Abolition of slavery timeline: Wikis

  
  

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Slavery
Early history

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Religion

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By country or region

Africa · Atlantic · Arab · Coastwise · Angola · Britain and Ireland · British Virgin Islands · Brazil · Canada · India · Iran · Japan · Libya · Mauritania · Romania · Spanish New World colonies · Sudan · Swedish · United States

Contemporary slavery

Modern Africa · Debt bondage · Penal labour · Sexual slavery · Unfree labour · Human trafficking

Opposition and resistance

Timeline · Abolitionism · Compensated emancipation · Opponents of slavery‎ · Slave rebellion · Slave narrative

Abolition of slavery occurred as abolition in specific countries, abolition of the trade in slaves and abolition throughout empires. Each of these steps was usually the result of a separate law or action.

Contents

Ancient times

  • 9 In China, Emperor Wang Mang usurps the throne, abolishes slave trading (although not slavery), and institutes radical land reform[1]

Early timeline

It should be noted that many of these changes were reversed in practice over the succeeding centuries.

  • 1102 Trade in slaves and serfdom ruled illegal in London: Council of Westminster
  • 1117 Slavery abolished in Iceland
  • 1274 Landslova (Land's Law) in Norway mentions only former slaves, which indicates that slavery was abolished in Norway
  • 1315 Louis X, king of France, publishes a decree proclaiming that «"France" signifies freedom and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed[2]».
  • 1335 Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal.

Modern timeline

1500-1700

1700-1800

1800-1900

  • 1802 The emperor Napoleon re-introduces slavery on French colonies growing sugarcane. [4]
  • 1803 Denmark-Norway abolishes transatlantic slave trade on 1 January 1803
  • 1803 Lower Canada abolishes slavery
  • 1804 New Jersey abolishes slavery; all states in North have now abolished slavery
  • 1804 Haiti declares independence and abolishes slavery[5]
  • 1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade Act: slave trading abolished in British Empire. Captains fined £100 per slave transported.
  • 1807 British begin patrols of African coast to arrest slaving vessels. West Africa Squadron (Royal Navy) established to suppress slave trading; by 1865, nearly 150,000 people freed by anti-slavery operations[10]
  • 1807 Abolition in Prussia, Germany The Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.
  • 1808 United States—import and export of slaves prohibited after 1 Jan..[11]
  • 1811 Slave trading made a felony in the British Empire punishable by transportation for British subjects and foreigners.
  • 1811 Spain abolishes slavery at home and in all colonies except Cuba,[4] Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo
  • 1813 Argentina abolishes slavery[4]
  • 1814 Dutch outlaw slave trade
  • 1815 British pay Portugal £750,000 to cease their trade[12]
  • 1815 Congress of Vienna. 8 Victorious powers declared their opposition to slavery
  • 1816 Serfdom abolished in Estonia.
  • 1817 Serfdom abolished in Courland.
  • 1817 Spain paid £400,000 by British to cease trade to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo[12]
  • 1818 Treaty between Britain and Spain to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1818 Treaty between Britain and Portugal to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1818 France and Netherlands abolish slave trading
  • 1819 Treaty between Britain and Netherlands to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1819 Serfdom abolished in Livonia.
  • 1821 Gran Colombia (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama) declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers, sets up program for compensated emancipation [14]
  • 1822 Liberia founded by American Colonization Society (USA) as a colony for emancipated slaves.
  • 1822 Greece abolishes slavery
  • 1823 Chile abolishes slavery[5]
  • 1824 The Federal Republic of Central America abolishes slavery.
  • 1827 Treaty between Britain and Sweden to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1829 Mexico abolishes slavery[5]
  • 1831 Bolivia abolishes slavery[5]
  • 1834 The British Slavery Abolition Act 1833 comes into force, abolishing slavery throughout most of the British Empire. The exceptions being territories controlled by the Honourable East India Company and Ceylon. Legally frees 700,000 in West Indies, 20,000 in Mauritania, 40,000 in South Africa.[15]
  • 1835 Treaty between Britain and France to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1835 Treaty between Britain and Denmark to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1836 Portugal abolishes transatlantic slave trade
  • 1839 British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society founded, now called Anti-Slavery International
  • 1839 Indian indenture system made illegal (reversed in 1842)
  • 1840 Treaty between Britain and Venezuela to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1841 Quintuple Treaty is signed; Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to suppress slave trade[5]
  • 1842 Uruguay abolishes slavery[5]
  • 1843 Honourable East India Company becomes increasingly controlled by Britain and abolishes slavery in India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843.
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Uruguay to suppress slave trade [13]
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Mexico to suppress slave trade [13]
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Chile to suppress slave trade [13]
  • 1843 Treaty between Britain and Bolivia to abolish slave trade [13]
  • 1845 36 British Royal Navy ships are assigned to the Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
  • 1846 Tunisia abolishes slavery
  • 1847 Sweden abolishes slavery[16]
  • 1848 Denmark abolishes slavery[16]
  • 1848 Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies[5]
  • 1848 France founds Gabon for settlement of emancipated slaves.
  • 1848 Treaty between Britain and Muscat to suppress slave trade [13]
  • 1849 Treaty between Britain and Persian Gulf states to suppress slave trade [13]
  • 1850 United States: Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 requires return of escaped slaves
  • 1851 New Granada (Colombia) abolishes slavery[14]
  • 1852 The Hawaiian Kingdom abolishes kauwa system of serfdom. .[17]
  • 1854 Peru abolishes slavery[5]
  • 1854 Venezuela abolishes slavery[5][14]
  • 1855 Moldavia abolishes slavery.[18]
  • 1856 Wallachia abolishes slavery.[18]
  • 1860 Indenture system abolished within British occupied India.
  • 1861 Russia frees its serfs in the Emancipation reform of 1861.[19]
  • 1862 Treaty between United States and Britain for the suppression of the slave trade (African Slave Trade Treaty Act)[13].
  • 1862 Cuba abolishes slave trade[5]
  • 1863 Slavery abolished in Dutch colonies.[20]
  • 1863 United States: Emancipation Proclamation declares those slaves in Confederate-controlled areas to be freed. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action; separate law frees the slaves in Washington, D.C.
  • 1865 United States abolishes slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; about 40,000 remaining slaves are affected.[5]
  • 1869 Portugal abolishes slavery in the African colonies
  • 1870 U.S. abolishes slavery in Alaska
  • 1871 Brazil declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers after 28 September 1871.
  • 1873 Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico
  • 1873 Treaty between Britain and Zanzibar and Madagascar to suppress slave trade [13]
  • 1874 Britain abolishes slavery in the Gold Coast (now Ghana) following its annexation in 1874 (after Third Anglo-Asante War).
  • 1879 Bulgaria abolishes slavery (note: the slavery was abolished with the fist constitution of the renewed Bulgarian state)
  • 1886 Slavery abolished in Cuba[5]
  • 1888 Brazil abolishes slavery.[21]
  • 1890 Brussels Act - Treaty granting anti-slavery powers the right to stop and search ships for slaves
  • 1894 Korea abolishes slavery[22]
  • 1896 France abolishes slavery in Madagascar
  • 1897 Zanzibar abolishes slavery[23] following its becoming a British protectorate.

1900-today

While now illegal everywhere, slavery or practices akin to it continue today in many countries throughout the world.

See also

Further reading

  • Finkelman, Paul and Joseph Miller. Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1999)
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Hinks, Peter P. ed. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2006)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World (2007)

References

  1. ^ http://books.google.co.il/books?id=g_kuS42BxIYC&pg=PA420&lpg=PA420&dq=wang+mang+slavery&source=bl&ots=ZVLP0h32P9&sig=bf89w4fTVdCeQn5q4pdbgHdfKv8&hl=iw&ei=UjRSSpjOGYfgnAPapqymCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2
  2. ^ Christopher L. Miller, The French Atlantic triangle: literature and culture of the slave trade, p.20.
  3. ^ Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery
  4. ^ a b c d Hobhouse, Henry. Seeds of Change: Six Plants That Transformed Mankind, 2005. Page 111.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 1995. Pages 33-34.
  6. ^ Historical survey > Slave societies
  7. ^ Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004. ISBN 963-9241-84-9, p.128
  8. ^ In 1804 France re-legalizes slavery in the Caribbean colonies.
  9. ^ May, Thomas Erskine (1895), "Last Relics of Slavery", The Constitutional History of England (1760 – 1860), II, New York: A. C. Armstrong and Son, pp. 274 – 275, http://books.google.com/books?id=sCwYAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA274 
  10. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore BBC
  11. ^ Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom," New York Times. 30 December 2007.
  12. ^ a b "Blacks in Latin America," Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Chronological Table of the Statutes" (1959 edition)
  14. ^ a b c Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislacion y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia. 14. Bogota: Lemer. pp. 428–442. 
  15. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:293
  16. ^ a b Cobb, Thomas Read Rootes. An Inquiry Into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States of America: To which is Prefixed An Historical Sketch of Slavery, 1858. Page cxcii.
  17. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:377
  18. ^ a b Mihail Kogălniceanu, Dezrobirea ţiganilor, ştergerea privilegiilor boiereşti, emanciparea ţăranilor, 1891
  19. ^ Peter Kolchin, Unfree Labor (1987)
  20. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 2:637
  21. ^ Finkelman and Miller, Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery 1:124
  22. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to History
  23. ^ Swahili Coast
  24. ^ Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery
  25. ^ Baker, Chris and Pasuk Phongpaichit. A History of Thailand, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 61.
  26. ^ Afghan Constitution: 1923
  27. ^ Whelpton, John. A History of Nepal, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005, p. 53.
  28. ^ Garti-Khamendeu
  29. ^ The slave trade: myths and preconceptions
  30. ^ House of Commons - International Development - Memoranda
  31. ^ Barker, A. J., The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 36
  32. ^ The End of Slavery
  33. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations. 10 December 1948. http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html. Retrieved 13 December 2007. "Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948 ... Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms." 
  34. ^ Slavery in Mauritania
  35. ^ Disposable People







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