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Abahlali baseMjondolo (AbM) is a shack-dwellers' movement in South Africa. The movement grew out of a road blockade[1] organized from the Kennedy Road shack settlement in the city of Durban in early 2005[2][3] and now also operates in the cities of Pietermaritzburg[4] and in Cape Town.[5] It is the largest shack dweller's organization in South Africa[6][7] and campaigns to improve the living conditions of poor people[8] and to democratize society from below.[9] The movement refuses party politics and boycotts elections.[10][11] The key strategy is to try "to recreate Commons" from below by trying to create a series of linked communes.[12] According to the The Times, the movement "has shaken the political landscape of South Africa."[13]

The words Abahlali baseMjondolo are isiZulu for 'Shack dwellers'.

Contents

Context

Abahlali Assembly, Foreman Road Settlement

In early 2008 the United Nations expressed serious concern about the treatment of shack dwellers in Durban.[14] There has also been concern about evictions linked to the 2010 FIFA World Cup across South Africa[15][16] and abroad.[17][18][19][20] [21][22]

The eThekwini Municipality, which governs Durban and Pinetown, has embarked on a slum clearance programme which means the steady demolition of shack settlements and a refusal to provide basic services (e.g. electricity, sanitation etc) to existing settlements on the grounds that all shack settlements are now 'temporary'. In these demolitions some shack dwellers are simply left homeless and others are subject to unlawful forced evictions to the rural periphery of the city.[23][24] Abahlali is primarily committed to opposing these demolitions and forced removals and to fighting for good land and quality housing in the cities. In most instances this takes the form of a demand for shack settlements to be upgraded where they are or for new houses to be built close to where the existing settlements are. However the movement has also argued that basic services such as water, electricity and toilets should be immediately provided to shack settlements while land and housing in the city are negotiated. The movement is engaged in the mass popular appropriation of access to water and electricity. It quickly had a considerable degree of success in stopping evictions and forced removals, winning the right for new shacks to be built as settlements expand and in winning access to basic services, but for three years was not able to win secure access to good urban land for quality housing.[25] However in late 2008, AbM chairperson S'bu Zikode announced a deal with the eThekwini Municipality which will see services being provided to 14 settlements and tenure security and formal housing to three.[26]

The movement has been involved in considerable conflict with the eThekwini Municipality and has undertaken numerous protests and legal actions against the city authorities.[27] Its members have been beaten and many of its leaders arrested by the South African Police Service in Sydenham, Durban.[28]

Abahlali has often made claims of severe police harassment, including torture.[29] On a number of occasions, these claims have been supported by church leaders[30] and human rights organisations.[31]

In February 2009 the movement signed a deal with the eThekwini Municipality that would see the latter provide services to 14 settlements affiliated to the movement and a full upgrade, in situ, for 3 settlements.[32]

In October 2009, the movement won a constitutional court case which declared the KZN Slums Act unconstitutional.[33][34]

In Cape Town there is acute conflict between the movement and the Cape Town City Council[35] which has centred around the Macassar Village Land Occupation.

Autonomy

Academic work on the movement stresses that it is non-professionalized (i.e. independent of NGO control), autonomous from political organisations and party politics[36] and democratic.[37][38][39]

The movement has, along with the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign refused to work with the NGO-run 'Social Movements Indaba' (SMI), and some of the NGOs involved with the SMI.[40]

Campaigns

Since 2005, the movement has carried out a series of large scale marches[41] and created numerous dual power institutions.[42] AbM has called for "a living communism",[43] has often made anti-capitalist statements[44] and has demanded the expropriation of private land for public housing.[45]

Abahlali states that it refuses to participate in party politics[46] or any NGO-style professionalization or individualization of struggle and instead seeks to build democratic people's power where people live and work.[47]

  • Housing

The primary demand of the movement has been for decent, public housing. The movement has often used the phrase 'the right to the city' to insist that the location of housing is critically important and demands that shack settlements are upgraded where they are and that people are not relocated to out of town developments.[48][49]

  • Services

The movement has also campaigned for the provision of basic services to shack settlements.[50][51]

  • Evictions & Forced Removals

The movement opposes all evictions and forced removals and had campaigned vigorously on this score via public protest and, also, legal action.[50][52]

  • Fire & Electricity

In South Africa there are an average of "ten shack fires a day with someone dying in a shack fire every other day"[53]. Abahlali has campaigned on this issue demanding, amongst other things, the electrification of shacks.[54]

Since 2005 Abahlali baseMjondolo has refused to vote in all state elections.[55] The movement states that it aims, instead, is use direct democracy to build a counter power to that of the state by creating a series of linked collectives and communes. This position is shared by all the organisations in the Poor People's Alliance.[56]

Abahlali baseMjondolo took the Provincial Government of KwaZulu-Natal to court to have the Slums Act[57] declared unconstitutional.[58][59] but lost the case.[60] On 14 May 2009 it took the case on appeal to the Constitutional Court.[61][62][63] Judgment was handed down on 14 October 2009 and the movement won the case with costs. [64]

The movement took a strong stand against the xenophobic attacks that swept the country[65][66] in May 2008 and there were no attacks in any Abahlali settlements.[67] The movement was also able to stop an in-progress attack in the (non-Abahlali affiliated) Kenville settlement and to offer shelter to some people displaced in the attacks.[68][69]

  • Police Brutality

The movement has organized numerous actions against police racism and brutality.[70]

Philosophy

The movement describes it self as "a homemade politics that everyone can understand and find a home in"[71] and stresses that it moves from the lived experience of the poor to create a politics that is both intellectual and actional.[72]

Its philosophy has been sketched out in a number of articles and interviews. The key ideas are those of a politics of the poor, a living politics and a people's politics. A politics of the poor is understood to mean a politics that is conducted by the poor and for the poor in a manner that enables the poor to be active participants in the struggles conducted in their name. Practically, it means that such a politics must be conducted where poor people live or in places that they can easily access, at the times when they are free, in the languages that they speak. It does not mean that middle class people and organisations are excluded but that they are expected to come to these spaces and to undertake their politics there in a dialogical and respectful manner. There are two key aspects to the idea of a living politics. The first is that it is understood as a politics that begins not from external theory but from the experience of the people that shape it. It is argued that political education usually operates to create new elites who mediate relationships of patronage upwards and who impose ideas on others and to exclude ordinary people from thinking politically. This politics is not anti-theory - it just asserts the need to begin from lived experience and to move on from there rather than to begin from theory (usually imported from the Global North) and to impose theory on the lived experience of suffering and resistance in the shacks. The second key aspect, of a living politics, is that political thinking is always undertaken democratically and in common. People's politics is opposed to party politics or politicians' politics (as well as to top down undemocratic forms of NGO politics) and it is argued that the former is a popular democratic project undertaken without financial reward and with an explicit refusal of representative roles and personal power while the latter is a top down, professionalised representative project driven by personal power.[73][74]

Elections

The movement, together with similar grassroots movements in Johannesburg and Cape Town[75], takes a very critical stance towards state elections in South Africa. They have boycotted the local government elections in 2006[76] and the national government elections in 2009 under the banner of No Land! No House! No Vote!. The philosophy of Abahlali baseMjondolo with regards to elections can be summarised by the following statement from its elected presidents S'bu Zikode, "The government and academics speak about the poor all the time, but so few want to speak to the poor...It becomes clear that our job is just to vote and then watch the rich speak about us as we get poorer".[16]

Harassment

In the early days of the movement individuals in the ruling party often accused Abahlali of being criminals manipulated by a malevolent white man, a 'third force', or a foreign intelligence agency.[77]

The movement, like others in South Africa[78], has suffered sustained illegal harassment from the state[79][80][81] that has resulted in more than 200 arrests of Abahlali members over the last three years and repeated police brutality in people's homes, in the streets and in detention. On a number of occasions the police used live ammunition, armoured vehicles and helicopters in their attacks on unarmed shack dwellers. In 2006 the local city manager, Mike Sutcliffe, unlawfully implemented a complete ban on Abahlali's right to march[82][83] which was eventually overturned in court.[84][85][86] Abahlali have been violently prevented from accepting invitations to appear on television and radio debates by the local police. The Freedom of Expression Institute has issued a number of statements in strong support of Abahlali's right to speak out and to organise protests.[87][88] The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions [89] and a group of prominent church leaders[90][91] have also issued public statements against police violence, as has Bishop Rubin Philip in his individual capacity[92], and in support of the right of the movement to publicly express dissent.[93]

In March 2008 the Mercury newspaper reported that both Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International were investigating human rights abuses against shack dwellers by the city government.[94]

Church support

The movement has received strong support from some key church leaders. In a speech at the AbM Unfreedom Day event on 27 April 2008 Anglican Bishop Rubin Phillip said that:

"The courage, dignity and gentle determination of Abahlali baseMjodolo has been a light that has shone ever more brightly over the last three years. You have faced fires, sickness, evictions, arrest, beatings, slander, and still you stand bravely for what is true. Your principle that everyone matters, that every life is precious, is very simple but it is also utterly profound. Many of us who hold dear the most noble traditions of our country take hope from your courage and your dignity."[95]

The Italian theologian Brother Filippo Mondini has attempted to develop a theology based on the political thought and practices developed in Abahlali baseMjondolo.[96]

The Poor People's Alliance

In September 2008 the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, together with Abahlali baseMjondolo, the Landless People's Movement and the Rural Network (Abahlali baseplasini) formed The Poor People's Alliance.[97][98] The poor people's alliance refuses electoral politics under the banner 'No Land! No House! No Vote!'.[99][100].

International Solidarity

There is an AbM Solidarity Group in England[101] and the movement has links with the following organisations:

Criticisms

According to eThekwini City Manager Dr. Michael Sutcliffe the essence of the tensions between Abahlali baseMjondolo and the City lie in the fact that the movement "rejects the authority of the city." When the Durban High Court ruled that his attempts to ban marches by Abahlali baseMjondolo were unlawful he stated that: "We will be asking serious questions of the court because we cannot allow anarchy having anyone marching at any time and any place."[109]

According to Lennox Mabaso, spokesperson for the Provincial Department of Housing, the movement is "under the sway of an agent provocateur" who is "engaged in clandestine operations" and who has been "assigned to provoke unrest".[110]

2009 Violence at Kennedy Road

On 26 September 2009, it was reported that a group of about 40 people entered Kennedy Rd wielding guns and knives and attacked a Abahlali baseMjondolo youth meeting. The attackers allegedly demolished residents' homes and killed at least 2 people. The attacks continued through Tuesday 28 September 2009.[111][112] It was reported by independent local and international academics as well as members of the Abahlali baseMjondolo movement that the attackers were affiliated with the local branch of the African National Congress and that the attack was carefully planned and sanctioned by the local police.[113][114] However this has been denied by the ANC and the police who blame a 'forum' associated with Abahlali baseMjondolo for the violence.[115] The attacks have garnered national and international condemnation with some people labelling the events a 'coup'.[116][117] [118] [119] Churches have also issued statements of condemnation.[120] The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Safety and Security held meetings for stakeholders however these were condemned as unrepresentative by church leaders and AbM representatives. AbM said that they are victims of a 'purge' and that they refused to sit side by side with attackers and have called for an independent investigation into the attacks.[121] A number of well known intellectuals, including Noam Chomsky, have expressed concern about the attacks[122] and Human Rights Watch[123], the Centre for the Study of Democracy,[124] The Norwegian Centre for Human Rights[125] and Amnesty International[126] have supported the call for an independent commission of inquiry into the attacks. The government has, thus far, ignored this call.[127]

Films About Abahlali baseMjondolo

See Also: An archive of short documentaries about Abahlali baseMjondolo

See also

External links

Notes and references

  1. ^ Article in the Sunday Tribune newspaper by Fred Kockott describing the road blockade
  2. ^ [1] Struggle is a School by Richard Pithouse, Monthly Review, 2006
  3. ^ [2] 'Delivery and Dignity' by Jacob Byrant, Journal of Asian & African Studies, 2007
  4. ^ [3] 'ANC to shift to the Left after South Africa's presidential election', The Telegraph, London
  5. ^ [4] Article in the Sowetan newspaper on the launch of the Cape Town branch of Abahlali baseMjondolo
  6. ^ [5]'South Africa's Poor Have Had Enough' Carol Landry, Agence France-Presse, December 2005
  7. ^ [6] Jonathan Steele, Why 2010 Could Be An Own Goal for the Rainbow Nation, The Guardian, 30 December 2009
  8. ^ [7] 'The State of Resistance: Popular struggles in the Global South' edited by Francois Polet pp.139-140, McMillian 2007
  9. ^ [8] iPolitiki ePhilayo
  10. ^ Matt Birkinshaw Abahlali baseMjondolo: A homemade politics, 2009
  11. ^ [9]'Shack dwellers honour their leader' by SABC News, December 16 2009
  12. ^ Joel Kovel, 'The Enemy of Nature', 2007 Zed Books, New York, p. 251
  13. ^ [10]'Stench of shanties puts ANC on wrong side of new divide' by Jonathan Clayton 25 February 2006
  14. ^ [11] United Nations Statement on Housing Rights Violations in South Africa
  15. ^ [12] Guardian: World Cup 2010: football brings defining moment for South Africa, 12 June 2009
  16. ^ a b [13] Sunday Herald: The real winners and losers: of the beautiful game, 09 August 2009
  17. ^ Guardian: World Cup 2010: football brings defining moment for South Africa, 12 June 2009
  18. ^ [14] World Cup Whose Meaning Goes Beyond Soccer, Alan Cowell, 28 December 2009, New York Times
  19. ^ "Shack Dwellers Fight Demolition in S. Africa Court". OneWorld.net. http://us.oneworld.net/article/362921-slums-act-will-displace-thousands-south-africa. 
  20. ^ "Pooh-slinging Slums Act showdown at Con Court". M&G. http://www.mg.co.za/article/2009-05-16-poohslinging-slums-act-showdown-at-con-court. 
  21. ^ "South Africa’s Poor Targeted by Evictions, Attacks in Advance of 2010 World Cup by Democracy Now!". http://www.democracynow.org/2009/10/1/south_africas_poor_targeted_by_evictions. 
  22. ^ [15] Jonathan Steele, Why 2010 Could Be An Own Goal for the Rainbow Nation, The Guardian, 30 December 2009
  23. ^ [16] 'Business As Usual', Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions (Geneva), 2008
  24. ^ [17]COHRE report to the United Nations, 2008
  25. ^ See the COHRE report again
  26. ^ Speech by S'bu Zikode
  27. ^ These are detailed in some of the academic work and there is reference to some of the legal actions in the report on Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions (Geneva) which is online at http://www.cohre.org/southafrica. The papers from many of the court actions are also archived on the Abahlali site
  28. ^ [18] Niren Tolsi, 'I was punched, beaten' Mail & Guardian, 16 September 2007
  29. ^ [19] AbM statement on police harassment
  30. ^ [20] A statement against police violence against Abahlali by 11 church leaders
  31. ^ Relevant Letter and Full Report
  32. ^ Durban breaks new ground in participatory democracy, Imraan Buccus
  33. ^ [21] 'Shack dwellers' victory bus' by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian', 2009
  34. ^ Landmark judgment for the poor, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 18 October 2009
  35. ^ [22] Collection of articles on the Macassar Village Land Occupation
  36. ^ [23], Article by Raj Patel examining the refusal of electoral politics in Abahlali
  37. ^ 'A Short Course in Politics at the University of Abahlali baseMjondolo', Raj Patel
  38. ^ [24] Nigel Gibson, 'Upright and free: Fanon in South Africa, from Biko to the shackdwellers' movement (Abahlali baseMjondolo)', Social Identities (Volume 14, Issue 6 November 2008 , pages 683 - 715)
  39. ^ [25] 'Zabalaza, Unfinished Struggles against Apartheid: The Shackdwellers’ Movement in Durban', Nigel Gibson, Socialism & Democracy
  40. ^ [26] AEC statement on the SMI
  41. ^ [27] Resistance from the other South Africa by Neha Nimmagudda in Pambazuka News(2008-07-17]
  42. ^ See 'Rights, democracy, social movements: Abahlali baseMjondolo - a living politics' Masters Thesis by Matt Birkinshaw, University of London, 2007
  43. ^ [28] Text of Speech at Diakonia Economic Justice Forum - Please follow the link to the PDF for the full content of the speech
  44. ^ 'Abahlali baseMjondolo – The South African Shack Dwellers Movement' by Suzy Subways, 2008
  45. ^ ‘The poor need proper homes’ - article in the Sowetan by Mary Papayya 1 September 2008
  46. ^ [29] Article by M'du Hlongwa examining the refusal of electoral politics in Abahlali
  47. ^ [30] Article by Xin Wei Ngiam in Critical Dialogue (Vol.2, No.1, 2006) that includes interviews on conceptions of democracy amongst Abahlali militants.
  48. ^ [31]This emerges clearly in the archive of the movement's memoranda and press statements
  49. ^ There is reference to some of the legal actions against evictions in the 2008 report on housing rights in Durban Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions (Geneva) which is online at http://www.cohre.org/southafrica. The papers from many of the court actions are also archived on the Abahlali site
  50. ^ a b [32]This also emerges very clearly in the archive of the movement's memoranda and press statements
  51. ^ [33]Capitalism the 'real culprit behind climate change' by Faranaaz Parker, Mail & Guardian, 18 December 2009
  52. ^ [34] For a discussion of a key court victory against evictions see the article 'Chetty Champions the Poor' in 'South African Legal Brief', 24 September 2008
  53. ^ Matt Birkinshaw 'The Big Devil in the Jondolos: The Politics of Shack Fires in Pambazuka News (2008)
  54. ^ See http://abahlali.org/search/node/fire
  55. ^ Speech by S'bu Zikode, December 2008.
  56. ^ [35]See Raj Patel,'Electing Land Questions: A Methodological Discussion with Reference to Abahlali baseMjondolo, the Durban Shack dwellers' Movement', Codesria, 2007
  57. ^ Text of the Slums Bill and other Documents
  58. ^ The complete text of the Act, and the legal papers from Abahlali and the state are all archived at http://abahlali.org/node/1629
  59. ^ [36] Shack dwellers take on Slums Act by Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 14 February 2008
  60. ^ Constitutional challenge to law on slums, Ernest Mabuza, Business Day, 4 May 2009
  61. ^ [37] 'Three provinces protest against slum bill', by Bonile Ngqiyaza, The Star, 15 May 2009
  62. ^ South Africa shanty town bill row, BBC, 15 May 2009
  63. ^ Shack Dwellers Fight Demolition in S. Africa Court, One World, 15 May 2009
  64. ^ Landmark judgment for the poor, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 18 October 2009
  65. ^ See http://www.abahlali.org/node/3582
  66. ^ [38]'The Africa that Pushes Back' by Mukoma Wa Ngugi, Foreign Policy in Focus, 24 December 2008
  67. ^ [39] 'The politics of fear and the fear of politics' by Michael Neocosmos, Pambazuka, 2008
  68. ^ See the 'The Politics of Fear and the Fear of Politics: Reflections on Xenophobic Violence in South Africa', an article by Professor Michael Neocosmos from Monash University in Australia in the Journal of Asian & African Studies Vol. 43, No. 6, 586-594 (2008)
  69. ^ 'The May 2008 Pogroms: xenophobia, evictions, liberalism, and democratic grassroots militancy in South Africa' by Richard Pithouse, in Sanhati, June 2008.
  70. ^ See, for instance, Against Police Brutality - March On Glen Nayager, 10 April 2007
  71. ^ Richard Pithouse' Thinking Resistance in the Shantytown', Mute Magazine, August 2006
  72. ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo, Spatial Agency
  73. ^ The movement's philosophy is clearly articulated in a number of statements on its website - see, especially, the statements at http://abahlali.org/node/3208 It is also usefully summarised in the academic work by Nigel Gibson
  74. ^ [40]Also see 'Taking poverty seriously: What the poor are saying and why it matters' by Xin Wei Ngiam in Critical Dialogue, Vol.2, No.1, 2006
  75. ^ [41] Elections: A Dangerous Time for Poor People's Movements in South Africa
  76. ^ [42] "No Vote” Campaigns are not a Rejection of Democracy, November 2005
  77. ^ [43] Article by S'bu Zikode written in response to Third Force allegations
  78. ^ See a report in illegal police repression in South Africa by the Freedom of Expression Institute
  79. ^ [44] An eyewitness account of police violence in the Mail & Guardian newspaper
  80. ^ [45] Article on police violence by System Cele
  81. ^ [46] Article on police violence by Philani Zungu
  82. ^ This is discussed in the Journal of Asian & African Studies Feb 2008; vol. 43: pp. 63 - 94.http://jas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/43/1/63
  83. ^ Also see a letter from the Freedom of Expression Institute, 23 February 2008, which gives a detailed chronology of the banning of one march
  84. ^ [47] Article in the Daily News
  85. ^ Statement by the Freedom of Expression Institute
  86. ^ [48]Will Zuma administration open its ears to the streets?, Jane Duncan, Business Day, 4 August 2009]
  87. ^ [49] Freedom of Expression Institute statement
  88. ^ [50]Also see 'Free expression means nothing if it’s limited to the media' by Na'eem Jenah, Thought Leader, 18 October 2007
  89. ^ [51]Open Letter to Obed Mlaba & Mike Sutcliffe by COHRE
  90. ^ [52]Testimony by Church Leaders
  91. ^ [53][54]Sunday Tribune article on church leader's statement
  92. ^ [55]Unfreedom Day Speech by Bishop Rubin Philip, April 27th 2007
  93. ^ [56]See'Why we must keep our eyes on the ground' by Professor Stephen Friedman, Business Day, 17 October 2007
  94. ^ Mercury article by Imraan Buccus, 8 March 2008
  95. ^ The speech was printed in the May issue of 'Anglican News' and it can be downloaded at http://www.anglican.co.za/archives.htm
  96. ^ [57] 'Abahlali basemjondolo Theology' by Filippo Mondini, Korogocho, 26 June 2008
  97. ^ [58] The Struggle for Land & Housing in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Toussaint Losier, Left Turn, January 2009
  98. ^ [59] 'Participatory Society: Urban Space & Freedom', by Chris Spannos, Z-Net, 29 May 2009
  99. ^ The alliance, and its position on electoral politics, is mentioned in the speech by S'bu Zikode at http://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2008/12/415682.html
  100. ^ ANC Attacks Shack Dwellers Movements
  101. ^ Protest at Zuma’s UK visit in solidarity with South African Shack Dwellers, TMP Online, 3 March 2010
  102. ^ Talk to Us, Not About Us
  103. ^ An Evening with the Shackdwellers Movement of South Africa (August 20, 2009)
  104. ^ Picture the Homeless Protest in New York City, Oct 9, 2009
  105. ^ Zapatista-Inspired Rally Held in New York City; Aims to Fight Gentrification by Paola Reyes, Latin Dispatch, 3 March 2010
  106. ^ Take Back the Land in South Africa
  107. ^ Tek bir insan ırkı vardır-Abahlali baseMjondolo (Güney Afrika)
  108. ^ Combined Harare Residents' Association Visit to Abahlali: mid June 2007
  109. ^ [60], Press Statement by Sutcliffe
  110. ^ [61], Sunday Tribune article by Mabaso
  111. ^ "Two dead in informal sttlement attack". SAPA. http://www.capeargus.co.za/?fSectionId=3571&fArticleId=nw20090927163332713C208252. 
  112. ^ "Kennedy Road Development Committee Attacked – People Have Been Killed". Abahlali baseMjondolo. http://abahlali.org/node/5770. 
  113. ^ "'Attackers associated with ANC'". News24. http://www.news24.com/Content/SouthAfrica/News/1059/94212f4a70a54a77a811b7fb94c15069/28-09-2009-10-36/Dbn_attackers_associated_with_ANC. 
  114. ^ "Joint Statement on the attacks on the Kennedy Road Informal Settlement in Durban". Professor John Dugard SC, et al. http://antieviction.org.za/2009/09/28/joint-statement-on-the-attacks-on-the-kennedy-road-informal-settlement-in-durban/. 
  115. ^ Ethnic Tensions Boil Over, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 3 October 2009
  116. ^ "Academics condemn attack on settlement". BusinessDay. http://www.businessday.co.za/articles/Content.aspx?id=82548. 
  117. ^ "Democracy's Everyday Death - The Country's Quiet Coup". AllAfrica. http://allafrica.com/stories/200910080964.html. 
  118. ^ "Statement in support of Abahlali baseMjondolo". Abahlali baseMjondolo. http://abahlali.org/node/5894. 
  119. ^ "Open letter to Jacob Zuma". Friends of the Kennedy Road Development Committee. http://www.thepetitionsite.com/9/an-open-letter-to-jacob-zuma. 
  120. ^ South African Council of Churches Appalled by Violent Attacks Against Democracy
  121. ^ Kennedy olive branch a sham Mail & Guardian
  122. ^ Statement in support of Abahlali baseMjondolo, by Noam Chomsky et al,9 October 2009
  123. ^ [62] Wilson Johwa, 'Slum dwellers’ body wants Langa to lead attack probe', Business Day, 5 November 2009
  124. ^ [63] Call for President to Establish a Commission of Inquiry into Violence Against Shackdwellers
  125. ^ [64] Letter to President Jacob Zuma from the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights
  126. ^ [65] Failure to conduct impartial investigation into Kennedy Road violence is leading to further human rights abuses, Amnesty International, 16 December 2009
  127. ^ [66] Jonathan Steele, Why 2010 Could Be An Own Goal for the Rainbow Nation, The Guardian, 30 December 2009







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