The Full Wiki

Aberdeen F.C.: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Aberdeen F.C.

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aberdeen
AberdeenFC crest.png
Full name Aberdeen Football Club
Nickname(s) The Dons, The Reds, The Dandies
Founded 1903
Ground Pittodrie Stadium
Aberdeen
Scotland pittodrie street
(Capacity: 22,199)
Chairman Scotland Stewart Milne
Manager Scotland Mark McGhee
League Scottish Premier League
2008–09 Scottish Premier League, 4th
Home colours
Away colours
Current season

Aberdeen Football Club (also known as The Dons, The Dandies or The Reds) is a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen. They compete in the Scottish Premier League and are one of the most successful teams in their country, having won four league titles and seven Scottish Cups, including a record three in a row during the 1980s, the only time a team other than Rangers has done this since 1882. They are also the only Scottish team to have won two European trophies, both in the same year. Despite competing in the Scottish Cup and Scottish League Cup finals, both in 2000, they have not won any silverware since 1995.

Formed in 1903 as a result of the amalgamation of three clubs from Aberdeen, they rarely challenged for honours until the 1950s, when they won each of the major Scottish trophies under manager Dave Halliday. This level of success was surpassed in the 1980s, when, under the management of Alex Ferguson, they won three league titles, four Scottish Cups and a Scottish League Cup, alongside the European Cup Winners' Cup and the European Super Cup, both in 1983. Aberdeen were the last club outside of the Old Firm to win a league title, in 1984/85, and also the last Scottish team to win a European Championship.

Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium since their inception. The ground currently has a capacity of 22,199 and was the first all-seated and all-covered stadium in the United Kingdom. Pittodrie was also the first football stadium to feature a dugout, an invention of player and coach Donald Colman. The club's colours have been primarily red and white since 1939; before this, they played in black and gold vertical stripes.

Aberdeen attract support from the city and surrounding areas, as they are the only senior team within a wide area. Aberdeen have no geographically close rivals; their nearest neighbours at the same level are in the city of Dundee, with Dundee United having been their principal rivals in the New Firm in the 1980s.

Contents

History

Advertisements

Formation and early struggle (1903–1939)

League history of Aberdeen from their first league appearance in 1904 to the present day

The current Aberdeen F.C. was formed following the merger of three city clubs, Aberdeen, Victoria United and Orion, in 1903.[1] The new club played its first match on 15 August 1903, a 1–1 draw with Stenhousemuir.[2] That first season produced a win in the Aberdeenshire Cup, but only a third place finish in the Northern League. The club applied for membership of the Scottish League for the following season, and were elected to the Second Division, rather than the First.[2]

In 1904, the club were managed by Jimmy Philip. At the end of that first season, despite having finished 7th out of 12 teams, Aberdeen were elected to the new, expanded First Division, and have been in the top tier of Scottish football ever since, a record shared with only Celtic and Rangers.[3] From 1906, the club made steady progress, with a Scottish Cup semi-final appearance in 1908 and another in 1911.[2] In that season of 1910/11, Aberdeen recorded their first victories over the Old Firm, and led the league for a time, but finished the season in second place.[2]

Wartime affected the club as much as any other. Despite spending cuts and other economies, by 1917 the situation became untenable. Aberdeen dropped out of competitive football, along with Dundee and Raith Rovers. Senior football returned on 16 August 1919, and Aberdeen resumed with a fixture against Albion Rovers. Philip was still in charge, and continued to oversee a team capable of isolated good results, but never quite able to sustain a challenge long enough to win a trophy. In 1923, Aberdeen were drawn against Peterhead in the Scottish Cup, and posted their record score—a 13–0 victory.[4] Philip retired a year later, and was replaced as manager by Paddy Travers.[5] He presided over the team's first Scottish Cup final in 1937.[2]

Travers' trainer (first team coach in modern parlance) was former player Donald Colman. Colman was regarded as a brilliant and innovative thinker about football, and conceived the dug-out, a covered area set slightly below the level of the playing surface to better aid his observations. Everton visited Pittodrie soon after its introduction, and exported the idea to the English leagues, from where it spread throughout the football-playing world.[6] Travers left to become manager of Clyde in 1939, and was replaced by Dave Halliday.[7]

Halliday went to his ex club Queen of the South to sign inside forward George Hamilton. This would be as shrewd a signing as Halliday would ever make.[7][8] However Halliday had barely begun his work when the Second World War halted competitive football in the United Kingdom.[7][9]

Steady rise (1945–1978)

Halliday's place in the Aberdeen Hall of Fame was secured after the war when he became the first manager to bring national trophies to Pittodrie. Aberdeen, now playing in red, won the Southern League Cup in 45/46 season defeating Rangers 3 -2 at Hampden. They then reached the 1947 Scottish Cup final, defeating Hibernian 2–1 with the inspirational Hamilton scoring to gain the club's first major trophy.[7][10] From this early success, Halliday's side reached two more Scottish Cup finals, in 1953 and 1954, although both were lost.[7] Halliday's team were not to be denied, however, and the following season, 1954/55, Aberdeen won their first Scottish League title.[7][10] Though league winners, the club did not participate in the first European Cup competition—Scotland's place was awarded to Hibernian, who took part by special invitation.[11]

Halliday and Hamilton left at the end of that championship-winning season[7], Halliday replaced by Davie Shaw. Aberdeen won the League Cup under his guidance, beating St. Mirren in 1955/56, and reached another Scottish Cup final in 1959.[10] However, Shaw stepped aside for another former favourite player, Tommy Pearson in 1959. Pearson's time in charge coincided with a high turnover of players, and yielded no trophies. He retired in 1965, making way for Eddie Turnbull.[5] Turnbull led Aberdeen to two Scottish Cup finals against Celtic, losing in 1967, but gaining revenge three years later.[10]

Aberdeen first played in Europe in the 1967/68 Cup Winner's Cup, qualifying as runners-up to Celtic in the Scottish Cup final. Their first tie was a 14–1 aggregate victory over KR Reykjavik, although they lost the second round tie with Standard Liège 3–2 on aggregate. As Scottish Cup holders in 1970/71, Aberdeen once again qualified for the same competition, but were eliminated in the first round following a 4–4 aggregate tie with Honvéd. This tie, level after extra time and also level on away goals, was decided by the first penalty shootout in UEFA competition history, Honvéd winning the shootout 5–4 in Budapest.[12]

Alex Ferguson, the most successful manager of Aberdeen, pictured at current club Manchester United

The Aberdeen side of the 1970s regularly challenged for domestic honours. However, they rarely won trophies, with the exception of the Drybourgh Cup in 1971 under (Jimmy Bonthrone) and the League Cup in 1976, under Ally MacLeod. During this decade, Aberdeen had five managers, Eddie Turnbull, Jimmy Bonthrone, Ally MacLeod, Billy McNeill and Alex Ferguson.[5] They reached two more national cup finals—the Scottish Cup in 1978 under Billy McNeill and the League Cup in the following season under the new manager Alex Ferguson.[10]

The Alex Ferguson era (1978–1986)

Under Alex Ferguson's guidance, the club won three league championships, one Dryborough Cup, four Scottish Cups, the European Cup Winner's Cup, the European Super Cup and a League Cup—all in the space of seven years.

Under Ferguson's guidance, players such as Jim Leighton, Willie Miller, Alex McLeish and Gordon Strachan became the backbone of the team. Aberdeen's second League title was won in 1979/80, and this initial success was built on, with Scottish Cup wins in three successive seasons from 1982 to 1984,[10] and two more league titles in 1983/84 and 1984/85.

In the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1983 Aberdeen beat FC Sion, Dinamo Tirana and Lech Poznań to face the German Cup winners Bayern München. This game was won 3–2 at Pittodrie after a goalless draw in Germany, John Hewitt with the winning goal. They then faced now defunct Belgian club Waterschei in the semi-final. Aberdeen beat them 5–1 at home, and lost for the first time in the tournament, 1–0 away, resulting in an aggregate victory which sent Aberdeen to the final. A 2–1 victory over Real Madrid on 11 May 1983, meant Aberdeen won the Cup, becoming only the third Scottish side to win a European trophy.[2][13][14] The club released a song, European Song, to coincide with the appearance in the Final.[15] This was followed up with the capture of the European Super Cup in December of that year, when SV Hamburg were beaten over two legs.[2]

The team made it as far as the semi-finals of the 1983–84 European Cup Winners' Cup, before losing to Porto 2-0 on aggregate.

Recent years (1987–present)

Following Ferguson, a succession of managers tried to live up to the standards he had set, most meeting with little or no success.[16] The low point of the club's history came in the 1999/2000 season, when they finished last in the Premier division. As the SPL was being expanded to 12 teams, there was then a three team play-off. However, as Falkirk's stadium did not meet SPL requirements, Aberdeen retained their status in the top flight.[2] Subsequent to this, and with the club in debt for the first time following the construction of a new stand at one end of the ground,[17] a policy of trying to live within their means has meant that the club has not approached the heights of the 1980s.

Aberdeen signed new co-managers in 1989, pairing Alex Smith and Jocky Scott.[5] A number of foreign players were signed, including Dutch internationals Theo Snelders and Hans Gillhaus. In the 1989/90 the club won both the Scottish Cup and the Scottish League Cup In the 1990/91 they lost the last game of the season, and the league title, to Rangers.[10] Willie Miller took over in 1992 and presided over two seasons where Aberdeen came close to winning the title. However, he was sacked in 1995 after a bad season, and the club had to rely on a play-off victory over Dunfermline Athletic to retain their Premier League status.[18] Aberdeen replaced him with Roy Aitken. Despite a Scottish League Cup success beating Dundee in 1996, the club continued to struggle.[10] Alex Miller and Paul Hegarty had spells in charge in the late 1990s,[5] but with the financial burden of a new stand putting the club into debt for the first time in its history, the directors turned to Stewart Milne, a local businessman whose firm had built the stand, to bring business acumen to the running of the club.[19]

Aberdeen's first non-Scottish manager, Ebbe Skovdahl, was appointed in 1999,[2] and his time in charge coincided with some of the heaviest defeats in the club's history.[20] His replacement, Steve Paterson, lasted only two seasons. Jimmy Calderwood took over in 2004, and Aberdeen have since posted more consistent results than in previous seasons. In season 2006/07, the club finished in third place in the league and thus qualified for the 2007/08 UEFA Cup.[21] In this Competition, Aberdeen defeated Dnipro on the away goals rule in the UEFA Cup, the first time the club had won on the away goals rule in 40 years of European football.[22] They went on to beat FC København 4–0, which was the biggest margin of victory and one of Pittodrie's biggest crowds since the 1980s.[23] This set up a meeting with German club Bayern Munich,[24] which they lost 7–3 on aggregate.[25] after a very respectable 2–2 draw, which saw Aberdeen lead Bayern twice, at Pittodrie in the first leg. Calderwood was sacked by Aberdeen on 24 May 2009, hours after he took the club to a fourth place finish and back into Europe,[26] and was replaced by Mark McGhee of Motherwell on 12 June 2009.[27]

Colours and crest

The "Wasps" black and gold strip, worn until 1939

For the first season of the club's existence, the team played in a predominantly white strip.[28] This is variously reported as all-white, or as white shirts with blue shorts and socks.[29] This colour scheme was the direct descendant of the colours worn by the precursor Aberdeen club, but lasted only one season before being replaced.[28]

For the 1904/05 season, Aberdeen adopted a black and gold striped shirt, which led to the team being nicknamed "Wasps". This strip, with only minor variations, was worn until just before the start of the Second World War. The blue shorts lasted until 1911, and then were replaced with white ones. Socks were black with gold trim, either as stripes or as a solid bar at the turndown.[28]

A representative post-war Aberdeen strip. These colours were worn for all the trophy-winning seasons of the 1950s.

In March 1939, Aberdeen changed the black and gold colours to red and white, reflecting the silver and red colours of the official City of Aberdeen arms.[2] The first red strips were worn with white shorts, these were worn with either red or white socks from 1939 until the 1965/66 season.[28] In 1966, Aberdeen adopted red shorts, making the official kit all-red, similar to that of Liverpool, who made a similar change at around the same time.[30] This arrangement has continued to the present day, with several variations in design, in common with most senior clubs as the replica shirt market has expanded. In the late 1970s an Admiral strip featured five vertical white stripes on the left side of the shirt and shorts, and the early 1980s shirts—as worn at the 1983 European Cup Winners Cup final—featured white vertical pinstripes. Later design changes included significant amounts of blue,[28] and a one season reversion to white shorts, although the all-red scheme returned in 1997.[28]

Shirt sponsorship began in 1987, and the initial shirt sponsor was JVC.[28] Since then, with the club making fewer appearances on the international stage, shirt sponsors have tended to be more local—they have included one of the local commercial radio stations, Northsound.[31]. With the local economy being dominated by oil companies the Club have tended to be sponsored by oil service companies. For the next 2 years Team Recruitment will be the Club's sponsor. Change, or "away", strips have tended to be either white, often with black shorts, or a combination of yellow and black, referring back to the black and gold strips of the pre-war era, although for a time in the 1970s, Aberdeen sported an all-blue change strip with white socks.[31] For the 2007/08 season, the change strip was all-white, with a third kit of yellow and black halves available if needed for European games, or in the event of a clash involving both red and white.[28]

The club did not have an official crest before 1972, but several variations on the letters AFC had from time to time featured on the shirt, usually in some kind of cursive font. In November 1972,[32] the club unveiled an official crest or logo, designed by Aberdonian graphic designer Donald Addison.[33] The design represented a capital letter A as the side view of a football goal, with a ball forming the crossbar of the letter. This ball was crosshatched in such a way as to depict it as being inside the net, signifying the scoring of a goal. The logo was completed by the letters FC in smaller type at a level with the ball element.[32] This badge was used on the shirts from around 1978, with no significant alterations until the mid-1980s when the words "Aberdeen Football Club" were added in a circular border, and the date of the club's founding, 1903, was added under the goal element.[32] The current version of the crest, which retains these elements in a unified design, was introduced at the start of the 1997/98 season.[32] Two stars signifying the winning of the two European cups in 1983 were introduced over the badge in the 2005/06 season.[34]

Pittodrie

Pittodrie Stadium's granite facade viewed from outside the Merkland Road stand

Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium, the name of which comes from the Pictish for "place of manure",[35] throughout their existence. The ground was first used by the original Aberdeen F.C. in 1899, in a 7–1 win over Dumbarton;[36] when they merged with two other teams in 1903, the new club took over the old Aberdeen ground. On 15 August 1903, 8,000 spectators turned up to watch the new Aberdeen draw 1–1 against Stenhousemuir, the first game played at Pittodrie by its amalgamated tenants.[2] The club initially rented the ground, but subsequently bought it in 1920.[2] The stadium contains 21,600 seats,[36] but due to the directors' boxes, some sources place this figure at 22,000.[37] The record attendance occurred on 13 March 1954, when 45,061 spectators turned up for a Scottish Cup match between Aberdeen and Hearts.[36]

The stadium consists of four stands. The Main Stand, which houses the club offices and players facilities, holds the majority of the supporters. The Merkland Road Stand is primarily for families. The South Stand is opposite the main stand and a quarter of this section is used to accommodate travelling supporters, except for Old Firm games, where half of this stand is given to the visiting fans. The newest element is the Richard Donald stand at the East, or Beach End, of the ground, and is named after former chairman Dick Donald.[38] This is a modern, two–tier design, completed in 1993, containing hospitality suites which is significantly taller than the other structures at the ground.[38] In 1978, Pittodrie became the first all covered, all-seater stadium in Britain.[3][39]

The club are examining a move to a New Aberdeen Stadium, which if given the go ahead, will be placed on the Loirston Loch and will seat around 22,000 but could be increased to 30,000-35,000 should a major event require a stadium of that size in Scotland.

Supporters and nicknames

Aberdeen's supporters, known as the Red Army are listed in the team squad list as wearing the number 12 shirt—a reference to the supporters being the "12th man".[40] In 1999, a group of supporters founded the Red Ultras supporters club with the express aim of improving the atmosphere at Pittodrie.[41]

The group have organised coordinated displays and enormous flags and banners, particularly in the Richard Donald stand at home games, but also on occasion at away games. The group share a name with many Ultras groups elsewhere in the world, but disassociate themselves from any elements of hooliganism.

Aberdeen are the only senior team in the third largest city in Scotland[42], a city which is relatively remote, geographically, from other large population centres, and as a result have a large catchment area of potential supporters. However, attendances in recent years have not reflected this situation, with the club having the fourth largest average attendance in the SPL in 2008/09,[43] with 12,928.[44] Important games still see Pittodrie sold out.[45]

In the 1980s, a minority of the club's supporters had a reputation as one of Britain's most prominent casuals groups.[46] The rise of the Aberdeen Casuals coincided with the most successful period in the club's history, and has been chronicled in more than one published account.[47][48]

Aberdeen have rarely played in the same division as their geographically closest rivals: Peterhead, Brechin City, Montrose, Arbroath and Forfar Athletic, so rivalries have tended to come from further afield. In the early 1980s, owing to the success both domestically and in Europe of Aberdeen and Dundee United, the pair were known as the New Firm; however, Dundee United have their city neighbours Dundee as close rivals,[49] and the antagonism was not always reciprocated to the same degree. The same situation applies to Aberdeen's rivalry with Rangers, in that Rangers have their own much older and well-known rivalry with Celtic, and therefore Aberdeen supporters tend to think of game between the pair as a rivalry more than Rangers fans do, but there is nevertheless a genuinely strong antagonistic feeling between both sets of supporters, and there have been a number of incidents arising from this.[50][51]

Aberdeen are known as "The Dons", a name that has been in use since at least 1913. In Doric, the local dialect of Aberdeen, the word "Done" is pronounced "deen", it is thought that this is what led to the team being nicknamed "The Dons". Before the popular adoption of "The Dons", the team were variously known as "The Wasps" or "The Black and Golds"; both names a reference to the yellow and black striped shirts of the time.[52]

As with many teams that play in red, Aberdeen may also be called "The Reds" from time to time. They are referred to by some supporters as "The Dandy Dons" or "The Dandies".[53]

Honours

Players

Current squad

As of 1st Feb 2010 Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Scotland GK Jamie Langfield
2 Scotland DF Charlie Mulgrew
3 Scotland DF Ricky Foster
4 Scotland MF Gary McDonald
5 Scotland DF Zander Diamond (vice-captain)
6 Scotland DF Andrew Considine
7 Scotland MF Jim Paterson (on loan from Plymouth Argyle)
8 Scotland MF Mark Kerr (captain)
9 Scotland FW Steve MacLean (on loan from Plymouth Argyle)
10 Scotland FW Darren Mackie
11 Nigeria MF Sone Aluko
14 Scotland MF Derek Young
No. Position Player
16 Scotland MF Stuart Duff
18 Italy DF Davide Grassi
19 Scotland MF Peter Pawlett
20 England MF Paul Marshall
21 England GK Stuart Nelson
22 England DF Jerel Ifil
24 Scotland FW Michael Paton
27 Scotland DF Stirling Smith
31 Scotland FW Mitchel Megginson
32 Scotland DF Scott Ross
34 Scotland MF Fraser Fyvie

Players out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
25 Scotland DF Jonathan Crawford (on loan to Peterhead)
-- England GK John Bateman (on loan to Peterhead)
-- Scotland FW Chris Maguire (on loan to Kilmarnock)
No. Position Player
-- Scotland MF Nicky Clark (on loan to Peterhead)

Transfers

For recent transfers, see List of Scottish football transfers 2009-10.

Notable players

AFC Hall of Fame

Aberdeen inaugurated the Hall of Fame following the club's centenary celebrations in 2003. At the launch, it was claimed that over a five-year period, around 50 players and staff would be inducted. However, as of November 2007, the following initial inductees are still the only ones listed on the Official Website as members:[54]

Managers

List of full-time managers, as of 13 November 2009. Only competitive matches are counted. Caretaker managers are not listed.

From To Name P W D L Win%[55] Ref
1903 1924 Scotland Philip, JimmyJimmy Philip 644 221 172 251 34.32% [56]
1924 1937 Scotland Travers, PaddyPaddy Travers 474 214 106 154 45.15% [56]
1937 1955 Scotland Halliday, DaveDave Halliday 371 165 71 135 44.47% [56]
1955 1959 Scotland Shaw, DavieDavie Shaw 148 66 20 62 44.59% [56]
1959 1965 Scotland Pearson, TommyTommy Pearson 180 66 42 72 36.67% [56]
1965 1971 Scotland Turnbull, EddieEddie Turnbull 216 101 43 72 46.75% [56]
1971 1975 Scotland Bonthrone, JimmyJimmy Bonthrone 143 67 46 30 46.85% [56]
1975 1977 Scotland MacLeod, AllyAlly MacLeod 61 24 19 18 39.34% [56]
1977 1978 Scotland McNeill, BillyBilly McNeill 36 22 9 5 61.11% [56]
1978 1986 Scotland Ferguson, AlexAlex Ferguson 288 167 71 50 57.99% [56]
1986 1986 Scotland Ferguson, AlexAlex Ferguson
Scotland Knox, ArchieArchie Knox
15 7 5 3 46.67% [56]
1986 1988 Scotland Porterfield, IanIan Porterfield 71 35 27 9 49.30% [56]
1988 1991 Scotland Scott, JockyJocky Scott
Scotland Smith, AlexAlex Smith
117 63 35 19 53.85% [56]
1991 1992 Scotland Smith, AlexAlex Smith 23 7 7 9 30.43% [56]
1992 1995 Scotland Miller, WillieWillie Miller 124 53 45 26 42.47% [56]
1995 1997 Scotland Aitken, RoyRoy Aitken 124 50 31 43 40.32% [57]
1997 1998 Scotland Miller, AlexAlex Miller 43 11 13 19 25.58% [58]
1999 2002 Denmark Skovdahl, EbbeEbbe Skovdahl 159 54 37 68 33.96% [59]
2002 2004 Scotland Paterson, SteveSteve Paterson 68 23 13 32 33.82% [60]
2004 2009 Scotland Calderwood, JimmyJimmy Calderwood 227 94 60 73 41.41% [61]
2009 Scotland McGhee, MarkMark McGhee 34 8 10 16 23.53% [62]

References

  1. ^ Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 Years of The Dons: the official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 69–70. ISBN 0 340 82344 5. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Milestones & Records". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/forcereg/milestones/0,,10284~974674,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  3. ^ a b "Club Overview - Aberdeen". Scottish Premier League. http://www.scotprem.premiumtv.co.uk/page/AberdeenDetail/0,,10002~932190,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  4. ^ Grant, Michael (2001-03-04). "Peterhead ready to settle old scores with northern neighbours". Sunday Herald. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20010304/ai_n13956342. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Aberdeen's managers". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1429. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  6. ^ Bauckham, David (2003). Dugouts. New Holland Publishers. p. 9. ISBN 1 84537 478 9. http://www.pyramidpassion.co.uk/Text_page_scan_1.jpg. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Dave Halliday and George Hamilton profiles on "Queens Legends" on the official Queen of the South FC website
  8. ^ 1937-1955 Dave Halliday | Aberdeen | Football | Managers | Managers Detail
  9. ^ "Football and the Second World War". Spartacus. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWfootball.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Scottish Premier League & Cup winners". Tanked Up Imaging. http://www.tankedup-imaging.com/football/scottish.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  11. ^ "European Competitions 1955/56". RSSSF. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec195556.html. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  12. ^ "European Pedigree - Dons in Europe". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/forcereg/dons/0,,10284,00.html?. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  13. ^ "A Sporting Nation - The New Firm and the Dons' Cup-Winners' Cup glory in 1983". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/sportscotland/asportingnation/article/0081/page06.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
  14. ^ "The greatest Euro final ever?". BBC News. 2001-05-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/low/sports_talk/1329596.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  15. ^ "Aberdeen FC: Come On You Reds!". Amazon. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Aberdeen-FC-Come-You-Reds/dp/B000026Y9F. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  16. ^ "Managers 1978-1995". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/Squad/managers/0,,10284~976493,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  17. ^ Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 Years of The Dons: the official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 13. ISBN 0 340 82344 5. 
  18. ^ "Scotland League Archive - 1994/95". RSSSF. http://www.rsssf.com/tabless/scot95.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  19. ^ Grant, Michael (2000-05-19). "Skovdahl helps Milne put his house in order". Sunday Herald. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20000319/ai_n13945485. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  20. ^ "Aberdeen/Rangers scores". Evening Express. http://72.14.205.104/search?q=cache:zkfSoKicjIsJ:www.thisisaberdeen.co.uk/displayNode.jsp%3FnodeId%3D148766%26command%3DdisplayContent%26sourceNode%3D148590%26contentPK%3D20022349%26folderPk%3D85404%26pNodeId%3D148360+Ebbe+Skovdahl&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=10&gl=uk&client=firefox-a. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  21. ^ "Aberdeen 2-0 Rangers". BBC News. 2007-05-20. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/scot_prem/6667579.stm. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  22. ^ McGuigan, Thomas (2007-10-04). "Dnipro 1-1 Aberdeen (agg 1-1)". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aberdeen/7019712.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  23. ^ Linsay, Clive (2007-12-20). "Aberdeen 4-0 Copenhagen". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/europe/7151528.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  24. ^ "Aberdeen set Bayern Munich test". BBC News. 2007-12-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/a/aberdeen/7155860.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  25. ^ Miller, Stevie (2008-02-21). "Bayern Munich 5-1 Aberdeen". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/europe/7254745.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-26. 
  26. ^ "Dons Management Team Moves On". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/News/clubNewsDetail/0,,10284~1665990,00.html. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  27. ^ "SPL: Miller on McGhee". Setanta Sports. 2009-06-12. http://www.setanta.com/uk/Articles/Football/2009/06/12/SPL-Miller-on-McGhee/gnid-56748/. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h "Aberdeen". Historical Football Kits. http://www.historicalkits.co.uk/Scottish_Football_League/Aberdeen/Aberdeen.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  29. ^ Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 Years of The Dons: the official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 69. ISBN 0 340 82344 5. 
  30. ^ "Liverpool - Historical Football Kits". Historical Football Kits. http://www.historicalkits.co.uk/Liverpool/Liverpool.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  31. ^ a b "Aberdeen (A) 94/96 (Large)". Football Shirts. http://www.footballshirts.dk/static/001182/000001/004544.asp. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Aberdeen". Football Crests.com. http://www.footballcrests.com/clubs/aberdeen-fc. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  33. ^ "An Leabhar Mor" (in Gaelic). Leabh Armor. http://www.leabharmor.net/callig_popup.php?id=66. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  34. ^ "new home kit available today". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/News/clubNewsDetail/0,,10284~954462,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  35. ^ "Pittodrie built on rotting foundations". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/sport/2005/12/02/sfnabe02.xml. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  36. ^ a b c "History of Pittodrie Stadium". Scottish Premier League. http://www.scotprem.premiumtv.co.uk/page/AberdeenDetail/0,,10002~907301,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  37. ^ Murdoch, Jamie (2007-12-13). "Aberdeen ready to ditch Pittodrie". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/12/13/sfnabe113.xml. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  38. ^ a b "Projects – Richard Donald Stand, Pittodrie". Stewart Milne Construction. http://www.stewartmilne.com/construction/projects.cfm?sectid=108&newsarea=6&projectid=71. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  39. ^ Inglis, Simon (1996). Football Grounds of Britain, third edition. CollinsWillow. p. 424–426. ISBN 0 00 218426 5. 
  40. ^ "Supporters". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/Supporters/0,,10284,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  41. ^ "Red Ultras Aberdeen - About". Red Ultras. http://www.redultras.net/about/. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  42. ^ "Population of Scotland, Statistics of Scottish City population". Scotland.org. http://www.scotland.org/about/fact-file/population/index.html. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  43. ^ "Scottish Premier League". ESPN soccernet. Statistics are found on the club page. http://soccernet.espn.go.com/league?id=sco.1&cc=5739. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  44. ^ "Aberdeen Statistics". ESPN Soccernet. http://soccernet.espn.go.com/team/stats?id=263&cc=5739. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  45. ^ McCafferty, Gavin. "Calderwood: We're Walking In The Air". Sporting Life. http://www.sportinglife.com/football/cups/uefacup/news/story_get.cgi?STORY_NAME=soccer/07/12/21/SOCCER_Aberdeen_Nightlead.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  46. ^ Didcock, Barry (2005-05-08). "Casuals: the lost tribe of Britain". Sunday Herald. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20050508/ai_n14624276. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  47. ^ Allan, Jay (1989). Bloody Casuals. Northern Books from Famedram. ISBN 0905489411. 
  48. ^ Rivers, Dan (2007). Congratulations, You Have Just Met The Casuals. John Blake Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1844543072. 
  49. ^ "Dundee United A - Z ( D ) - scroll down for the 'Dundee F.C' entry". Dundee United F.C.. http://www.dundeeunitedfc.co.uk/index.asp?pg=238. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  50. ^ Grant, Michael (2002-01-20). "A Fight In The North; Riot police move in as hooligans force players". Sunday Herald. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20020120/ai_n9626855. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  51. ^ Rae, Derek. "Rae's Say: Coming Home". ESPN. http://soccernet.espn.go.com/columns/story?id=306660&root=europe&cc=5901. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  52. ^ Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 Years of The Dons: the official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 91. ISBN 0 340 82344 5. 
  53. ^ Entering the Field: New Perspectives on World Football, Gary Armstrong, Berg Publishers, 1997, ISBN 1859731988
  54. ^ "Hall of Fame". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/forcereg/halloffame/0,,10284,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  55. ^ Percentages have been rounded to two decimal places.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 Years of The Dons: the official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0 340 82344 5. 
  57. ^ "Roy Aitken". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1448. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  58. ^ "Alex Miller". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1356. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  59. ^ "Ebbe Skovdahl". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1479. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  60. ^ "Steve Paterson". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1574. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  61. ^ "Jimmy Calderwood". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1589. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
  62. ^ "Mark McGhee". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=928. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 

External links

Further reading

  • Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 years of The Dons: The official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder & Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-82344-5. 
  • Smith, Paul (2007). The Legends of Aberdeen. Breedon Books. ISBN 978 1 85983 575 3. 
  • Stirling, Kevin (2008). Aberdeen FC on This Day: History, Facts and Figures from Every Day of the Year. Pitch Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978 1 90541 124 5. 
  • Ferguson, Alex (2000). Managing My Life. Coronet. ISBN 0 340 72856 6. 

Simple English

Aberdeen F.C.
File:Merkland Road
Full nameAberdeen Football Club
Nickname(s)The Dons, The Reds, The Dandies
Founded1903
GroundPittodrie Stadium,
Aberdeen, Scotland
(Capacity 22,199)
ChairmanStewart Milne
ManagerMark McGhee
LeagueScottish Premier League
2008/09Scottish Premier League, 4th
 
Home colours
 
Away colours

Aberdeen Football Club (also known as The Dons, The Reds and The Dandies) is a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen. They compete in the Scottish Premier League and are one of the most successful teams in their country, having won four league titles and seven Scottish Cups. They are also the only Scottish team to have won two European trophies, both in the same year, however they have not won any silverware since 1995.

Formed in 1903 as a result of the amalgamation of three clubs from Aberdeen, they rarely challenged for honours until the 1950s, when they won each of the major Scottish trophies under manager Dave Halliday. This level of success was surpassed in the 1980s, when, under the management of Alex Ferguson, they won three league titles, four Scottish Cups and a Scottish League Cup, alongside the European honours. Aberdeen were the last club outside of the Old Firm to win a league title, in 1984–85.

Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium since their inception. The ground currently has a capacity of 22,199 and was the first all-seated and all-covered stadium in the United Kingdom. Pittodrie was also the first football stadium to feature a dugout, an invention of player and coach Donald Colman. The club's colours have been primarily red and white since 1939; before this, they played in black and gold vertical stripes.

Aberdeen attract support from the city and surrounding areas, as they are the only senior team within a wide area. Aberdeen have no geographically close rivals; their nearest neighbours at the same level are in the city of Dundee, with Dundee United having been their principal rivals in the New Firm in the 1980s. Rangers supplanted Dundee United as rivals in the late 1980s, but the rivalry, while fierce, does not approach that of the Old Firm.

Contents

Colours and crest

For the 1904–05 season, Aberdeen adopted a black and gold striped shirt, which led to the team being nicknamed "Wasps". This strip, with only minor variations, was worn until just before the start of the Second World War. The blue shorts lasted until 1911, and then were replaced with white ones. Socks were black with gold trim, either as stripes or as a solid bar at the turndown.[1]

In March 1939, Aberdeen changed the black and gold colours to red and white, reflecting the silver and red colours of the official City of Aberdeen arms.[2] The first red strips were worn with white shorts, these were worn with either red or white socks from 1939 until the 1965–66 season.[1] In 1966, Aberdeen adopted red shorts, making the official kit all-red, similar to that of Liverpool, who made a similar change at around the same time.[3] This arrangement has continued to the present day, with several variations in design, in common with most senior clubs as the replica shirt market has expanded. In the late 1970s an Admiral strip featured five vertical white stripes on the left side of the shirt and shorts, and the early 1980s shirts—as worn at the 1983 European Cup Winners Cup final—featured white vertical pinstripes. Later design changes included significant amounts of blue,[1] and a one season reversion to white shorts, although the all-red scheme returned in 1997.[1]

Shirt sponsorship began in 1987, and the initial shirt sponsor was JVC.[1] Since then, with the club making fewer appearances on the international stage, shirt sponsors have tended to be more local—they have included one of the local commercial radio stations, Northsound.[4] Aberdeen last season had announced their intention to move away from local sponsorship. Sponsored by Apex Tubulars at the time, that deal ended at the end of the 2007/08 season. In a turnaround though, Aberdeen FC Managing Director, Duncan Fraser, announced the side would bare the name of local company Team Recruitment on their shirts for the next two seasons. It is believed no international sponsor showed interest.

Change, or "away", strips have tended to be either white, often with black shorts, or a combination of yellow and black, referring back to the black and gold strips of the pre-war era, although for a time in the 1970s, Aberdeen sported an all-blue change strip with white socks.[4] For the 2007–08 season, the change strip is all-white, with a third kit of yellow and black halves available if needed for European games, or in the event of a clash involving both red and white.[1]

The club did not have an official crest before 1972, but several variations on the letters AFC had from time to time featured on the shirt, usually in some kind of cursive font. In November 1972,[5] the club unveiled an official crest or logo, designed by Aberdonian graphic designer Donald Addison.[6] The design represented a capital letter A as the side view of a football goal, with a ball forming the crossbar of the letter. This ball was crosshatched in such a way as to depict it as being inside the net, signifying the scoring of a goal. The logo was completed by the letters FC in smaller type at a level with the ball element.[5] This badge was used on the shirts from around 1978, with no significant alterations until the mid-1980s when the words "Aberdeen Football Club" were added in a circular border, and the date of the club's founding, 1903, was added under the goal element.[5] The current version of the crest, which retains these elements in a unified design, was introduced at the start of the 1997–98 season.[5] Two stars signifying the winning of the two European cups in 1983 were introduced over the badge in the 2005–06 season.[7]

Stadium

File:Merkland Road
Pittodrie Stadium's granite facade viewed from outside the Merkland Road stand

Aberdeen have played at Pittodrie Stadium, the name of which comes from the Pictish for "place of manure",[8] throughout their existence. The ground was first used by the original Aberdeen F.C. in 1899, in a 7–1 win over Dumbarton;[9] when they merged with two other teams in 1903, the new club took over the old Aberdeen ground. On August 15 1903, 8,000 spectators turned up to watch the new Aberdeen draw 1-1 against Stenhousemuir, the first game played at Pittodrie by its amalgamated tenants.[2] The club initially rented the ground, but subsequently bought it in 1920.[2] The stadium contains 21,600 seats,[9] but due to the directors' boxes, some sources place this figure at 22,000.[10] The record attendance occurred on March 13 1954, when 45,061 spectators turned up for a Scottish Cup match between Aberdeen and Hearts.[9]

The stadium consists of four stands. The Main Stand, which houses the club offices and players facilities, holds the majority of the supporters. The Merkland Road Stand is primarily for families. The South Stand is opposite the main stand and a quarter of this section is used to accommodate travelling supporters, except for Old Firm games, where half of this stand is given to the visiting fans. The newest element is the Richard Donald stand at the East, or Beach End, of the ground, and is named after former chairman Dick Donald.[11] This is a modern, two–tier design, completed in 1993, containing hospitality suites which is significantly taller than the other structures at the ground.[11] In 1978, Pittodrie became the first all covered, all-seater stadium in Britain.[12][13]

The club are examining a move to a new stadium in Aberdeen.

File:Alex
Alex Ferguson, the most successful manager of Aberdeen, pictured at current club Manchester United

Players

Current squad

As of 21 February 2009.

No. Position Player
1 GK Jamie Langfield
2 DF Charlie Mulgrew
3 DF Richard Foster
4 MF Gary McDonald
5 DF Zander Diamond
6 DF Andrew Considine
7 MF Jim Paterson (on loan from Plymouth Argyle)
7 FW Chris Maguire (on loan to Kilmarnock)
8 MF Mark Kerr (captain)
9 FW Steven MacLean (on loan from Plymouth Argyle)
10 FW Darren Mackie
11 MF Sone Aluko
14 MF Derek Young
No. Position Player
16 MF Stuart Duff
18 DF Davide Grassi
19 MF Peter Pawlett
21 GK Stuart Nelson
22 DF Jerel Ifil
24 FW Michael Paton
27 DF Jonathan Crawford
28 DF Stirling Smith
30 GK John Bateman (On loan to Peterhead)

AFC Hall of Fame

Aberdeen inaugurated the Hall of Fame following the club's centenary celebrations in 2003. At the launch, it was claimed that over a five-year period, around 50 players and staff would be inducted. However, as of November 2007, the following initial inductees are still the only ones listed on the official website as members:[14]

  • Chris Anderson
  • Jim Bett
  • Henning Boel
  • Martin Buchan
  • Dick Donald
  • Arthur Graham
  • Joe Harper
  • Jim Hermiston
  • John Hewitt
  • Drew Jarvie
  • Jim Leighton
  • Fred Martin
  • Willie Miller
  • Teddy Scott
  • Ally Shewan
  • Neil Simpson
  • Eddie Turnbull
  • Alec Young

Managers

List of full-time managers, as of March 31 2008. Only competitive matches are counted. Caretaker managers are not listed.

From To Name P W D L Win%[15] Ref
1903 1924 Philip, JimmyJimmy Philip 64422117225134.32%[16]
1924 1937 Travers, PaddyPaddy Travers 47421410615445.15%[16]
1937 1955 Halliday, DaveDave Halliday 3711657113544.47%[16]
1955 1959 Shaw, DavieDavie Shaw 14866206244.59%[16]
1959 1965 Pearson, TommyTommy Pearson 18066427236.67%[16]
1965 1971 Turnbull, EddieEddie Turnbull 216101437246.75%[16]
1971 1975 Bonthrone, JimmyJimmy Bonthrone 14367463046.85%[16]
1975 1977 MacLeod, AllyAlly MacLeod 6124191839.34%[16]
1977 1978 McNeill, BillyBilly McNeill 36229561.11%[16]
1978 1986 Ferguson, AlexAlex Ferguson 288167715057.99%[16]
1986 1986 Ferguson, AlexAlex Ferguson
Knox, ArchieArchie Knox
1575346.67%[16]
1986 1988 Porterfield, IanIan Porterfield 713527949.30%[16]
1988 1991 Scott, JockyJocky Scott
Smith, AlexAlex Smith
11763351953.85%[16]
1991 1992 Smith, AlexAlex Smith 2377930.43%[16]
1992 1995 Miller, WillieWillie Miller 12453452642.47%[16]
1995 1997 Aitken, RoyRoy Aitken 12450314340.32%[17]
1997 1998 Miller, AlexAlex Miller 4311131925.58%[18]
1999 2002 Skovdahl, EbbeEbbe Skovdahl 15954376833.96%[19]
2002 2004 Paterson, SteveSteve Paterson 6823133233.82%[20]
2004 2009 Calderwood, JimmyJimmy Calderwood 17573465641.71%[21]

Further reading

  • Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 years of The Dons: The official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder & Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-82344-5. 
  • Smith, Paul (2007). The Legends of Aberdeen. Breedon Books. ISBN 978 1 85983 575 3. 
  • Ferguson, Alex (2000). Managing My Life. Coronet. ISBN 0 340 72856 6. 

References

  1. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named strips
  2. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named milestones
  3. "Liverpool - Historical Football Kits". Historical Football Kits. http://www.historicalkits.co.uk/Liverpool/Liverpool.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Aberdeen (A) 94/96 (Large)". Football Shirts. http://www.footballshirts.dk/static/001182/000001/004544.asp. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Aberdeen". Football Crests.com. http://www.footballcrests.com/clubs/aberdeen-fc. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  6. "An Leabhar Mor" (in Gaelic). Leabh Armor. http://www.leabharmor.net/callig_popup.php?id=66. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  7. "new home kit available today". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/News/clubNewsDetail/0,,10284~954462,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  8. "Pittodrie built on rotting foundations". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/sport/2005/12/02/sfnabe02.xml. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "History of Pittodrie Stadium". Scottish Premier League. http://www.scotprem.premiumtv.co.uk/page/AberdeenDetail/0,,10002~907301,00.html. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  10. Murdoch, Jamie (2007-12-13). "Aberdeen ready to ditch Pittodrie". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/12/13/sfnabe113.xml. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Projects – Richard Donald Stand, Pittodrie". Stewart Milne Construction. http://www.stewartmilne.com/construction/projects.cfm?sectid=108&newsarea=6&projectid=71. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 
  12. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named overview
  13. Inglis, Simon (1996). Football Grounds of Britain, third edition. CollinsWillow. p. 424–426. ISBN 0 00 218426 5. 
  14. "Hall of Fame". Aberdeen F.C.. http://www.afc.premiumtv.co.uk/page/forcereg/halloffame/0,,10284,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  15. Percentages have been rounded to two decimal places.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 Webster, Jack (2003). The First 100 Years of The Dons: the official history of Aberdeen Football Club 1903–2003. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0 340 82344 5. 
  17. "Roy Aitken". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1448. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  18. "Alex Miller". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1356. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  19. "Ebbe Skovdahl". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1479. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  20. "Steve Paterson". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1574. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  21. "Jimmy Calderwood". Soccerbase. http://www.soccerbase.com/managers2.sd?managerid=1589. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 

Other websites


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message