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Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades (Arabic: كتائب أبو حفص المصري ‎), or Abu Hafs al-Masri Battalions, is a group which claims to be associated with the Islamic fundamentalist organisation al-Qaida.

The group is named after a former policeman Mohammed Atef, aka Abu Hafs, of Egypt, who was a member of Ayman al-Zawahiri's al-Jihad al-Islami (Islamic Jihad). Al-Masri means "the Egyptian" in Arabic. He became a relative to Osama bin Laden, the al-Qaida leader, after his daughter married bin Laden's son, Mohammed bin Laden. He was killed by U.S. airstrikes in Afghanistan in late 2001. He has been adopted as a "martyr" to the fundamentalist cause.

The London-based Arabic language newspaper Al-Quds al-Arabi has received letters from this group, in which it has claimed responsibility for:

At least some of these claims are regarded as being false. The August 2003 power failure in the US, which the group called Operation Quick Lightning in the Land of the Tyrant of This Generation has been shown to be caused by a large-scale technical failure rather than terrorist actions. Turkey claims that the Turkish Hizbullah was responsible for the Istanbul bombings while the UN headquarters in Baghdad was blamed on Baathists. The Jakarta bombing was carried out by Jemaah Islamiya, an Indonesian group, according to Indonesian and US officials.

The group's involvement with the March 11, 2004 attacks is also uncertain; Spain originally pointed the finger for the train bombings at the domestic terrorist group ETA, although it later transpired that Islamist militants were behind it.

According to the group's letter to Al-Quds, it calls the attacks "The Trains of Death Operation". It also claims that it has completed 90% of the preparation for a new attack on the US, which it calls Winds of Black Death. The name is speculated to come from Iraq's use of poison gas on Kurds – which Physicians for Human Rights has named the "Winds of Death" – and the black skin lesions on anthrax victims.

Some are skeptical if this group actually exists. The only hard evidence is through communiques, usually sent via the Internet, to the Al-Quds al-Arabi newspaper in the UK. Another previously unknown group calling itself the Lions of Al-Mufridun also has decided to claim credit for the Madrid attack, perhaps attempting to copy Abu Hafs al-Masri Brigades.

All that can be said with any certainty at this stage is that someone is attempting to associate these attacks with al-Qaida. It should be noted that this is not necessarily inconsistent with al-Qaida's methods, as it is not so much a single organisation as a federation of allied Islamic terrorist groups operating under a common umbrella.

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