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Acacia berlandieri
Conservation status

Apparently Secure (TNC)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Tribe: Acacieae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. berlandieri
Binomial name
Acacia berlandieri
Benth.
Range of Acacia berlandieri

Acacia berlandieri (Berlandier Acacia, Guajillo Acacia, guajillo, huajillo) is a shrub native to the Southwestern United States that belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae (wattles) of Fabaceae (legumes). It grows 1 to 5 metres (3.3 to 16 ft) tall, with blossoms that are spherical and white, occurring from February through April.[1] The berlandieri epithet comes from the name of Jean-Louis Berlandier[2], a French naturalist who studied wildlife native to Texas and Mexico. A. berlandieri contains a wide variety of alkaloids and has been known to cause toxic reactions in domestic animals such as goats.[3]

Acacia berlandieri Foliage and Flowers
Acacia berlandieri Tree
Acacia berlandieri Bark
Acacia berlandieri Flowers and Seed Pods
Acacia berlandieri Seeds

Contents

Uses

A. berlandieri is toxic to livestock and thus should not be used as forage or fodder.[4]

Alkaloids

A. berlandieri contains a number of diverse alkaloids, the most plentiful of which are N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. In a recent study, researchers identified thirty-one alkaloids in samples of plant foliage, including trace amounts of five amphetamines previously believed to be human inventions:[5] amphetamine, methamphetamine, N,N-dimethylamphetamine, p-hydroxyamphetamine and p-methoxyamphetamine. Other trace alkaloids include DMT (found in many related species), nicotine, and mescaline (found in many cacti but infrequently in other plants). The same group of researchers later reported finding most of the same alkaloids in A. rigidula, a related species also native to the Southwestern U.S. The findings, however, have never been confirmed or repeated, leading some researchers to believe the results were the result of cross-contamination.

Some chemical compounds found in Acacia berlandieri

Total alkaloids in dried leaves 0.28-0.66%.[6]

References

  1. ^ University of Texas Native Plant Information Network
  2. ^ Holloway, Joel Ellis (2005). A Dictionary of Common Wildflowers of Texas & the Southern Great Plains. Texas Christian University Press. ISBN 354063293X.  
  3. ^ Clement, Beverly A.; Christina M. Goff and T. David A. Forbes (September 1997). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri". Phytochemistry (Elsevier) 46 (2): 249–254. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00240-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TH7-3SCB6WX-1N&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F1997&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=b215a5ead4e2fc6cc27a4cf30ced3f5e. Retrieved 2007-04-01.  
  4. ^ "Guajillo". Texas Toxic Plant Database. Texas A&M University. http://texnat.tamu.edu/cmplants/toxic/plants/guajillo.html.  
  5. ^ "Acacias and Natural Amphetamine". Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. 2001-09-26. http://www.cognitiveliberty.org/shulgin/adsarchive/acacia.htm.  
  6. ^ Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 500. ISBN 3764329793. http://books.google.com/books?id=9fDv1RYqIRkC&dq=chemotaxonomie+der+pflanzen&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=kkne5dmPiX&sig=iprrFOkR3ClREUcAyMORs0lGjdY#PPA290,M1.  
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Forbes, T.D.A; B.A. Clement. "Chemistry of Acacia's from South Texas" (PDF). Texas A&M Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Uvalde. http://uvalde.tamu.edu/pdf/chemtdaf.pdf.  
  8. ^ a b Clement, Beverly A.; Christina M. Goff; T. David A. Forbes (1998). "Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acacia rigidula" (PDF). Phytochemistry (Elsevier) 49 (5): 1377–1380. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)01022-4. http://designer-drugs.com/pte/12.162.180.114/dcd/pdf/acacia.rigidula.pdf.  

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Acacia berlandieri

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales
Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Mimosoideae
Tribus: Acacieae
Genus: Acacia
Species: Acacia berlandieri

Name

Acacia berlandieri Benth.








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