A Portuguesa: Wikis

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A Portuguesa
English: The Portuguese Hymn
A Portuguesa music sheet (1957 official).gif
Music sheet and lyrics (1957)
National anthem of Portugal Portugal
Lyrics Henrique Lopes de Mendonça, 1890
Music Alfredo Keil, 1890
Adopted 5 October 1910 (de facto)
19 July 1911 (de jure)
Music sample
A Portuguesa (instrumental)

A Portuguesa (English: The Portuguese Hymn), Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ], is the national anthem of Portugal. It was composed by Alfredo Keil and written by Henrique Lopes de Mendonça during the resurgent nationalist movement ignited by the 1890 British ultimatum to Portugal concerning its African colonies. Adopted as the marching song of the failed republican rebellion of January 1891, the song was adopted as the national anthem of the Portuguese Republic in 1911, replacing O Hino da Carta (English: The Charter Anthem), the anthem of the deposed constitutional monarchy.

Contents

History

On 11 January 1890, the United Kingdom issued an ultimatum demanding that Portugal refrain from occupying land lying between the Portuguese colonies of Angola, on the west coast of Africa, and Mozambique, on the east coast, thereby forming one contiguous polity (as proposed on the Pink Map.) Despite a popular uproar, the Portuguese government was forced to accept Britain's demands. This contributed to the unpopularity of King Carlos I and the monarchy, and it garnered support for the increasingly-popular republican movement in Portugal.[1]

The night after the ultimatum was accepted, the composer, Alfredo Keil, at the suggestion of a group of friends that included Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro and Teófilo Braga, wrote the melody for A Portuguesa as a patriotic protest march. Inspired by the outrage felt by the Portuguese people, the lyricist, Henrique Lopes de Mendonça, accepted Keil's request to create words to suit his melody. Mendonça said A Portuguesa was a song "where the fatherland's wounded soul would merge with its ambitions of freedom and revival"; he hoped it would be an anthem, embraced by the people, that could express their yearning for national vindication. Such expressions are epitomized by La Marsellaise, the Portuguese fado, and Hino da Maria da Fonte (English: The Maria da Fonte Anthem).[2] The march was quickly disseminated; several thousands of copies of the sheet music were freely distributed, together with fliers and posters. The song's popularity also spread across national borders, and verses were translated into other languages.[2]

On several stages in Lisbon, A Portuguesa drew special attention. On 29 March 1890, the march was performed at the Great Patriotic Concert, held in the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos (English: Saint Charles National Theatre), as well as in every other theatre in the capital. Beyond its use in cultural displays, A Portuguesa was also exploited for commercial gain. Several food products, like canned sardines and cookies, were named for this song.[2]

However, the song was perceived as a political weapon, and it was soon converted into a republican hymn. This political co-option of the theme's original meaning forced both authors to disavow this vision and stress its purely non-partisan sentiments.[2] On 31 January 1891, a republican-inspired rebellion broke out in the northern city of Porto and A Portuguesa was adopted by the rebels as their marching song. The rebellion was crushed, and the song was banned. However, it was never forgotten, and, on 5 October 1910, a new and stronger rebellion developed as A Portuguesa played in the background. A year later, the first session of the Constituent Assembly officially proclaimed it as the national anthem.[1]

In 1956, the emergence of melodic variants of the anthem forced the government to create a committee whose aim was to define an official version. On 16 July 1957, the current version was proposed, and it was approved by the Council of Ministers.[1]

Lyrics

Copy of the original 1890 music sheet
Portuguese lyrics Approximate translation
First stanza

Heróis do mar, nobre povo,
Nação valente, imortal,
Levantai hoje de novo
O esplendor de Portugal!
Entre as brumas da memória,
Ó Pátria, sente-se a voz
Dos teus egrégios avós,
Que há-de guiar-te à vitória!

Sea heroes, noble people,
Brave, immortal nation,
Raise today once more
Portugal's splendor!
Amidst the mists of memory,
O Fatherland, the voice is heard
Of your egregious forefathers,
That shall lead you to victory!

Chorus

Às armas, às armas!
Sobre a terra, sobre o mar,
Às armas, às armas!
Pela Pátria lutar!
Contra os canhões, marchar, marchar!

To arms, to arms!
Over the land, over the sea,
To arms, to arms!
To fight for our Fatherland!
Against the cannons, march, march!

Second stanza

Desfralda a invicta Bandeira,
À luz viva do teu céu!
Brade a Europa à terra inteira:
Portugal não pereceu
Beija o solo teu jucundo
O Oceano, a rugir d'amor,
E teu braço vencedor
Deu mundos novos ao Mundo!

Hoist the undefeated Flag,
In the lively light of your sky!
May Europe cry out to the whole Earth:
Portugal has not perished
Your merry ground
The Ocean kisses, roaring with love,
And your victorious arm
Gave new worlds to the World!

Chorus
Third stanza

Saudai o Sol que desponta
Sobre um ridente porvir;
Seja o eco de uma afronta
O sinal do ressurgir.
Raios dessa aurora forte
São como beijos de mãe,
Que nos guardam, nos sustêm,
Contra as injúrias da sorte.

Salute the Sun that rises
Over a gleeful future;
Let the echo of an offense
Be the sign for a comeback.
Rays of this strong dawn
Are like a mother's kisses,
That keep us, sustain us,
Against the injuries of fate.

Chorus

The anthem's official version consists of the first stanza and the chorus from Mendonça's poem only.

The last line of the chorus, "Contra os canhões marchar, marchar!" (English: Against the cannons, march, march!), is an alteration of the original, "Contra os bretões marchar, marchar" (English: Against the Britons, march, march!), an angry reference to the British Ultimatum.[3]

Protocol

Within Portugal, the anthem is played at both civilian and military ceremonies where the country, flag, or head of state (the President of the Republic) is honored. It is also played at receptions for foreign heads of state, following that of the visitor, and in ceremonies during official presidential visits to other countries.[1]

The song's title

The title A Portuguesa means "the Portuguese (song)". In the same way, La Marseillaise, the national anthem of France, means "the song of Marseille"; the Belgian anthem, The Brabançonne, means "the song of Brabant"; and L'Internationale, the Socialist anthem, means "the international (song)". In each instance, the word "song" is implied but not stated.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Antecedentes históricos do Hino Nacional" (in Portuguese). Governo da República Portuguesa. http://www.portugal.gov.pt/pt/GC17/Portugal/SimbolosNacionais/AntecedenteshistoricosdoHinoNacional/Pages/HinoNacional2.aspx. Retrieved 2009-07-31.  
  2. ^ a b c d "Hino Nacional" (in Portuguese). Simbolos Nacionais. Museu da Presidência da República. http://www.museu.presidencia.pt/expo_detail_full.php?id=1&ID=44. Retrieved 2008-10-02.  
  3. ^ "Portugal Anthem". Portugal.com. http://www.portugal.com/portugal/anthem. Retrieved 2008-10-02.  

External links

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

A Portuguesa
Henrique Lopes de Mendonça (lyrics) and Alfredo Keil (music)
A Portuguesa is the national anthem of Portugal. It was written by Henrique Lopes de Mendonça (lyrics) and Alfredo Keil (music) after the nationalist resurgence provoked by the British Ultimatum (for Portuguese troops to vacate the territory between Angola and Mozambique), was adopted as a Republican anthem and, finally, by the new Portuguese Republic in 1910 as the national anthem, replacing "O Hino da Carta", the last anthem of the Constitutional Monarchy in Portugal.
— Excerpted from A Portuguesa on Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia.

See also the original lyrics in Portugese on the Portugese Wikisource.

Heroes of the sea, noble race,
Valiant and immortal nation,
Now is the hour to raise up on high once more
Portugal's splendour.
From out of the mists of memory,
Oh Homeland, we hear the voices
Of your great forefathers
That shall lead you on to victory!


CHORUS:
To arms, to arms
On land and sea!
To arms, to arms
To fight for our Homeland!
To march against the enemy guns!


Unfurl the unconquerable flag
In the bright light of your sky!
Cry out all Europe and the whole world
That Portugal has not perished.
Your happy land is kissed
By the Ocean that murmurs with love.
And your conquering arm
Has given new worlds to the world!


CHORUS


Salute the Sun that rises
On a smiling future:
Let the echo of an insult be
The signal for our revival.
The rays of that powerful dawn
Are like a mother's kisses
That protect us and support us
Against the insults of fate.


CHORUS

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A Portuguesa.

Simple English

A Potruguesa A Portuguesa (pronounced IPA:([ɐ puɾ.tu.'ɣe.zɐ]) is the national anthem of Portugal. Only the first part of the lyrics is the national anthem. The other parts, or stanzas, are part of the song, but not part of the anthem.

Lyrics

Heróis do Mar
Nobre Povo
Nação Valente
Imortal
Levantai hoje de novo
O explendor de Portugal
Entre as brumas da memória
Ó pátria sente-se a voz
Dos teus Egrégios Avós
Que hão de guiar-te à vitória!

Às armas, Às armas
Sobre a terra, sobre o mar
Às armas, Às armas
Pela pátria lutar
Contra os canhões marchar, marchar!


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