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Acacia nilotica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Tribe: Acacieae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. nilotica
Binomial name
Acacia nilotica
(L.) Willd. ex Delile
Range of Acacia nilotica
Synonyms
  • Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd.
  • Acacia scorpioides W.Wight
  • Mimosa arabica Lam.
  • Mimosa nilotica L.
  • Mimosa scorpioides L.[1]

Acacia nilotica (gum arabic tree[2], babul, Egyptian thorn, or prickly acacia[3]; called thorn mimosa in Australia; lekkerruikpeul or scented thorn in South Africa) is a species of Acacia (wattle) native to Africa and the Indian subcontinent. It is also currently an invasive species of significant concern in Australia. For the ongoing reclassification of this and other species historically classified under genus Acacia, see the list of Acacia species.

Contents

Description

flowers at Hodal in Faridabad District of Haryana, India.

Acacia nilotica is a tree 5-20 m high with a dense spheric crown, stems and branches usually dark to black coloured, fissured bark, grey-pinkish slash, exuding a reddish low quality gum. The tree has thin, straight, light, grey spines in axillary pairs, usually in 3 to 12 pairs, 5 to 7.5 cm long in young trees, mature trees commonly without thorns. The leaves are bipinnate, with 3-6 pairs of pinnulae and 10-30 pairs of leaflets each, tomentose, rachis with a gland at the bottom of the last pair of pinnulae. Flowers in globulous heads 1.2-1.5 cm in diameter of a bright golden-yellow color, set up either axillary or whorly on peduncles 2-3 cm long located at the end of the branches. Pods are strongly constricted, hairy, white-grey, thick and softly tomentose. Its seeds number approximately 8000/kg.[4]

Distribution

trunk at Hodal in Faridabad District of Haryana, India.

Scented Thorn Acacia is native from Egypt south to Mozambique and Natal through to Pakistan, India and Burma[5]. It has become widely naturalised outside its native range including Zanzibar, and Australia. Acacia nilotica is restricted to riverine habitats and seasonally flooded areas within its native range however in its introduced range it is spread by livestock and grows outside riparian areas [5].

Uses

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Forage and fodder

In part of its range smallstock consume the pods and leaves, but elsewhere it is also very popular with cattle. Pods are used as a supplement to poultry rations in India. Dried pods are particularly sought out by animals on rangelands. In India branches are commonly lopped for fodder. Pods are best fed dry as a supplement, not as a green fodder.

Hedges

A. nilotica makes a good protective hedge because of its thorns.[6]

Medicine

A. nilotica may also be used for medicinal purposes, as a demulcent or for conditions such as gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea, diarrhea, dysentery, or diabetes. It is styptic and astringent.

In Siddha medicine, the gum is used to consolidate otherwise watery semen. [7]

Acacia nilotica

Bark

According to Hartwell, African Zulu take bark for cough. It acts as an astringent and it is used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and leprosy.

Bark and root

Maasai are intoxicated by the bark and root decoction, said to impart courage, even aphrodisia, and the root is said to cure impotence.

Bark or gum

In West Africa, the bark or gum is used to treat cancers and/or tumors (of ear, eye, or testicles) and indurations of liver and spleen, condylomas, and excess flesh.

Sap or bark, leaves, and young pods are strongly astringent due to tannin, and are chewed in Senegal as an antiscorbutic.

Leaves

The bruised leaves are poulticed and used to treat ulcers.

Resin

In Lebanon, the resin is mixed with orange-flower infusion for typhoid convalescence.

Root

The Chipi use the root for tuberculosis. In Tonga, the root is used to treat tuberculosis.

Seed pods

Egyptian Nubians believe that diabetics may eat unlimited carbohydrates as long as they also consume powdered pods.

Wood

In Italian Africa, the wood is used to treat smallpox.

In Ethiopia, certain parts of the tree are used as a lactogogue.

Lumber

The tree's wood is "very durable if water-seasoned" and its uses include tool handles and lumber for boats.[6] The wood has a density of about 1170 kg/m³.[8]

Propagation

There are 5000-16000 seeds/kg.[9]

Subspecies

Bark structure

See also

References

  1. ^ ILDIS LegumeWeb
  2. ^ http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=182086
  3. ^ http://dictionary.infoplease.com/babul http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/babul http://www.worldagroforestry.org/Sea/Products/AFDbases/AF/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=81
  4. ^ Handbook on Seeds of Dry-zone Acacias FAO
  5. ^ a b http://www.weeds.crc.org.au/documents/wmg_prickly_acacia.pdf
  6. ^ a b Google Books Select Extra-tropical Plants Readily Eligible for Industrial Culture Or Naturalization By Ferdinand von Mueller
  7. ^ Dr.J.Raamachandran, "HERBS OF SIDDHA MEDICINES - The First 3D Book on Herbs"
  8. ^ a b c d e f g FAO
  9. ^ Tropical Forages
  10. ^ USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Acacia nilotica

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales
Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Mimosoideae
Tribus: Acacieae
Genus: Acacia
Species: Acacia nilotica
Subspecies: A. n. subsp. indica - A. n. subsp. nilotica - A. n. subsp. cupressiformis - A. n. subsp. tomentosa - A. n. subsp. adstringens - A. n. subsp. leiocarpa - A. n. subsp. hemispherica - A. n. subsp. kraussiana

Name

Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile

References

  • Hill, A.F.: Some nomenclatural problems in Acacia. Bot. Mus. Leafl.Harvard Univ. 8: 94–100 (1940)
  • Ross, J.H.: A Conspectus of the African Acacia Species. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Afr., No. 44: 106–9. (1979)
  • Ali, S.I. & Faruqi, Shamin A.: A taxonomic study of Acacia nilotica complex in West Pakistan. Pakistan Journ. Bot. 1: 1–8 (1969)
  • Cooke, T.: Flora of the Presidency of Bombay 1: 443–4 (1903)

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