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Abscess
Classification and external resources

Abscess
ICD-9 682.9
MeSH D000038
.An abscess (Latin: abscessus) is a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g., splinters, bullet wounds, or injecting needles).^ A tooth abscess is caused by bacteria.

^ Pus consists of white blood cells, dead tissue cells and bacteria.
  • treat abscess with wheatgrass 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.grassfactor.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Definition: A skin abscess is a collection of pus and infected material in or on the skin.
  • Skin abscess - Vancouver Washington, WA, Portland Oregon, OR 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.swmedicalcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to other parts of the body.^ Abscess is just a defensive reaction of the tissue, which helps in preventing the infection of infectious material reaching other parts of the body.

^ Benign: Not cancerous; cannot invade neighboring tissues or spread to other parts of the body.
  • Breast-Changes, Continued From Previous Page 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to other parts of the body.

.The organisms or foreign materials kill the local cells, resulting in the release of cytokines.^ The organisms or foreign materials that gain access to a part of tissue kill the local cells, release toxins and trigger an inflammatory response by drawing huge amounts of white blood cells to the area and increasing the regional blood flow.
  • Abscess - WikiHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During this process ‘pus' forms, which is an accumulation of fluid, living and dead white blood cells, dead bacteria or other foreign invaders or materials.
  • Muscular Development Online Magazine - Abscess Prevention 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.musculardevelopment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others can form as the result of a splinter or other foreign material that has become lodged in the skin.
  • Boils (Skin Abscesses) Information, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention on MedicineNet.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cytokines trigger an inflammatory response, which draws large numbers of white blood cells to the area and increases the regional blood flow.^ The organisms or foreign materials that gain access to a part of tissue kill the local cells, release toxins and trigger an inflammatory response by drawing huge amounts of white blood cells to the area and increasing the regional blood flow.
  • Abscess - WikiHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Blood flow to the area increases.
  • Abscess: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • AARP - Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC healthtools.aarp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Abscess - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More white blood cells and antibodies are dispatched to the region of infection.
  • Skin Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final structure of the abscess is an abscess wall, or capsule, that is formed by the adjacent healthy cells in an attempt to keep the pus from infecting neighboring structures.^ This forms the wall of the abscess.
  • Dr Schilling's Net Health Book - Liver Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.nethealthbook.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At the same time, nearby healthy cells form a capsule of tissue around the pus and develop a cell wall that delimits the abscess from nearby healthy tissues.
  • abscess (pathology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The final structure of the abscess is an abscess wall that is formed by the adjacent healthy cells in an attempt to build a barrier around the pus that limits the infected material from neighbouring structures.
  • Abscess - WikiHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, such encapsulation tends to prevent immune cells from attacking bacteria in the pus, or from reaching the causative organism or foreign object.^ Related Topics Sponsor Links An abscess is a collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g.
  • Abscess - WikiHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The cells, bacteria, and dead tissue accumulate to form a clump of cream-colored liquid called pus ; as pus accumulates, adjacent swollen, inflamed tissue presses against the nerves and causes pain.
  • Dorlands Medical Dictionary:abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.mercksource.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There can be causes of abscesses other than cat fight wounds, for example foreign bodies such as grass seeds, splinters etc.

.Abscesses must be differentiated from empyemas, which are accumulations of pus in a preexisting rather than a newly formed anatomical cavity.^ An abscess is a local accumulation of pus in an organ.
  • Dr Schilling's Net Health Book - Liver Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.nethealthbook.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A cavity forms and fills with pus.
  • Abscess | Health | goodtoknow 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.goodtoknow.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Abscess - Localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.
  • Abscess-beef cattle - eXtension 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.extension.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Manifestations

.The cardinal symptoms and signs of any kind of inflammatory process are redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor) and loss of function.^ Pain, redness, and swelling of the affected area.
  • Dental Abscess | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ These four signs—heat, swelling, redness, and pain—characterize inflammation.
  • Abscess: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • AARP - Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC healthtools.aarp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of an abscess are warmth, redness, swelling and pain at the site.
  • How to Prevent an Abscess | eHow.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.Abscesses may occur in any kind of solid tissue but most frequently on skin surface (where they may be superficial pustules (boils) or deep skin abscesses), in the lungs, brain, teeth, kidneys and tonsils.^ Abscesses may develop in lung tissue, in the lymph nodes, and in bone.
  • Abscess: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • abscess Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A boil or skin abscess occurs due to a number of reasons.
  • A complete guide to boil cures for a fast recovery 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A boil is also referred to as a skin abscess.
  • Boils (Skin Abscesses) Information, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention on MedicineNet.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major complications are spreading of the abscess material to adjacent or remote tissues and extensive regional tissue death (gangrene).^ Major complications are spreading of the abscess material to adjacent or remote tissues and extensive regional tissue death ( gangrene ).
  • Abscess - WikiHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Abscess is just a defensive reaction of the tissue, which helps in preventing the infection of infectious material reaching other parts of the body.

^ Wounds from bites can cause abscesses but the majority that are seen in guinea pigs are caused from tissue tearing beneath the surface of the skin and becoming infected.
  • The Peter Gurney Guinea Pig Pages - Abcess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.oginet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Abscesses in most parts of the body rarely heal themselves, so prompt medical attention is indicated at the first suspicion of an abscess.^ An abscess can develop in various parts of the body.
  • Abscess | Health | goodtoknow 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.goodtoknow.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Abscesses in most parts of the body rarely heal themselves, so prompt medical attention is indicated at the first suspicion of an abscess.
  • Abscess - WikiHealth 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wikihealth.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What parts of the body can develop abscesses?
  • abscess Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.An abscess could potentially be fatal (although this is rare) if it compresses vital structures such as the trachea in the context of a deep neck abscess.^ Such an infection could spread to other parts of your body and cause serious damage, so an abscessed tooth requires immediate treatment.
  • Tooth Abscess | AHealthyMe.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ahealthyme.com [Source type: General]

^ Although rare in children, pediatricians should consider Ludwig’s angina in a child with redness and swelling of the upper neck, under the chin, or a swollen or displaced tongue.
  • PACT: Common Oral Pathology - Oral Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.aap.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neck abscesses are sometimes called cervical abscesses or deep neck infections.
  • Ear, Nose, and Throat - Neck Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.musckids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Neck Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.lancastergeneral.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Neck Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.allkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Neck Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.chp.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Neck Abscess | CHOP | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Treatment

.Wound abscesses do not generally need to be treated with antibiotics, but they will require surgical intervention, debridement and curettage.^ In general, abscesses are treated as if they were tumors.
  • HRN Articles - Abcesses in Rabbits 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.rabbitnetwork.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the abscess is surgically treated IV or oral antibiotics may be administered.

^ An abscess usually requires surgical draining.
  • Mastitis: Complications - MayoClinic.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Incision and drainage

Abscess five days after incision and drainage.
.The abscess should be inspected to identify if foreign objects are a cause, which may require their removal.^ Such an infection could spread to other parts of your body and cause serious damage, so an abscessed tooth requires immediate treatment.
  • Tooth Abscess | AHealthyMe.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ahealthyme.com [Source type: General]

^ Laparotomy with drainage and possible surgical removal of dead tissue may be required.
  • Pancreatic abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There can be causes of abscesses other than cat fight wounds, for example foreign bodies such as grass seeds, splinters etc.

.If foreign objects are not the cause, a doctor will incise and drain the abscess and prescribe painkillers and possibly antibiotics.^ Can cause abscesses in possibly many sites.
  • Abscess Information on Healthline 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.healthline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There can be causes of abscesses other than cat fight wounds, for example foreign bodies such as grass seeds, splinters etc.

^ After the abscess has been drained, patients with conditions that make them more susceptible to infection are usually prescribed antibiotics.
  • Anorectal Abscess - Diagnosis and Treatment Options at Mayo Clinic 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.mayoclinic.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Anorectal Abscess Treatment - Mayo Clinic 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.mayoclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Surgical drainage of the abscess (e.g., lancing) is usually indicated once the abscess has developed from a harder serous inflammation to a softer pus stage.^ So, antibiotics and surgical drainage are usually best.
  • Abscess | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Usually, treatment includes surgical drainage of the abscess and antibiotics.
  • Abscess - What Causes Abscesses?, External abscesses, Dental abscesses, Internal abscesses, What Happens When People Get Abscesses?, How Are Abscesses Treated? 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pus drainage may be indicated if the abscess is very developed.
  • Dental Abscess (Tooth Abscess) - Studio Dentaire 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.studiodentaire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is expressed in the Latin medical aphorism: Ubi pus, ibi evacua.
.In critical areas where surgery presents a high risk, it may be delayed or used as a last resort.^ An abscess may form in an area of the body from different causes – such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease), trauma, surgery, or intestinal perforation.
  • Percutaneous Abscess Drainage Procedure 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.cpmc.org [Source type: General]

^ Abscesses may be found in any area of the body, but most abscesses presenting for urgent attention are found on the extremities, buttocks, breast, perianal area, or from a hair follicle.
  • ABSCESS INCISION AND DRAINAGE 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC apps.med.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bartholin's abscess Safer sex behaviors (especially condom use) and good personal hygiene may decrease the risk of developing a Bartholin's abscess .

.The drainage of a lung abscess may be performed by positioning the patient in a way that enables the contents to be discharged via the respiratory tract.^ Needle drainage of the abscess may ...
  • MEDLINE Search on Medscape.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC search.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the lungs, abscesses may be a complication of pneumonia.
  • Abscess - What Causes Abscesses?, External abscesses, Dental abscesses, Internal abscesses, What Happens When People Get Abscesses?, How Are Abscesses Treated? 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the problems in treatment in treatment of brain abscesses relates to the fact that surgically drainage of their contents is often required for cure.
  • Intracranial Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.uhms.org [Source type: Academic]

.Warm compresses and elevation of the limb may be beneficial for a skin abscess.^ A skin abscess may appear as an op ...
  • Abscess - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skin abscesses may occur after: .
  • Skin abscess: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Skin Abscess - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Skin Abscess - NY Times Health Information 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • AARP - Skin abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC symptomchecker.aarp.org [Source type: General]
  • Skin abscess - Lifespan 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.lifespan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warm compresses will bring the abscess to a head.
  • How to Treat an Abscess With Home Remedies | eHow.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

Packing

.In North America, after drainage, an abscess cavity is often packed.^ One of the problems in treatment in treatment of brain abscesses relates to the fact that surgically drainage of their contents is often required for cure.
  • Intracranial Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.uhms.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The catheter remains in the abscess cavity and exits through the patient's skin usually into the abdominal wall where it is connected to free drainage.
  • Abscess (pus), Drainage & Treatment, Clinic - ScanDirectory 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.scandirectory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abscess drainage needs to be continued until obliteration of the abscess cavity occurs and there is evidence of clinical improvement.
  • Psoas Abscess: A Primer for the Internist (printer-friendly) 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.There however is no evidence to support this practice and it may in fact delay healing.^ I worry about the ways in which it may have affected my body even though there are no obvious sideeffects.
  • Tooth Abscess or Root Abscess - Infected Tooth - Dental Health Magazine 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC worldental.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pain may linger even when there is no pressure on the tooth.
  • Tooth Abscess | AHealthyMe.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ahealthyme.com [Source type: General]

^ However, a small boil may burst and heal without treatment.
  • Abscess | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

[3] .To try to answer this question more definitely, a randomized double-blind study was started in September 2008 and is ongoing as of December 2008.[4] A small pilot study has found no benefit from packing of simple cutaneous abscesses.^ In cases of septic abscesses, bentonite clay packs (bentonite clay and a small amount of Hydrastis powder) can be used to draw the infection from the area.
  • Abscess - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Alternative treatment, Prognosis, Prevention 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most patients with a peritonsillar abscess can be treated in an outpatient setting, but a small percentage (e.g., 14 percent in one study) may require hospitalization.
  • Peritonsillar Abscess - January 15, 2008 - American Family Physician 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cutaneous abscesses have been described in all areas of the body, but are most commonly found in the axillae, buttocks, and extremities.
  • Abscess Incision: View this educational video at NEJM.org 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Primary closure

.Primary closure has been successful when combined with curettage and antibiotics[6] or with curettage alone.^ Incision and drainage is the primary therapy for cutaneous abscess management, as antibiotic treatment alone is inadequate for treating many of these loculated collections of infectious material.
  • Abscess Incision: View this educational video at NEJM.org 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A meticulous surgical technique is a requisite for the success of primary closure.
  • Primary closure of gluteal injection abscess (a study of 100 cases). Khanna YK, Khanna AA, Singh SP, Laddha BL, Prasad PP, Jhanji RN J Postgrad Med 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All these factors are very essential for the success of primary closure technique and fortunately are under, the control of the dealing surgeon.
  • Primary closure of gluteal injection abscess (a study of 100 cases). Khanna YK, Khanna AA, Singh SP, Laddha BL, Prasad PP, Jhanji RN J Postgrad Med 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .However, another randomized controlled trial found primary closure led to 35% failing to heal primarily and primary closure longer median number of days to closure (8.9 versus 7.8).^ However, until that can be accomplished, using a good healing clay would control the infection and make life bearable by removing the pain.
  • Mouth Infections: Abscess/Abcess Tooth Treatment/Bentonite 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.eytonsearth.org [Source type: General]

^ Ho YH, Tan M, Chui CH, Leong A, Eu KW, and Seow-Choen F. Randomized controlled trial of primary fistulotomy with drainage alone for perianal abscesses.
  • ASCRS: Anal Fistula / Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.fascrs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One is individual randomized controlled trials, all or none.
  • Peritonsillar Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.In anorectal abscesses, primary closure healed faster, but 25% of abscesses healed by secondary intention and recurrence was higher.^ If the brain abscess is secondary to another infectious process, there may be symptoms suggestive of the primary infection, for example pneumonia.
  • Brain Abscess - Neurosurgery Department - College of Medicine - University of Florida 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.neurosurgery.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary and secondary abscesses occurred in 11% (7 of 61) and 89% (54 of 61), respectively.
  • Arch Surg -- Abstract: Management and Treatment of Iliopsoas Abscess, October 2009, Tabrizian et al. 144 (10): 946 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC archsurg.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It will fall off eventually if left in place but it is better to remove the dead skin to allow healing to occur faster and to ensure that the abscess can be properly treated.
  • Abscess and other wounds in cats 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

Antibiotics

.As Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is a common cause, an anti-staphylococcus antibiotic such as flucloxacillin or dicloxacillin is used.^ The infection is usually caused by bacteria ( staphylococcus is common), but may be caused by fungus.
  • Epidural abscess: An epidural abscess is collection of pus (infected ... 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The causative agent is a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Skin Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Causative organisms commonly include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, enteric bacteria (perianal abscesses), or a combination of anaerobic and gram-negative organisms.
  • ABSCESS INCISION AND DRAINAGE 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC apps.med.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

.With the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus MRSA, these traditional antibiotics may be ineffective; alternative antibiotics effective against community-acquired MRSA often include clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline.^ These include: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
  • NHS24 Health Library - Abscess - Introduction - 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.nhs24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Abscess | Health | goodtoknow 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.goodtoknow.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Patient information leaflet - Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These antibiotics include: .
  • Treatment and prognosis of brain abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC patients.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department.
  • Abscess Incision: View this educational video at NEJM.org 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

.These antibiotics may also be prescribed to patients with a documented allergy to penicillin.^ The dentist also may prescribe antibiotics and warm mouthwashes.
  • Abscess - What Causes Abscesses?, External abscesses, Dental abscesses, Internal abscesses, What Happens When People Get Abscesses?, How Are Abscesses Treated? 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of these procedures are usually performed under local anesthesia and may be accompanied by the use of oral antibiotics to overcome gum infection or abscess.
  • Abscess | Disease Information 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.utopiasilver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clindamycin : This is prescribed for those allergic to antibiotics of the penicillin group.
  • Tooth Abscess Antibiotics 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

.(If the condition is thought to be cellulitis rather than abscess, consideration should be given to possibility of strep species as cause that are still sensitive to traditional anti-staphylococcus agents such as dicloxacillin or cephalexin in patients able to tolerate penicillin).^ The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Abscess.

^ Coverage should include staphylococcal and enteric organisms, for which agents such as clindamycin, antistaphyloccocal penicillin, and an aminoglycoside may be used.
  • Psoas Abscess: A Primer for the Internist (printer-friendly) 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Narrow by: Causes of Abscess • Symptoms of Abscess • Treatments for Abscess • Tests for Abscess • Alternative Treatments for Abscess Related WellPages: Bacterial infection of the heart valve • Spleen diseases • Staph infection • Staphylococcus aureus • Strep infection .
  • Abscess - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is important to note that antibiotic therapy alone without surgical drainage of the abscess is seldom effective due to antibiotics often being unable to get into the abscess and their ineffectiveness at low pH levels.^ Usually, treatment includes surgical drainage of the abscess and antibiotics.
  • Abscess - What Causes Abscesses?, External abscesses, Dental abscesses, Internal abscesses, What Happens When People Get Abscesses?, How Are Abscesses Treated? 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surgical drainage of the abscess is often necessary as well.

^ Without spontaneous or surgical drainage, sometimes an abscess will be reabsorbed into the bloodstream.
  • Abscess - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whilst most medical texts advocate surgical incision some medical doctors will treat small abscesses conservatively with antibiotics.^ Abscesses are caused by an infection, so orthodox medical doctors often treat them with antibiotics.
  • Home Remedies for abscess and homemade cures for abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.homemademedicine.com [Source type: General]

^ Some abscesses are treated topically.
  • HRN Articles - Abcesses in Rabbits 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.rabbitnetwork.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most abscesses, however, need to be treated with antibiotics or herbs.
  • WellnessWatchersMD | Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC wellnesswatchersmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Recurrent infections

.Recurrent abscesses are often caused by community-acquired MRSA.^ Abscesses are usually infections that are often caused by bite or scratch wounds.
  • the Rat Report 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ratfanclub.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is necessary to treat the causative factors such as kidney stones , vesicoureteral reflux and other sources of infection to decrease the chances of recurrence of renal abscess.  .
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Kidney (renal) Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Abscesses deep in the rectum often cause fewer symptoms but may cause fever and pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Anorectal Abscess: Anal and Rectal Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.While resistant to most beta lactam antibiotics commonly used for skin infections, it remains sensitive to alternative antibiotics, e.g., clindamycin (Cleocin), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), and doxycycline (unlike hospital-acquired MRSA that may only be sensitive to vancomycin IV).^ Antibiotics may be used for a short time.
  • Anal Fissure, Abscess and Fistula Treatments, Diagnosis, Symptoms- Anal Fissure, Abscess and Fistula 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC gicare.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Anal Fissure, Fistula and Abscess: causes, diagnosis, treatment 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.jacksongi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skin abscesses may follow a bacterial infection, commonly an infection with staphylococcus.
  • Skin abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Skin abscess - Vancouver Washington, WA, Portland Oregon, OR 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.swmedicalcenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The abscess : a sign of potentially serious infection: these pus-filled skin eruptions most commonly occur in intact, roaming male cats.
  • abscess Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

To prevent recurrent infections due to Staphylococcus, consider the following measures:
  • Topical mupirocin applied to the nares.[10] .In this randomized controlled trial, patients used nasal mupirocin twice daily 5 days a month for 1 year.
  • Chlorhexidine baths,[11] In a randomized controlled trial, nasal recolonization with S. aureus occurred at 12 weeks in 24% of nursing home residents receiving mupirocin ointment alone (6/25) and in 15% of residents receiving mupirocin ointment plus chlorhexidine baths daily for the first three days of mupirocin treatment (4/27).^ Previous Lecture     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36     Next» .

    ^ Treatment of an abscess or fistula is followed by a period of time at home, when soaking the affected area in warm water (sitz bath) is recommended three or four times a day.
    • ASCRS: Anal Abscess/Fistula 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.fascrs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Colorectal Surgical Associates - Houston Laparoscopic Colon Surgeons - Dr. Haas, Dr. Le, Dr. Pickron, Dr. Mahmood - Anal Abscess and Fistula 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC houstoncolon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A 35 year old male patient was admitted with two days' history of progressive pain and swelling in the peri-anal region.
    • Ano-rectal abscess with retro-peritoneal spread (a case report). Zaveri JP, Nathani RR, Mathure AB J Postgrad Med 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    Although these results did not reach statistical significance, the baths are an easy treatment.

Magnesium sulfate paste

.Historically abscesses as well as boils and many other collections of pus have been treated via application of magnesium sulfate paste.^ An abscess is a collection of pus.
  • Abscess | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Abscess | Health | goodtoknow 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.goodtoknow.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Melbourne Haemorrhoid and Rectal Bleeding Clinic 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.haemorrhoids.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidural abscess: An epidural abscess is collection of pus (infected ...
  • Epidural abscess: An epidural abscess is collection of pus (infected ... 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Abscess: An abscess is a localized collection of pus in ...
  • Abscess: An abscess is a localized collection of pus in ... 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.henryfordhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

.This works by drawing the infected pus to the surface of the skin before rupturing and leaking out, after this the body will usually repair the old infected cavity.^ This may help draw the pus toward the surface and allow pressure in the area to be relieved temporarily.
  • Emergency Dentist Sydney -Abscess 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.emergency-dentist.net [Source type: General]
  • Emergency Dentist Sydney - All Day All Night Dental - Abscess (infections) 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.emergencydental.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Typically, the abscess ruptures to the exterior of the body, and you'll see the pus draining from the wound .
  • Abscess in Cats 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

^ An abscess is a localized collection of pus in any part of the body, usually caused by an infection.
  • Muscular Development Online Magazine - Abscess Prevention 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.musculardevelopment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Magnesium sulfate is therefore best applied at night with a sterile dressing covering it, the rupture itself is not painful but the drawing up may be uncomfortable.^ Draws well and controls swelling (contains Magnesium Sulfate) Numtizine Cataplasm by Hobart Labs.
  • Healthy Hoof - Solutions for Barefoot Performance 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.healthyhoof.com [Source type: General]

^ To be sure I didnt wake up in the middle of the night with massive pain again, I dunked another piece of gauze in and held it for about 10 minutes.
  • Toothache and Tooth Abscess Remedies from the Earth Clinic Library of Cures. 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.earthclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ If the abscess has not ruptured, inserting a needle into the lump and drawing back on the syringe may indicate the presence of pus.
  • Abscess in Cats 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

.Magnesium sulfate paste is considered a "home remedy" and is not necessarily an effective or accepted medical treatment.^ Though I can honestly say that I am not looking for a home remedy to what has definitely become a more advanced medical problem.
  • Tooth Abscess: Effective Home Remedies 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.healthoma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though there are some oral prescriptions antiviral medications for herpes, Herpes home remedies are generally recommended.
  • Abscess | Tooth Abscess | Tooth Abscess Complications 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.tarunaoils.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows the management of disease in early stages, where medical therapy and treatment options are typically less costly, less invasive and more effective .
  • Abscess (pus), Drainage & Treatment, Clinic - ScanDirectory 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.scandirectory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Perianal abscess

.Perianal abscesses can be seen in patients with for example inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease) or diabetes.^ Crohns disease, a local abscess occurs.
  • Abscess: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Perianal abscesses are seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, or diabetes.

^ Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease), trauma, surgery, or intestinal perforation are at risk for abscesses.

.Often the abscess will start as an internal wound caused by ulceration or hard stool.^ Causes of internal abscesses .
  • Abscess information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: General]

^ Often the abscess will start as an internal wound caused by ulceration or hard stool.

^ Abscesses are usually infections that are often caused by bite or scratch wounds.
  • the Rat Report 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.ratfanclub.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This wound typically becomes infected as a result of the normal presence of feces in the rectal area, and then develops into an abscess.^ A brain abscess can develop by direct extension from an adjacent infected area.
  • Brain abscess; Baltimore, Maryland MD 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.goodsam-md.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, a hair root becomes infected and develops into a small abscess.
  • Abscess | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ As this infection becomes localised an abscess develops.
  • Melbourne Haemorrhoid and Rectal Bleeding Clinic 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.haemorrhoids.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This often presents itself as a lump of tissue near the anus which grows larger and more painful with the passage of time.^ This may be after it becomes larger and more painful.
  • Abscess | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ If it is near the anus, there is always pain, and often redness and swelling.
  • Anal Fissure, Fistula and Abscess: causes, diagnosis, treatment 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.jacksongi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lump can grow large and become painful.
  • Pediatric Surgery - Perirectal Abscess/Fistula 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC pedsurg.ucsf.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like other abscesses, perianal abscesses may require prompt medical treatment, such as an incision and debridement or lancing.^ Medication may be the first treatment if the abscess is relatively small.
  • Brain Abscess - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.health-diseases.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment: Cerebral abscess is a medical emergency.
  • Brain abscess; Baltimore, Maryland MD 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.goodsam-md.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment: A brain abscess is a medical emergency.
  • Health Baltimore - Brain abscess. A brain abscess is a collection of ... 10 February 2010 10:44 UTC www.franklinsquare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ McLatchie G, Leaper D, (eds). 2007. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Surgery, 2nd ed. Oxford. OUP
  2. ^ Green, James; Saj Wajed (2000). Surgery: Facts and Figures. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1900151960.  
  3. ^ "BestBets: abscesses; to pack or not to pack". http://www.bestbets.org/bets/bet.php?id=272.  
  4. ^ "Study of Wound Packing After Superficial Skin Abscess Drainage - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov". http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00746109.  
  5. ^ O'Malley GF, Dominici P, Giraldo P, et al. (April 2009). "Routine Packing of Simple Cutaneous Abscesses Is Painful and Probably Unnecessary". Acad Emerg Med. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00409.x. PMID 19388915.  
  6. ^ Abraham N, Doudle M, Carson P (1997). "Open versus closed surgical treatment of abscesses: a controlled clinical trial". The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery 67 (4): 173–6. doi:10.1111/j.1445-2197.1997.tb01934.x. PMID 9137156.  
  7. ^ Stewart MP, Laing MR, Krukowski ZH (1985). "Treatment of acute abscesses by incision, curettage and primary suture without antibiotics: a controlled clinical trial". The British journal of surgery 72 (1): 66–7. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800720125. PMID 3881155.  
  8. ^ Simms MH, Curran F, Johnson RA, et al. (1982). "Treatment of acute abscesses in the casualty department". British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) 284 (6332): 1827–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.284.6332.1827. PMID 6805714.  
  9. ^ Kronborg O, Olsen H (1984). "Incision and drainage v. incision, curettage and suture under antibiotic cover in anorectal abscess. A randomized study with 4-year follow-up". Acta Chirurgica Scandinavica 150 (8): 689–92. PMID 6397949.  
  10. ^ Raz R, Miron D, Colodner R, Staler Z, Samara Z, Keness Y (1996). "A 1-year trial of nasal mupirocin in the prevention of recurrent staphylococcal nasal colonization and skin infection". Arch Intern Med 156 (10): 1109–12. doi:10.1001/archinte.156.10.1109. PMID 8638999.  
  11. ^ Watanakunakorn C, Axelson C, Bota B, Stahl C (1995). "Mupirocin ointment with and without chlorhexidine baths in the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in nursing home residents". Am J Infect Control 23 (5): 306–9. doi:10.1016/0196-6553(95)90061-6. PMID 8585642.  

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