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Abraham Kuyper

In office
1 August 1901 – 17 August 1905
Monarch Queen Wilhelmina
Preceded by Nicolaas Pierson
Succeeded by Theodoor de Meester

Born 29 October 1837(1837-10-29)
Maassluis, Netherlands
Died 8 November 1920 (aged 83)
The Hague, Netherlands
Birth name Abraham Kuijper
Political party ARP
Spouse(s) Johanna Hendrika Schaay
Alma mater Leiden University
Occupation Theologian, Journalist, Minister
Religion Reformed Protestant

Abraham Kuijper (Maassluis, 29 October 1837– Den Haag, 8 November 1920) generally known as Abraham Kuyper, was a Dutch politician, journalist, statesman and theologian. He founded the Anti-Revolutionary Party and was prime minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905.




Early life

Kuyper was home schooled by his father, Jan Frederik Kuyper, who was a minister for the Dutch Reformed Church in Hoogmade, Maassluis, Middelburg and Leiden. He had no formal primary education, but received secondary education at the Gymnasium of Leiden.

In 1855 he graduated from the gymnasium and began to study literature, philosophy and theology at Leiden University. He received his propedeuse in literature in 1857, summa cum laude, and in philosophy in 1858, also summa cum laude. He also took classes in Arabic, Armenian and physics.

In 1862 he was promoted to doctor in Theology on basis of a dissertation called "Disquisitio historico-theologica, exhibens Johannis Calvini et Johannis à Lasco de Ecclesia Sententiarum inter se compositionem" (Theological-historical dissertation showing the differences in the rules of the church, between John Calvin and John Łaski). In comparing the views of John Calvin and Jan Łaski, Kuyper showed a clear sympathy for the more liberal Łaski. During his studies Kuyper was a member of the modern tendency within the Dutch Reformed Church.

Religious Life

In May 1862 he was declared eligible for the ministry and 1863 he accepted a call to become minister for the Dutch Reformed Church for the town of Beesd. In the same year he married Johanna Hendrika Schaay (1842-1899). They would have five sons and three daughters. In 1864 he began corresponding with the anti-revolutionary MP Guillaume Groen van Prinsterer, who heavily influenced his political and theological views (see below).

Around 1866 he began to sympathize with the orthodox tendency within the Dutch Reformed Church. He was inspired by the simple reformed faith of Pietje Balthus, a farmer's wife. He began to oppose the centralization in the church, the role of the King and began to plead for the separation of church and state.

In 1867 Kuyper was asked to become minister for the parish in Utrecht and he left Beesd. In 1870 he was asked to come to Amsterdam. In 1871 he began to write for the "De Heraut" ("The Herald").

In 1872 he founded his own paper, "De Standaard" ("the Standard"). This paper would lay the foundation for the network of reformed organization, (the reformed pillar), which Kuyper would found.


In 1886 Kuyper led an exodus from the Dutch Reformed Church. He grieved the loss of Reformed distinctives within this State Church, which no longer required office bearers to agree to the Reformed standards which had once been foundational.[1]

Kuyper and the consistory of Amsterdam insisted that both ministers and church members subscribe to the Reformed confessions. This was appealed to Classis, and Kuyper, along with about 80 members of the Amsterdam consistory, were suspended in Dec. 1885. This was appealed to the provincial synod, which upheld the ruling in a 1 July 1886 ruling.[2].

Refusing to accept his suspension, Kuyper preached to his followers in an auditorium on Sunday, 11 July 1886. Because of their deep sorrow at the state of the Dutch Reformed Church, the group called itself the Doleantie (grieving ones).

By 1889 the Doleantie churches had over 200 congregations, 180,000 members, and about 80 ministers.

Kuyper, (although at first antagonistic towards them), soon began to seek union with the churches of the Secession of 1834, the Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerken (Christian Reformed Church). These churches had earlier broken off from the Dutch Reformed Church. This union was effected in 1892, and the Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland (Reformed Church in the Netherlands) was formed. This denomination has its counterpart in the Christian Reformed Church in North America.

Political life

Member of Parliament

In 1873 Kuyper stood as candidate in the general election for parliament for the constituency of Gouda, but he was defeated by the incumbent member of parliament, the conservative Jonkheer Willem Maurits de Brauw. When De Brauw died the next year, Kuyper stood again in the bye-election for the same district. This time he was elected to parliament, defeating the liberal candidate Herman Verners van der Loeff.

Kuyper subsequently moved to the Hague, without telling his friends in Amsterdam. In parliament he showed a particular interest in education, especially the equal financing of public and religious schools. In 1876 he wrote "Our Program" which laid the foundation for the Anti Revolutionary Party. In this programme he formulated the principle of antithesis, the conflict between the religious (reformed and Catholics) and non-religious. In 1877 he left parliament because of problems with his health, suffering from overexertion.

In 1878 Kuyper returned to politics, he led the petition against a new law on education, which would further disadvantage religious schools. This was an important impetus for the foundation of the Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) in 1879, of which Kuyper would be chairman between 1879 and 1905. He would be the indisputed leader of the party between 1879 and 1920. His followers gave him the nickname "Abraham de Geweldige" (Abraham the Great). In 1880 he founded the Free University in Amsterdam and he was made professor of Theology there. He also served as its first rector magnificus. In 1881 he also became professor of literature. In 1886 he left the Dutch Reformed Church, with a large group of followers. The parish in Amsterdam was made independent of the church, and kept their own building. Between 1886 and 1892 they would be called the Dolerenden, (those with grievances). In 1892 those Dolerenden founded a new denomination called The Reformed Churches in the Netherlands after merging with other orthodox Reformed people who had seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church in 1834.

In the general election of 1894 Kuyper was re-elected to the House of Representatives for the district of Sliedrecht. He defeated the liberal Van Haaften and the anti-takkian anti-revolutionary Beelaerts van Blokland. He also ran as a candidate in Dordrecht and Amsterdam, but was defeated there. In the election he joined the so-called Takkians, in a conflict between the liberal minister Tak, and a majority House of Representatives. Tak wanted to reform the census-suffrage, but a majority in parliament rejected his proposal. Kuyper favoured the legislation because he expected the enfranchised lower class voters would favour his party. This orientation towards the lower classes gave him the nickname "De bellringer of the common people" (klokkeluider van de kleine luyden). His position on suffrage also led to a conflict within the ARP: a group around Alexander de Savornin Lohman was opposed on principle to universal suffrage because they rejected popular sovereignty; they left the ARP to found the CHU in 1901. The authoritarian leadership of Kuyper also played an important role in this conflict. Lohman opposed party discipline and wanted MPs to make up their own mind, while Kuyper favoured strong leadership. After the elections Kuyper became chair of the parliamentary caucus of the ARP. In his second term as MP he concentrated on more issues than education, like suffrage, labour, and foreign affairs. In foreign affairs especially the Second Boer War was of particular interest to him, in the conflict between the Dutch-speaking reformed farmers and the English-speaking Anglicans he sided with the Boers, and heavily opposed the English. In 1896 Kuyper voted against the new suffrage law of Van Houten, because according to Kuyper the reforms did not go far enough. In the 1897 elections Kuyper competed in Zuidhorn, Sliedrecht and Amsterdam. He was defeated by liberals in Zuidhorn and Amsterdam, but he defeated the liberal Wisboom in Sliedrecht. In Amsterdam he was defeated by Johannes Tak van Poortvliet. As an MP Kuyper kept his job as journalist, and he even became chair of the Dutch Circle of Journalists in 1898; when he left in 1901 he was made honorary president. In the same year, at the invitation of B.B. Warfield, Kuyper delivered the Stone Lectures at Princeton Seminary, which was his first widespread exposure to a North American audience. These lectures were given 10 October-11, 14 and 19-21 in 1898. He also received a honorary doctorate in law there. During his time in the United States, he also traveled to address several Dutch reformed congregations in Michigan and Iowa and presbyterian gatherings in Ohio and New Jersey.

Prime minister

In the 1901 elections Kuyper was re-elected in Sliedrecht, defeating the liberal De Klerk. In Amsterdam he was defeated again, now by the freethinking liberal Nolting. He did not take his seat in parliament however but was instead appointed formateur and later prime minister of the Dutch cabinet. He also served as minister of Home Affairs. He originally wanted to become minister of labour and enterprise, but neither Mackay or Heemskerk, prominent anti-revolutionaries, wanted to become minister of Home Affairs, forcing him to take the portfolio. During his time as prime minister he showed a strong leadership style: he changed the rules of procedure of cabinet in order to become chair of cabinet for four years (before him, the chairmanship of the cabinet had rotated among its members).

The portfolio of home affairs at the time was very broad: it involved local government, industrial relations, education and public morality. The 1903 railway strike was one of the decisive issues for his cabinet. Kuyper produced several particularly harsh laws to end the strikes (the so-called "worgwetten", strangling laws), and pushed them through parliament. He also proposed legislation to improve working conditions; however only those on fishing and harbour construction passed through parliament. In education Kuyper changed several education laws to improve the financial situation of religious schools. His law on higher education, which would make the diplomas of faith-based universities equal to that of the public universities, was defeated in the Senate. Consequently Kuyper dissolved the Senate and, after a new one was elected, the legislation was accepted. He was also heavily involved in foreign policy, giving him the nickname "Minister of Foreign Travels".

Minister of State

In 1905 his ARP lost the elections and was confined to opposition. Between 1905 and 1907 Kuyper made a grand tour around the Mediterranean. In 1907 Kuyper became honorary doctor at the Delft University of Technology. In 1907 he was re-elected chair of the ARP, a post which he would hold to his death in 1920. In 1907 Kuyper wanted to return to parliament. In a by-election in Sneek he needed the support of the local CHU. They refused him support. This led to a personal conflict between Kuyper and De Savorin Lohman. In 1908 he came into conflict with Heemskerk, who had not involved him in the formation of the CHU/ARP/Catholic General League cabinet, thereby denying him the chance to return as minister. In 1908 Kuyper received the honorary title of minister of state. He was elected to the House of Representatives for the district of Ommen in the by-elections in the same year, defeating the liberal De Meester. He also ran in Sneek where he was elected as sole candidate. Kuyper took the seat for Ommen. In 1909 he was made chair of the committee which would write the new orthography of the Dutch language. In the same year he also received an honorary doctorate at the Catholic University of Leuven. In the 1909 elections he was re-elected in Ommen, defeating the liberal Teesselink, but he was defeated in Dordrecht by the liberal De Kanter.

In 1909 he came under heavy criticism in the so-called decorations affairs (lintjeszaak). While minister of home affairs, Kuyper allegedly received money from one Rudolf Lehman, to make him Officer in the Order of Orange-Nassau. A parliamentary debate was held on the subject and a committee of wise men was instituted to research the claim. In 1910 the committee reported that Kuyper was innocent. Between 1910 and 1912 he was member of the committee headed by Heemskerk, which prepared a revision of the constitution. In 1912 he resigned his seat in parliament for health reasons, but he returned to politics in the following year, this time as a member of the Senate for the province of South Holland. He would retain this seat until his death. In 1913 he was made commander in the Order of the Netherlands Lion. During the First World War Kuyper sided with the Germans, because he had opposed the English since the Boer wars. In 1918 Kuyper played an important role in the formation of the first cabinet led by Charles Ruijs de Beerenbrouck. In 1920, at the age of 83 Kuyper died in The Hague and was buried amid great public attention.


Kuyper theological and political views are linked. His orthodox Protestant beliefs heavily influenced his anti-revolutionary politics.

Theological views

Theologically Kuyper has also been very influential. He opposed the liberal tendencies within the Dutch Reformed Church. This eventually led to secession and the foundation of Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. He developed so-called Neo-Calvinism, which differs from conventional Calvinism over issues such as divine grace and the role of the state. Furthermore, Kuyper was the first to formulate the principle of common grace in the context of a Reformed world-view.

Most important has been Kuyper's view on the role of God in everyday life. He believed that God continually influenced the life of believers, and daily events could show his workings. Kuyper famously said, "Oh, no single piece of our mental world is to be hermetically sealed off from the rest, and there is not a square inch in the whole domain of our human existence over which Christ, who is Sovereign over all, does not cry: 'Mine!'"[3] God continually re-creates the universe through acts of grace. God's acts are necessary to ensure the continued existence of creation. Without his direct activity creation would self-destruct.

Political views

Kuypers political ideals were orthodox-Protestant and anti-revolutionary.

The concept of sphere sovereignty was very important for Kuyper. He rejected the popular sovereignty of France in which all rights originated with the individual, and the state-sovereignty of Germany in which all rights derived from the state. Instead, he wanted to honour the "intermediate bodies" in society, such as schools and universities, the press, business and industry, the arts etc., each of which would be sovereign in its own sphere. In the interest of a level playing field, he championed the right of every faith community (among whom he counted humanists and socialists) to operate their own schools, newspapers, hospitals, youth movements etc. He sought equal government finances for all faith-based institutions. He saw an important role for the state in upholding the morality of the Dutch people. He favoured monarchy, and saw the House of Orange as historically and religiously linked to the Dutch people. His commitment to universal suffrage was only tactical; he expected the Anti-Revolutionary Party would be able to gain more seats this way. In actuality, Kuyper wanted a Householder Franchise where fathers of each family would vote for his family. He also favoured a Senate representing the various interest, vocational and professional groups in society.

With his ideals he defended the interests of a group of middle class orthodox reformed, who were often referred to as "the little people" (de kleine luyden). He formulated the principle of antithesis: a divide between secular and religious politics. Liberals and socialists, who were opposed to mixing religion and politics were his natural opponents. Catholics were a natural ally, for not only did they want to practice religiously inspired politics, but they also were no electoral opponent, because they appealed to different religious groups. Socialists, who preached class conflict were a danger to the reformed workers. He called for workers to accept their fates and be happy with a simple life, because the afterlife would be much more satisfying and revolution would only lead to instability. At the same time he argued that the system of unrestricted free enterprise was in need of "architectonic critique" and he urged government to adopt labour legislation and to inspect workplaces.


Kuyper's political views and acts have influenced Dutch politics. Kuyper stood at the cradle of pillarization, the social expression of the anti-thesis in public life. His championing of parity treatment for faith-based organizations and institutions created the basis for the alliance between Protestants and Catholics that would dominate Dutch politics to the present day. One of the current governing parties of the Netherlands, the CDA, is still heavily influenced by Kuyper's thought. His greatest theological act, the founding of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands was undone in 2005 with the creation of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands which united the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

In the North America, Kuyper's political and theological views have had a significant impact, especially in the Reformed community. He is considered the father of Dutch Neo-Calvinism and had considerable influence on the thought of philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd. Others that have been influenced by Kuyper include Francis Schaeffer, Cornelius Van Til, Alvin Plantinga, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Albert M. Wolters, Chuck Colson, James Skillen, Stephen Perks, R Tudur Jones, and Bobi Jones.

Institutions influenced by Kuyper include Cardus (formerly The Work Research Foundation), Calvin College, The Clapham Institute, Dordt College, Institute for Christian Studies, Redeemer University College, The Coalition for Christian Outreach, The Center for Public Justice, and the Washington Institute for Faith, Vocation, & Culture. In 2006, Reformed Bible College, located in Grand Rapids, Michigan was renamed in honor of Abraham Kuyper and is now Kuyper College.

As well as Kuyper's profound influence upon European Christian-Democrat politics up to the present, his political theology was also crucial in the history of South Africa. Political even-handedness requires that Kuyper's involvement with South African politics, and his influence upon the founders of Apartheid, be acknowledged. His legacy in South Africa is arguably even greater than within the Netherlands. There, his Christian-National conception, centred upon the identification of the Afrikaner Calvinist community as the kern der natie became a rallying position for the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk and the Gereformeerde Kerk, the South African offshoot of his own Gereformeerde Kerken during and after the Boer war. As Christian-Nationalists, Kuyper's adherents in South Africa were instrumental in the building of Afrikaner cultural, political and economic institutions to restore Afrikaner fortunes following the Boer War. One key creation was the Afrikaner Broederbond, the anti-British and White Supremacist political secret society whose foundation was explicitly Christian-National. It was the Afrikaner Broederbond, in course of time, loyal to its specifically Kuyperian Christian-Nationalist ideology, which created the Afrikaner National Party, with its Apartheid plans. Throughout the Apartheid era, party and state officials swore oaths affirming the 'sovereignty and guidance of God in the destiny of countries and peoples' and to 'seek the development of South Africa's life along Christian-National lines.' Dr. Vorster's 1961 essay on the biblical foundations of apartheid quotes Kuyper 6 times.[4] The interpretation of Kuyper's system which prevailed among Afrikaner theologians and politicians until the 1960s, which was never criticised by Kuyper himself, and the fruits of that interpretation between 1948 and 1994, must constitute a profound challenge to the Biblical validity of Kuyper's analysis and project.

Kuyper's legacy includes a granddaughter, Johtje Vos, who is noted for having sheltered many Jews in her home in the Netherlands from the Nazis. After World War II she moved to New York.[5] Conversely, Kuyper's son Professor H. H. Kuyper, a supporter of Afrikaner Nationalism and colour racism was a wartime Nazi collaborator, and his grandson joined the Waffen SS and died on the Russian front.


Kuyper wrote several theological and political books:

  • "Disquisitio historico-theologica, exhibens Johannis Calvini et Johannis à Lasco de Ecclesia Sententiarum inter se compositionem (Theological-historical dissertation showing the differences in the rules of the church, between John Calvin and John Łaski; his dissertation, 1862)
  • "Conservatisme en Orthodoxie" (Conservatism and Orthodoxy; 1870)
  • "Het Calvinisme, oorsprong en waarborg onzer constitutionele vrijheden. Een nederlandse gedachte" (Calvinism; the source and the safeguard of our constitutional freedoms. A Dutch thought; 1874)
  • "Ons Program" (Our program; ARP political program, 1879)
  • Antirevolutionair óók in uw huisgezin" (Anti-revolutionary in your family too; 1880)
  • "Soevereiniteit in eigen kring" (Sovereignty in its own circle; 1880)
  • Handenarbeid" (1889; Manual Labour)
  • "Maranatha" (1891)
  • "Het sociale vraagstuk en de Christelijke Religie" (The Social Question and the Christian Religion; 1891)
  • "Encyclopaedie der Heilige Godgeleerdheid" (Encyclopedia of Sacred Theology; 1893-1895)
  • "Calvinisme" (Lectures on Calvinism; six stone lectures Kuyper held at Princeton 1899)
  • "The South African Crisis" (1900)
  • "De Gemene Gratie" (Common Grace; 1902-1905)
  • "Parlementaire Redevoeringen" (parliamentary speeches; 1908-1910)
  • "Starrentritsen" (1915)
  • "Antirevolutionaire Staatkunde" (Anti-revolutionary politics; 1916-1917)
  • "Vrouwen uit de Heilige schrift" (1897)



  1. ^ Dan Knight, Dr. Abraham Kuyper, <> (Accessed Feb. 6, 2008).
  2. ^ Dan Knight, Dr. Abraham Kuyper, <> (Accessed Feb. 6, 2008)
  3. ^ Kuyper, Abraham (1998), "Sphere Sovereignty", in Bratt, James D., Abraham Kuyper, A Centennial Reader, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, pp. 488 
  4. ^ J.D. Vorster, 'Etniese Verskeidenheid, Kerklike Pluriformiteit en die Ekumeme', in Grense: 'n Simposium oor Rasse en ander Verhoudinge (Stellenbosch, 1961)
  5. ^ Hevesi, Dennis. "Johtje Vos, Who Saved Wartime Jews, Dies at 97," New York Times. 4 November 2007.


  • Leroy Vogel (1937). Die Politischen Ideen Abraham Kypers und Seine Entwicklung als Staatsmann. University of Heidelberg. 
  • Frank Vanden Berg (1978). Abraham Kuyper. St. Catharines, Ont.: Paideia Press. ISBN 0-88815-015-6. 
  • Louis Praamsma (1985). Let Christ be King : Reflections on the Life and Times of Abraham Kuyper. Ontario: Paideia Press. ISBN 0-88815-064-4. 
  • James D. Bratt (1998). Abraham Kuyper: A Centennial Reader. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 
  • Peter Heslam (1998). Creating a Christian Worldview: Abraham Kuyper's Lectures on Calvinism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 
  • James E. McGoldrick (2000). Abraham Kuyper, God's Renaissance Man. Evangelical Press. ISBN 0-85234-446-5. 
  • John Bolt (2001). A Free Church, A Holy Nation: Abraham Kuyper's American Public Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. 
  • Charles Bloomberg (1990). Christian-Nationalism and the Rise of the Afrikaner Broederbond, in South Africa, 1918-48. London: The Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-48706-0. 

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Abraham Kuyper (1837-10-291920-11-08) was a Dutch politician, journalist, statesman and theologian. He founded the Anti-Revolutionary Party and was prime minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905.


  • He is your friend who pushes you nearer to God.

"Sphere Sovereignty", in James D. Bratt, ed., Abraham Kuyper, A Centennial Reader, (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998)

  • "Oh, no single piece of our mental world is to be hermetically sealed off from the rest, and there is not a square inch in the whole domain of our human existence over which Christ, who is Sovereign over all, does not cry: 'Mine!'" (p. 488)

External links

Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Kuyper, Abraham (1837-1920), Dutch theologian and politician, was born Oct. 29 1837 at Maassluis, and was educated at the university of Leiden. He became Doctor of Divinity and pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church at Beesd in 1863, and in 1870 moved to Amsterdam, where he became in 1876 leader of the anti-Revolutionary party which aimed at the restoration of strictly Calvinistic doctrine in the guidance of State affairs. In 1879 he detailed fully the principles and wishes of his party in Ons Program (Our Programme). A few years later a Calvinistic university was formed through his instrumentality at Amster dam, and he himself became professor of theology. Under his leadership a considerable section of the old Netherland Reformed Church seceded in 1886 and founded the strictly orthodox Calvinistic Reformed Church Community. Until 1894 he devoted himself to religious teaching, and subsequently to politics, literature and journalism, having founded the Standaard and the Heraut in 1872, and contributing to it a daily front-page column of notes on current politics and theology. From 1874-7 he had sat in the Second Chamber, but in the latter year a serious illness forced him to resign his seat. In 1894 he was returned to the Second Chamber. In 1895 he defended the workers' right to strike, but in 1903, as head of the Government (1901-5), he crushed a railway strike by rushing a bill through Parliament making illegal a stoppage of work by those engaged in the public and semi-public services. This won him the enmity of the Dutch Socialists. As minister he conferred upon his Calvinistic univer sity the Jus Promovendi. He deserves great credit for having converted the somewhat old-fashioned polytechnical school at Delft into a technical university which rivals the very best. During the South African War he took a prominent part in the attempts to get Holland to mediate between Great Britain and the Boers. In the World War he sided openly with Germany, but his influence had already greatly diminished. He was the author of numerous publications dealing mostly with religious subjects and held honorary degrees from various universities.

A popular edition of his works appeared in 1896-8, and his parliamentary speeches were published in four volumes (190810). He also published a book describing the Dutch community in London in 1570-1. He died at The Hague Nov. 8 1920.

See W. F. A. Winckel, Leven Arbeid van Dr. Kuyper (1921); Dr. A. Kuyper, Gedenkboek (1921) and A. S. S. and J. H. Kuyper, De Levensavond van Dr. A. Kuyper (1921). 'Abori, Fernand' (1860-1917), French lawyer, was born at Reims April 18 1860. He was educated at Reims and Paris, and spent several years in England and Ger many. He was called to the bar in 1884, and rapidly made a reputation as a brilliant lawyer and advocate, being counsel for the defence in most of the important political trials of the day during a period of nearly thirty years. It was his conduct of the Dreyfus case, however, which placed him at the top of his profession and earned him his unique reputation. He fought with unremitting energy for his client during both the first and second revisions of the trial, in 1898 and 1899, a task attended with considerable danger, as political passions were so strongly excited at the time that Labori was shot at and wounded at Rennes on the eve of his cross-examination of the witnesses for the prosecution. Dreyfus was not finally declared innocent until 1906, and Labori never once relaxed his efforts on behalf of the unfortunate officer. Other notable trials in which he was concerned were the prosecution of Emile Zola for libel (1898), which arose out of the Dreyfus case; the Humbert affair (1902); and the trial of Madame Caillaux for the murder of M. Calmette, editor of the Figaro (1914), when he secured her acquittal. He died in Paris March 14 1917.

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