginning, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.^ Examples ; of human diseases caused by virus infections are AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, influenza ; and the common cold.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If cancer originates in the liver, it is often caused by hepatitis B, ; hepatitis C or it can develop in cases of advanced liver disease when cirrhosis is present.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INOCULATION: The introduction of a substance (inoculum; e.g., a vaccine, serum or virus) into the body to produce or to increase immunity to the disease or condition associated with the substance.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

[72][73] They also used Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, the name by which a task force had been set up in 1981.[148]
In the general press, the term GRID, which stood for Gay-related immune deficiency, had been coined.[149] .The CDC, in search of a name, and looking at the infected communities coined “the 4H disease,” as it seemed to single out Haitians, homosexuals, hemophiliacs, and heroin users.^ PARTICIPANTS: Injection drug users infected with HIV recruited from the community in Baltimore, Md.

^ It is always important to remember that you can't prevent diseases by excluding others ; because no one can know who is infected and who is not simply by looking at a person.
  • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It found that the regulations did not single out HIV infection for treatment different from other blood borne diseases and that, therefore, the policies were constitutional.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

[150] .However, after determining that AIDS was not isolated to the homosexual community,[148] the term GRID became misleading and AIDS was introduced at a meeting in July 1982.[151] By September 1982 the CDC started using the name AIDS, and properly defined the illness.^ Freedoms of expression and association ; The illegal nature of activities such as prostitution, homosexuality and drug use can ; impede the formation of community organizations based on this shared activity.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With some guidance from the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network (CAAN), I decided ; to use a term recently introduced in Jackson's (2005) document, Aboriginal Women with HIV/AIDS: Care, ; Treatment and Support Issues .
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ An employee may not use a rental car rented by AIDS Community Services for personal use.

[152]
.A more controversial theory known as the OPV AIDS hypothesis suggests that the AIDS epidemic was inadvertently started in the late 1950s in the Belgian Congo by Hilary Koprowski's research into a poliomyelitis vaccine.^ AIDS EpIDEmIc upDAtE ; The HIV epidemic in the Russian Federation ; continues to grow, although not as rapidly as ; in the late 1990s.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Employed as a vector in HIV vaccine research to transport HIV genes into the body.
  • Glossary of HIV / AIDS related Terms 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As of November 2002 there were more than 150 prisoners living ; with HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan, 56% of all known cases in the country.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

[153][154] .According to scientific consensus, this scenario is not supported by the available evidence.^ The available ; evidence supported the concept that paraprofessionals ; can and do serve a meaningful and signifi cant role in special ; education programs.
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

[155][156][157]
A recent study states that HIV probably moved from Africa to Haiti and then entered the United States around 1969.[158]

Society and culture

Stigma

Ryan White became a poster child for HIV after being expelled from school because of his infection.
.AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals.^ (C) ; People living with HIV/AIDS in China face a variety of types of discrimination in their daily lives.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Plan of Action to reduce ; HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination .
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, intense ; stigma and discrimination accompany the HIV/AIDS virus.

[159] Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.[160]
AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories:
.
  • Instrumental AIDS stigma—a reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.^ Just as factors like gender inequality, ; stigma and discrimination, and humanitarian crises create a fertile environment for the ; transmission of AIDS, AIDS increases the likelihood of these risks while decimating societies' ; resources for recovery.

    ^ Issues of ; stigma and discrimination must also be resolved so that AIDS illness can be made public.

    ^ Nurses and midwives witness not only their patients, but also their friends ; and loved ones dying from AIDS. ; • ; Nurses and midwives witness the fear, stigma, isolation, marginalization ; and discrimination that many PLHAs experience.
    • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [161]
  • .
  • Symbolic AIDS stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease.^ Over the past decade, infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, SARS and ; new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) have drawn considerable policy ; attention.
    • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hepatitis C related stigma refers to all unfavourable attitudes, ; beliefs and policies directed towards people perceived as having hepatitis C. This ; treatment may also be directed towards their significant others and loved ones, close ; associates, social groups and communities.
    • HEPATITIS C Curriculum Workbook 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aidsvancouver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The regions where HIV/AIDS is having its strongest impact are ; 1 ; ; ; being devastated by the multi-faceted effects of the disease.

    [161]
  • .
  • Courtesy AIDS stigma—stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV- positive people.^ The issues of sexuality and HIV/aIDs can be sensitive.
    • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Campaigns should also be developed that target personal attitudes toward HIV/AIDS through ; education about and exposure to people living with the virus.

    ^ According to Jonathan Mann, former ; director of the WHO Global Programme on AIDS, AIDS entails three distinct epidemics, ; including "the epidemic of HIV, the epidemic of AIDS, and the epidemic of stigma, ; discrimination, and denial."

    [162]
.Often, AIDS stigma is expressed in conjunction with one or more other stigmas, particularly those associated with homosexuality, bisexuality, promiscuity, prostitution, and intravenous drug use.^ Frank discussions about sexual practices, drug ; taking, and other risky behaviours are more likely to be explored and understood ; within these safe environments.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The severe toxicity of AZT to bone marrow, as well as unexpected; interactions of other drugs with AZT, indicate the importance of knowing; more about the effects of the compound.
  • HIV & AIDS - AIDS; With Therapies Like This, Who Needs Disease? 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.virusmyth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the number of psychotropic drugs increases steadily and their effects and appropriate ; prescriptive uses are often not fully known, some patients may not be adequately treated and ; others may become over-medicated.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many developed countries, there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice such as anti-homosexual attitudes.^ Freedoms of expression and association ; The illegal nature of activities such as prostitution, homosexuality and drug use can ; impede the formation of community organizations based on this shared activity.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We also found that the correlation between the WAB score and the popularity of a Web site is statistically significant (r = 0.28, P < 0.05), although there is no correlation between the WAB score and the importance of the Web sites (r = 0.15, P = 0.111).
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The interrelationship between research and mentorship in an association such as the Medical Library Association (MLA) is revealed through the contributions of individuals and significant association activities in support of research.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[163] .There is also a perceived association between AIDS and all male-male sexual behavior, including sex between uninfected men.^ Women Health 1998;27(1-2):87-103 ; Sex partners of Alaskan drug users: HIV transmission between white men and Alaska Native women.

^ Worldwide, sexual transmission accounts for about 75% of cases, and three-quarters ; of those are through heterosexual sex and one quarter through sex between men.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual behavior trends among men who have sex ; with men in Lima, Peru.
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

[161]

Economic impact

.
Changes in life expectancy in some hard-hit African countries.
^ In 1996 a new treatment, Protease Inhibitors, (commonly called “the cocktail”) is introduced which dramatically changes health and life expectancy of many HIV+ people.

^ Understanding FGC ; The millions of women and children who experience FGC ; every year are likely to reside in some 28 African and Middle ; Eastern countries.
  • Reading minds? Ethical implications of recent advances in neuroimaging 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.bioethicsjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Young people in industrialized countries comprise a relatively smaller proportion of the total ; population because of generally lower birth rates and longer life expectancy.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

                     Botswana                     Zimbabwe                     Kenya                     South Africa                     Uganda
.HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital.^ Commission on Human Rights, resolution 1997/33, "The protection of human rights in the context of human ; immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)," paragraph 5.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because AIDS decimates existing ; systems for human capital transmission, Bell et al.

^ UNHCHR and UNAIDS, "HIV/AIDS and Human Rights International Guidelines," paragraph 11; and Commission on ; Human Rights resolution 1997/33, "The protection of human rights in the context of HIV and AIDS," paragraph 11.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Without proper nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developed countries, large numbers of people suffer and die from AIDS-related complications.^ I will promote the availability and accessibility of ; the health care.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the care is not necessary then it will not be ; provided, this only when it does not affect the health of the women, since their health is of course ; number one priority.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Campaigns should also be developed that target personal attitudes toward HIV/AIDS through ; education about and exposure to people living with the virus.

.They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care.^ A. Undocumented women should receive information (in a language they understand), about their ; health rights, the working of the Dutch health care system, and when and where to seek obstetrician ; care.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RESULTS: The medical secretaries use the HIS much more than the nurses and the physicians, and they consider that the electronic HIS greatly has simplified their work.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ FACTS: Plaintiff's employer required that he undergo a medical exam for work-related back injury.
  • AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.aegis.org [Source type: Original source]

.The forecast is that this will probably cause a collapse of economies and societies in countries with a significant AIDS population.^ Although ; HIV/AIDS extends into the general populations of countries in those regions, they ; remain highly concentrated around specific population groups.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "HIV infection" means infection with the human immunodeficiency virus or any other related virus identified as a probable causative agent of AIDS. .

^ HIV is also the leading cause of death in black males ages 25-44 in WV, and blacks are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS (composing about 3.1% of the general population and 17% of the AIDS population).

.In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans cared for by elderly grandparents.^ Some, maybe many, of their calculations have overestimated the epidemic, but as their website explains19, `The HIV/AIDS epidemic is constantly yielding new information and understandings.
  • Pambazuka News : Issue 140 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.pambazuka.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In ; Friesland many asylum seekers centres are established and when the asylum seekers lose their permit ; some settle in the area, therefore also many undocumented people live in Friesland.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was confirmed by the Ministry of VWS (2007), which also stated that some ; improvements can be made in the area of monitoring the quality of care, patient involvement, and the ; safety of care.
  • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[164]
.The increased mortality in this region will result in a smaller skilled population and labor force.^ TB/HIV co-infection is associated with higher morbidity and mortality and increased TB ; transmission among the general population.

^ The result has been an unprecedented growth in prison ; populations and the incarceration of increasing numbers of people ; who use illicit drugs.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

.This smaller labor force will be predominantly young people, with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity.^ In the Millennium Declaration adopted by the General Assembly in September ; 2000, heads of State and governments resolved to "develop and implement strategies ; that give young people everywhere a real chance to find decent and productive work."
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes young people, in an effort to assert their independence, will experiment ; with a range of ideas, products and lifestyles.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases, young migrants are an indispensable part of the ; host country's work force.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An increase in workers’ time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave will also lower productivity.^ Intermittent Leave ; ; Employees may take FMLA leave on an intermittent basis in cases where there is a documented need to manage a serious health condition or to care for a family member with a serious health condition.

^ Police ; can effectively presume that sex workers' roommates, intimate partners and ; family members are living on the avails of prostitution where such people gain ; economically as a result of the prostitution.
  • Sex, work, rights: 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.soros.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Education on HIV/AIDS care and prevention for caregivers (for health ; workers, family members, neighbours and volunteers).
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Increased mortality will also weaken the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people, through loss of income and the death of parents.^ Some income, such as social security benefits ; received by a retired adoptive parent, may increase.
  • Guide to Future Care and Custody Planning for Children 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC aia.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Addressing the health, education and employment needs of young people can ; generate additional income and opportunities for both individuals and communities ; that may fuel human development as well as national growth.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When appropriate policies, legislation and programmes are in place—and matched ; with adequate resources and investment—the economic, social and human development ; of a generation will more likely be realized.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By killing off mainly young adults, AIDS seriously weakens the taxable population, reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state's finances and slower growth of the economy.^ Public education ; is a fundamental responsibility of the state.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The impact ; of AIDS on school health services.
  • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is appropriate that public health legislation explicitly ; funds and empowers authorities to provide the following comprehensive range of ; prevention and treatment services: ; •information and education, for the general public and targeted populations; ; •voluntary testing and counselling; ; •STD and sexual reproductive health services for all; ; •condoms and other means of prevention, such as bleach and clean injecting ; equipment; ; •drug treatment; ; •care and treatment for AIDS-related illnesses, including pain prophylaxis; ; and ; •epidemiological surveillance.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This results in a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that will be reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training (to replace sick workers), sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans.^ Other mechanisms ; that may buttress economic stability at the family level include tax ; relief and grants for community-based orphan care.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, there needs to be education for both ; health care workers and women in general.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Step Four, the results of training must be saved using one of the following ; methods: add the results of training to the current Anti-Spam database or ; replace the current database with the results of training.
  • Kaspersky Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC downloads.kaspersky-labs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kaspersky® Anti-Virus for Windows Workstations 6.0 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data2.kaspersky.com:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans.^ This is especially true if only partial target sequences are available or if different ssRNA virus families are jointly analyzed.
  • Free Full Text Journal Articles: Medical Informatics and Bioinformatics -- Neurotransmitter.net 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Other mechanisms ; that may buttress economic stability at the family level include tax ; relief and grants for community-based orphan care.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these signs indicated increasing commitment to fighting the epidemic at higher echelons of the Chinese ; government.
  • LOCKED DOORS: THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN CHINA 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[164]
.On the level of the household, AIDS results in both the loss of income and increased spending on healthcare by the household.^ NGOs ; • NGOs working on the HIV/AIDS programme must increase their ; vigilance at the grass-root level.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study found that in most cases, respondents were engaged in more than ; one occupation which helped in increasing their household income.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I MPACT ON N ATIONAL E CONOMIES ; Part of the economic losses related to HIV/AIDS result from the mental disorders associated ; with the disease.

.The income effects of this lead to spending reduction as well as a substitution effect away from education and towards healthcare and funeral spending.^ The common finding is ; that relative risk reductions lead people to systematically ; overestimate treatment effects.

^ Health and education spending has durable long-term effects on decreasing youth ; vulnerability at the household and community levels.
  • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Framing information in away that is ; most readily understood by the human mind is a first step toward ; educating doctors and patients in risk literacy.

.A study in Côte d'Ivoire showed that households with an HIV/AIDS patient spent twice as much on medical expenses as other households.^ HIV/AIDS patient treatment.

^ South African Medical and Dental Council Guidelines on ; HIV/AIDS, and the British Medical Association's Statement on AIDS. ; Another important area is employment.
  • Handbook for Legislators on HIV/AIDS, Law and Human Rights 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.ipu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same worrisome ; trends have been observed for the MDGs for HIV/AIDS, TB, and other diseases (see Annex 1).

[165]

Religion and AIDS

.The topic of religion and AIDS has become highly controversial in the past twenty years, primarily because many prominent religious leaders have publicly declared their opposition to the use of condoms, which scientists feel is currently the only means of stopping the epidemic.^ He knows that it is possible to stop AIDS by using a condom ; but he is reluctant to use one.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some societies, the use of condoms is not ; sanctioned by the religious leaders.
  • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a peer, she is well aware of AIDS and the benefits of using condoms.
  • POPULATION MOVEMENTS AND ThE ThREAT OF hIV/AIDS VIRUS AT ThE BANGLADESh-INDIA BORDER 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.rsis-ntsasia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other issues involve religious participation in global health care services and collaboration with secular organizations such as UNAIDS and the World Health Organization.^ Geneva, ; World Health Organization, 2008.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.
  • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

^ Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

AIDS denialism

.A small number of activists question the connection between HIV and AIDS,[166] the existence of HIV,[167] or the validity of current treatment methods (even going so far as to claim that the drug therapy itself was the cause of AIDS deaths).^ HIV/AIDS treatment and care ; 4.
  • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

^ HIV/AIDS patient treatment.

^ HIV AIDS cause .
  • AIDS - AIDS/HIV - Health/Fitness - AllExperts.com 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

.Though these claims have been examined and thoroughly rejected by the scientific community,[168] they continue to be promulgated through the Internet[169] and have had a significant political impact.^ They have ; to belong to one of these communities.
  • Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC siteresources.worldbank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A watershed document was the "Protocol for Review of ; Environmental and Scientific Research Proposals" (1996), which calls for: "Empowerment" of both researched ; and researcher through a "good research agreement developed by both the community and the researcher [...
  • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ All kids need a lot of communication, ; guidance, and information about these issues, even if they sometimes don't appear to be ; interested in what you have to say.
  • human growth and development 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC dpi.wi.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In South Africa, former President Thabo Mbeki's embrace of AIDS denialism resulted in an ineffective governmental response to the AIDS epidemic that has been blamed for hundreds of thousands of AIDS-related deaths.^ HIV/AIDS epidemic and response in China .
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AIDS EpIDEmIc upDAtE ; Department of Health South Africa (2007).
  • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

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See also

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Further reading

.
  • "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF).^ AIDS Epidemic Update: December ; 2002 .
    • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

    ^ AIDS Epidemic Update , supra, note 16 at 14.
    • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

    ^ UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2000 , Geneva: UNAIDS, 2000.

    UNAIDS. .http://data.unaids.org/pub/EPISlides/2007/2007_epiupdate_en.pdf.^ January 25, 2008, from http://www.unicef.org.uk/tz/ ; resources/assets/pdf/rights_leaflet.pdf .
    • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Available at http://www.daco-sl.org/encyclopedia/1_gov/1_5/NAS/nas_national_pop_hivsero_ ; survey05.pdf ; Ndiaye S, Ay ad M (2006).
    • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ International guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights: 2006 consolidated version ; http://whqlibdoc.who.int/unaids/2006/9211541689_eng.pdf ; 189.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2008-03-21.
     
  • "UNAIDS Annual Report — Making the money work" (PDF).^ Reducing HIV stigma and discrimination: a critical part of national AIDS programmes ; http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/jc1420-stigmadiscrimi_en.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Effective strategies ; for knowledge translation are likely to cost money, and are also very likely to take considerable time ; to make sure they work.
    • CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY-BASED HIV/AIDS RESEARCH 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.caan.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved on February 18, 2008 from: ; http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/maternal_mortality_2005/mme_2005.pdf ; WHO (2005b).
    • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    UNAIDS. .http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2007/2006_unaids_annual_report_en.pdf.^ January 25, 2008, from http://www.unicef.org.uk/tz/ ; resources/assets/pdf/rights_leaflet.pdf .
    • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Available at http://www.daco-sl.org/encyclopedia/1_gov/1_5/NAS/nas_national_pop_hivsero_ ; survey05.pdf ; Ndiaye S, Ay ad M (2006).
    • 2007 AIDS epidemic update 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC data.unaids.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ International guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights: 2006 consolidated version ; http://whqlibdoc.who.int/unaids/2006/9211541689_eng.pdf ; 189.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2008-03-21.
     
  • "Financial Resources Required to Achieve, Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment Care and Support" (PDF).^ Establishing national standards for HIV prevention, treatment and care.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    ^ HIV transmission, as well as ; access to HIV treatment and care services.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    ^ HIV/AIDS treatment and care ; 4.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    UNAIDS. .http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2007/20070925_advocacy_grne2_en.pdf.^ Retrieved June 10, 2005, from http: // www ; .mcrel.org / PDF / Standards / 5962IR_FallAndRise.pdf ; National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS).
    • book wil fjese vol3.indb 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC media.wiley.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Washington, D.C. Retrieved February 15, 2005, from http://www.gu.org/ ; Files/Caregivers ForAllAges-FINAL.pdf ; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
    • Guide to Future Care and Custody Planning for Children 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC aia.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ UNAIDS, WHO. 2007 ; 2 ; Progress on global access to HIV antiretroviral therapy: A report on '3 by 5' .
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2008-03-21.
     
  • "Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention" (PDF).^ Practical guidelines for intensifying HIV prevention: towards universal access ; http://data.unaids.org/pub/Manual/2007/20070306_prevention_guidelines_towards_universal_access_en.pdf ; 23.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    ^ International guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights: 2006 consolidated version ; http://whqlibdoc.who.int/unaids/2006/9211541689_eng.pdf ; 189.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Prevention and care of HIV involves consideration of sensitive issues such as ; sexuality, different sexual practices, drug use, and other risk behaviours.
    • Fact Sheet of HIV/AIDS Nurses and Midwives 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.searo.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    UNAIDS. .http://data.unaids.org/pub/Manual/2007/20070306_prevention_guidelines_towards_universal_access_en.pdf.^ January 25, 2008, from http://www.unicef.org.uk/tz/ ; resources/assets/pdf/rights_leaflet.pdf .
    • Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ International guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights: 2006 consolidated version ; http://whqlibdoc.who.int/unaids/2006/9211541689_eng.pdf ; 189.
    • HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.who.int [Source type: Academic]

    ^ UN Habitat ; Features/Backgrounder (available from ; http://www.unhabitat.org/mediacentre/documents/sowc/RegionalLAC. pdf).
    • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Retrieved 2008-03-21.
     
  • "Antiretroviral Formulations" (PDF).^ Retrieved on February 18, 2008 from: ; http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/maternal_mortality_2005/mme_2005.pdf ; WHO (2005b).
    • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Retrieved January ; 13, 2008, from http://ww w.nd.edu/~amdemoc/Campbell_Canada_Education.pdf+religious+organization ; +%2B+publicly+funded+services+%2B+C ; anada ; 6.
    • Reading minds? Ethical implications of recent advances in neuroimaging 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.bioethicsjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved on February 14, 2008 from: ; http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/rh_indicators/guidelines.pdf ; WHO (2006b).
    • VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NETHERLANDS 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.humanrightsimpact.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .US Department of Health and Human Services.^ Canberra: ; Department of Community Services and Health, 1989.
    • 2002 Injection E 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.iprt.ie [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hyattsville, Maryland: US Department ; of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics.
    • World Pro g r a m m eo fA c t i o nf o r 14 May 2010 19:22 UTC www.un.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; AIDS LITIGATION PROJECT I: Case Summaries ; ; Department of Health and Human Services; Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health Office of PHS HIV/AIDS Coordination::Director: James R. Allen, M.D., M.P.H., Project Officer: Iris Gelberg.
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    Retrieved 2008-03-21
    . 

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