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Abraham Calovius

Abraham Calovius (16 April 1612 ‚Äď 25 February 1686) was a Lutheran theologian, and was one of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century.

He was born in Mohrungen (now MorńÖg, Ostr√≥da County) in the Duchy of Prussia. After studying at K√∂nigsberg, in 1650 he was appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he afterwards became general superintendent and primarius.

Calovius opposed the Catholics, Calvinists and Socinians, and in particular attacked the syncretism of his bitter enemy, George Calixtus. While Calixtus affirmed that the Apostles' Creed was an adequate definition of faith, Calovius rather held that one must believe every part of revealed truth in order to gain salvation. This led Calovius to deny as a heresy the idea that Roman Catholics or Calvinists could be partakers of salvation.

As a writer of polemics Calovius had few equals. His chief dogmatic work, Systema Iocorum theologicorum, (12 volumes, 1655-1677) represents the climax of Lutheran scholasticism. He produced a commentary on Martin Luther's translation of the Bible, the Biblia Illustrata, today known as the Calov Bible. It is written from the point of view of a very strict belief in inspiration, his object being to refute the statements made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ABRAHAM CALOVIUS (1612-1686), German Lutheran divine, was born at Mohrungen in east Prussia, on the 16th of April 1612. After studying at Konigsberg, in 1650 he was appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he afterwards became general superintendent and primarius. He died on the 25th of February 1686. Calovius was the most noteworthy of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century. He strongly opposed the Catholics, Calvinists and Socinians, attacked in particular the reconciliation policy or "syncretism" of Georg Calixtus (cf. the Consensus repetitus fidei vere. lutheranae, 1665), and as a writer of polemics he had few equals. His chief dogmatic work, Systema locorum theologicorum (12 vols. 16 551677), represents the climax of Lutheran scholasticism. In his Biblia Illustrata (4 vols.), written from the point of view of a very strict belief in inspiration, his object is to refute the statements made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries. His Historia Syncretistica (1682) was suppressed.


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