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This table shows the abundance of elements in Earth's crust. Numbers show percentage in mass.

Note that numbers are estimates, and they will vary depending on source and method of estimation. Order of magnitude of data can roughly be relied upon.

Abundance (atom fraction) of the chemical elements in Earth's upper continental crust as a function of atomic number.
Element Chemical
symbol
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] annual
production
oxygen O 46.60% 47.40% 46% 46.71% 46.1% 100,000,000 tons
silicon Si 27.72% 27.71% 27% 27.69% 28.2% 3,880,000 tons

5000 tons electronic grade

aluminium Al 8.13% 8.20% 8.2% 8.07% 8.23% 30,000,000 tons
iron Fe 5.00% 4.10% 6.3% 5.05% 5.63% 1,200,000,000 tons
calcium Ca 3.63% 4.10% 5.0% 3.65% 4.15% 112,000,000 tons (CaO)
sodium Na 2.83% 2.30% 2.30% 2.75% 2.36% 200,000 tons
potassium K 2.59% 2.10% 1.50% 2.58% 2.09% 36,000,000 tons (K₂O)
magnesium Mg 2.09% 2.30% 2.90% 2.08% 2.33% 350,000 tons
titanium Ti 0.44% 0.56% 0.66% 0.62% 0.56% 99,000 tons
hydrogen H 0.14% N/A 0.15% 0.14% 0.14% 50,000,000 tons
phosphorus P 0.12% 1000 ppm 1000 ppm 1300 ppm 1050 ppm 153,000,000 tons
manganese Mn 0.10% 950 ppm 1100 ppm 900 ppm 950 ppm 6,220,000 tons
fluorine F 0.08% 950 ppm 540 ppm 290 ppm 585 ppm 4,000,000 tons
barium Ba 500 ppm 340 ppm 500 ppm 425 ppm 6,000,000 tons
carbon C 0.03% 480 ppm

(0.048%)

1800 ppm

(0.18%)

940 ppm 200 ppm

(0.020%)

8,600,000,000 tons (sum of carbon

content of coal, crude oil and natural gas)

strontium Sr 370 ppm 360 ppm 370 ppm 137,000 tons
sulfur S 0.05% 260 ppm 420 ppm 520 ppm 350 ppm 54,000,000 tons
zirconium Zr 190 ppm 130 ppm 250 ppm 165 ppm 7,000 tons
tungsten W 160.6 ppm 190 ppm 1.25 ppm (?) 45,100 tons
vanadium V 0.01% 160 ppm 190 ppm 120 ppm 7,000 tons
chlorine Cl 0.05% 130 ppm 170 ppm 450 ppm 145 ppm 50,000,000 tons
chromium Cr 0.01% 100 ppm 140 ppm 350 ppm 102 ppm 4,000,000 tons
rubidium Rb 0.03% 90 ppm 60 ppm 90 ppm 9 tons
nickel Ni 80 ppm 90 ppm 190 ppm 84 ppm 1,300,000 tons
zinc Zn trace 75 ppm 79 ppm 70 ppm 12,500,000 tons
copper Cu 0.01% 50 ppm 68 ppm 60 ppm 15,000,000 tons
cerium Ce 68 ppm 60 ppm 66.5 ppm 24,000 tons
neodymium Nd 38 ppm 33 ppm 41.5 ppm 7,300 tons
lanthanum La 32 ppm 34 ppm 39 ppm 12,500 tons
yttrium Y 30 ppm 29 ppm 33 ppm 400 tons
nitrogen N 0.005% 25 ppm 20 ppm 19 ppm 44,000,000 tons
cobalt Co trace 20 ppm 30 ppm 25 ppm 17,000 tons
lithium Li 20 ppm 17 ppm 20 ppm 39,000 tons
niobium Nb 20 ppm 17 ppm 20 ppm 15,000 tons
gallium Ga 18 ppm 19 ppm 19 ppm 30 tons
scandium Sc 16 ppm 26 ppm 22 ppm 0.50 tons
lead Pb 14 ppm 10 ppm 14 ppm 2,800,000 tones
samarium Sm 7.9 ppm 6 ppm 7,05 ppm 700 tons
thorium Th 12 ppm 6 ppm 9.6 ppm 31,000 tons
praseodymium Pr 9.5 ppm 8.7 ppm 9.2 ppm 2400 tons
boron B trace 950 ppm (?) 8.7 ppm 10 ppm 1,000,000 tons
gadolinium Gd 7.7 ppm 5.2 ppm 6.2 ppm 400 tons
dysprosium Dy 6 ppm 6.2 ppm 5.2 ppm 100 tons
hafnium Hf 5.3 ppm 3.3 ppm 3.0 ppm 50 tons
erbium Er 3.8 ppm 3.0 ppm 3.5 ppm 500 tons
ytterbium Yb 3.3 ppm 2.8 ppm 3.2 ppm 50 tons
caesium Cs 3 ppm 1.9 ppm 3 ppm 20 tons
beryllium Be 2.6 ppm 1.9 ppm 2.8 ppm 364 tons
tin Sn trace 2.2 ppm 2.2 ppm 2.3 ppm 165,000 tons
europium Eu 2.1 ppm 1.8 ppm 2.0 ppm 400 tons
uranium U N/A 1.8 ppm 2.7 ppm 45,000 tons
tantalum Ta 2 ppm 1.7 ppm 2.0 ppm 840 tons
germanium Ge 1.8 ppm 1.4 ppm 1.5 ppm 80 tons
molybdenum Mo trace 1.5 ppm 1.1 ppm 1.2 ppm 80,000 tons
arsenic As 1.5 ppm 2.1 ppm 1.8 ppm 47,000 tons
holmium Ho 1.4 ppm 1.2 ppm 1.3 ppm 10 tons
terbium Tb 1.1 ppm 0.94 ppm 1.2 ppm 10 tons
thulium Tm 0.48 ppm 0.45 ppm 0.52 ppm 50 tons
bromine Br 0.37 ppm 3 ppm 2.4 ppm 330,000 tons
thallium Tl 0.6 ppm 0.530 ppm 0.850 ppm 30 tons
antimony Sb 0.2 ppm 0.2 ppm 0.2 ppm 53,000 tons
iodine I trace 0.14 ppm 0.490 ppm 0.450 ppm 30,000 tons
cadmium Cd 0.11 ppm 0.15 ppm 0.15 ppm 23,000 tons
silver Ag 0.070 ppm 0.080 ppm 0.075 ppm 23,000 tons
mercury Hg 0.05 ppm 0.067 ppm 0.085 ppm 8400 tons
selenium Se trace 0.05 ppm 0.05 ppm 0.05 ppm 600 tons
indium In 0.049 ppm 0.160 ppm 0.250 ppm 75 tons
bismuth Bi 0.048 ppm 0.025 ppm 0.0085 ppm 6000 tons
tellurium Te 0.005 ppm 0.001 ppm 0.001 ppm 215 tons
platinum Pt 0.003 ppm 0.0037 ppm 0.005 ppm 30 tons
gold Au 0.0011 ppm 0.0031 ppm 0.004 ppm 2,800 tons
ruthenium Ru 0.001 ppm 0.001 ppm 0.001 ppm 12 tons
palladium Pd 0.0006 ppm 0.0063 ppm 0.015 ppm 24 tons
rhenium Re 0.0004 ppm 0.0026 ppm 0.0007 ppm 4.5 tons
iridium Ir 0.0003 ppm 0.0004 ppm 0.001 ppm 3 tons
rhodium Rh 0.0002 ppm 0.0007 ppm 0.001 ppm 3 tons
osmium Os 0.0001 ppm 0.0018 ppm 0.0015 ppm <1 ton

References

See also

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