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ALTO
Operating area Indonesia
Members

ALTO is an interbank network in Indonesia. It was founded on 1994.

History

In 1984, the automated teller machine (ATM) was introduced to Indonesia, providing cardholders with around the clock banking services for the first time. Within a few years, many Indonesian banks had followed suit. The country's sole financial network provider at the time primarily serviced the central government, which prompted the formation of the ALTO shared network, with the support of its founding members: Bank Lippo, Bank Bali, and Bank Internasional Indonesia. Utilizing methods and technologies similar to those employed by global giants MasterCard and Visa, ALTO finalized its structure and process 1993 and began commercial operations in August of the following year, with approximately 180 ATMs plugged into its network. In September 1994, a banker's conference was convened to introduce the network to local industry leaders. The response was tremendous, and, within a year, ALTO took on an additional 11 members, bringing the total number of member banks to 14.

The Asian economic crisis of 1997 hit the banking industry with a vengeance, forcing many financial institutions to close their doors, merge, or be recapitalized. Yet, despite the global recession, ALTO retained 9 of its 14 member banks, remained profitable, and, today, is an industry leader, with assets totaling IDR 40.8 billion as of December 2001.

Members

Members of ALTO include Bank Artha Graha, Bank Bukopin, Bank Danamon, Bank Ekonomi, Bank Haga, Bank Hana, Bank Harda, Bank International Indonesia, Bank Nusantara Parahyangan, Bank Panin, Bank Permata, Bank UOB Buana, BPR Eka Bumi Artha, and Citibank Indonesia.

External links


Simple English

The word alto can mean: someone who sings lower than a soprano. Usually females with lower voices are called contraltos. A male alto is a man who sings in a special way called falsetto. In England male altos sing in church and cathedral choirs. In some countries like Germany it is tradition to have boy altos in cathedral choirs. These will probably be boys whose voices will soon be breaking and are starting to get lower.

One of the most famous contraltos was the legendary Kathleen Ferrier who had a short career before she died of cancer. There are not so many female singers who call themselves contraltos these days. It has become more fashionable to be a mezzo-soprano. It is partly because it has become fashionable to use men for the alto parts in music by Bach and other Baroque composers, like it would have been performed in those days.

Operatic roles which need a contralto include Lucretia in Britten's Rape of Lucretia and Erda in Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen.

The word alto can also mean: the second line down in 4 part choir music. In old music the alto line was written in a special clef called the “alto clef”, which is the same as the “viola clef” (a C clef in which the middle line is middle C).

Altos in modern music








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