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Activating transcription factor 3
Symbols ATF3;
External IDs OMIM603148 MGI109384 HomoloGene1265 GeneCards: ATF3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ATF3 202672 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 467 11910
Ensembl ENSG00000162772 ENSMUSG00000026628
UniProt P18847 Q4FJW1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001030287 NM_007498
RefSeq (protein) NP_001025458 NP_031524
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
210.81 - 210.86 Mb
Chr 1:
192.87 - 192.88 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF3 gene.[1]

Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. The longer isoform represses rather than activates transcription from promoters with ATF binding elements. The shorter isoform (deltaZip2) lacks the leucine zipper protein-dimerization motif and does not bind to DNA, and it stimulates transcription presumably by sequestering inhibitory co-factors away from the promoter. It is possible that alternative splicing of the ATF3 gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes.[2]


See also


ATF3 has been shown to interact with JunD,[3] C-jun,[4][5][6] Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3,[7] DNA damage-inducible transcript 3[5] and P53.[8][9]


  1. ^ Chen BP, Liang G, Whelan J, Hai T (Jun 1994). "ATF3 and ATF3 delta Zip. Transcriptional repression versus activation by alternatively spliced isoforms". J Biol Chem 269 (22): 15819–26. PMID 7515060.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: ATF3 activating transcription factor 3".  
  3. ^ Chu, H M; Tan Y, Kobierski L A, Balsam L B, Comb M J (Jan. 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent gene expression". Mol. Endocrinol. (UNITED STATES) 8 (1): 59–68. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 8152431.  
  4. ^ Pearson, Andree G; Gray Carol W, Pearson John F, Greenwood Jeffrey M, During Matthew J, Dragunow Michael (Dec. 2003). "ATF3 enhances c-Jun-mediated neurite sprouting". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (Netherlands) 120 (1): 38–45. ISSN 0169-328X. PMID 14667575.  
  5. ^ a b Chen, B P; Wolfgang C D, Hai T (Mar. 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor induced by physiological stresses and modulated by gadd153/Chop10". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 16 (3): 1157–68. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 8622660.  
  6. ^ Hai, T; Curran T (May. 1991). "Cross-family dimerization of transcription factors Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB alters DNA binding specificity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 88 (9): 3720–4. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 1827203.  
  7. ^ Kang, Yibin; Chen Chang-Rung, Massagué Joan (Apr. 2003). "A self-enabling TGFbeta response coupled to stress signaling: Smad engages stress response factor ATF3 for Id1 repression in epithelial cells". Mol. Cell (United States) 11 (4): 915–26. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 12718878.  
  8. ^ Stelzl, Ulrich; Worm Uwe, Lalowski Maciej, Haenig Christian, Brembeck Felix H, Goehler Heike, Stroedicke Martin, Zenkner Martina, Schoenherr Anke, Koeppen Susanne, Timm Jan, Mintzlaff Sascha, Abraham Claudia, Bock Nicole, Kietzmann Silvia, Goedde Astrid, Toksöz Engin, Droege Anja, Krobitsch Sylvia, Korn Bernhard, Birchmeier Walter, Lehrach Hans, Wanker Erich E (Sep. 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell (United States) 122 (6): 957–68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 16179252.  
  9. ^ Yan, Chunhong; Wang Heng, Boyd Douglas D (Mar. 2002). "ATF3 represses 72-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-2) expression by antagonizing p53-dependent trans-activation of the collagenase promoter". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (13): 10804–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112069200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11792711.  

Further reading

  • Hai TW, Liu F, Coukos WJ, Green MR (1990). "Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively form DNA-binding heterodimers.". Genes Dev. 3 (12B): 2083–90. doi:10.1101/gad.3.12b.2083. PMID 2516827.  
  • Kaszubska W, Hooft van Huijsduijnen R, Ghersa P, et al. (1993). "Cyclic AMP-independent ATF family members interact with NF-kappa B and function in the activation of the E-selectin promoter in response to cytokines.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 13 (11): 7180–90. PMID 7692236.  
  • Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, et al. (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent gene expression.". Mol. Endocrinol. 8 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1210/me.8.1.59. PMID 8152431.  
  • Liang G, Wolfgang CD, Chen BP, et al. (1996). "ATF3 gene. Genomic organization, promoter, and regulation.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (3): 1695–701. PMID 8576171.  
  • Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor induced by physiological stresses and modulated by gadd153/Chop10.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (3): 1157–68. PMID 8622660.  
  • Hagmeyer BM, Duyndam MC, Angel P, et al. (1996). "Altered AP-1/ATF complexes in adenovirus-E1-transformed cells due to EIA-dependent induction of ATF3.". Oncogene 12 (5): 1025–32. PMID 8649793.  
  • Allan AL, Albanese C, Pestell RG, LaMarre J (2001). "Activating transcription factor 3 induces DNA synthesis and expression of cyclin D1 in hepatocytes.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (29): 27272–80. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103196200. PMID 11375399.  
  • Zhang C, Kawauchi J, Adachi MT, et al. (2002). "Activation of JNK and transcriptional repressor ATF3/LRF1 through the IRE1/TRAF2 pathway is implicated in human vascular endothelial cell death by homocysteine.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 289 (3): 718–24. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.6044. PMID 11726207.  
  • Yan C, Wang H, Boyd DD (2002). "ATF3 represses 72-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-2) expression by antagonizing p53-dependent trans-activation of the collagenase promoter.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (13): 10804–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112069200. PMID 11792711.  
  • Shaheduzzaman S, Krishnan V, Petrovic A, et al. (2002). "Effects of HIV-1 Nef on cellular gene expression profiles.". J. Biomed. Sci. 9 (1): 82–96. doi:10.1007/BF02256581. PMID 11810028.  
  • Hashimoto Y, Zhang C, Kawauchi J, et al. (2002). "An alternatively spliced isoform of transcriptional repressor ATF3 and its induction by stress stimuli.". Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (11): 2398–406. doi:10.1093/nar/30.11.2398. PMID 12034827.  
  • Kawauchi J, Zhang C, Nobori K, et al. (2002). "Transcriptional repressor activating transcription factor 3 protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of p53 transcription.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (41): 39025–34. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202974200. PMID 12161427.  
  • Zhang C, Gao C, Kawauchi J, et al. (2002). "Transcriptional activation of the human stress-inducible transcriptional repressor ATF3 gene promoter by p53.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 297 (5): 1302–10. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02382-3. PMID 12372430.  
  • Fan F, Jin S, Amundson SA, et al. (2002). "ATF3 induction following DNA damage is regulated by distinct signaling pathways and over-expression of ATF3 protein suppresses cells growth.". Oncogene 21 (49): 7488–96. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205896. PMID 12386811.  
  • Nobori K, Ito H, Tamamori-Adachi M, et al. (2003). "ATF3 inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes: a novel cardioprotective role of ATF3.". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 34 (10): 1387–97. doi:10.1006/jmcc.2002.2091. PMID 12392999.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Kang Y, Chen CR, Massagué J (2003). "A self-enabling TGFbeta response coupled to stress signaling: Smad engages stress response factor ATF3 for Id1 repression in epithelial cells.". Mol. Cell 11 (4): 915–26. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00109-6. PMID 12718878.  
  • Newman JR, Keating AE (2003). "Comprehensive identification of human bZIP interactions with coiled-coil arrays.". Science 300 (5628): 2097–101. doi:10.1126/science.1084648. PMID 12805554.  
  • Kool J, Hamdi M, Cornelissen-Steijger P, et al. (2003). "Induction of ATF3 by ionizing radiation is mediated via a signaling pathway that includes ATM, Nibrin1, stress-induced MAPkinases and ATF-2.". Oncogene 22 (27): 4235–42. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206611. PMID 12833146.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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