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.A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education.^ Online Degree in Education The Decision to Pursue a College Degree The decision to pursue higher education is a highly personal one.

^ Give a man the power to confer academic degrees and, while leaving anyone free to teach, education will be, in fact, in servitude.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Such as with other professions, teaching in universities is only carried out by people who are properly qualified.^ Agriculture was still a servile occupation and was ordinarily carried on by a conquered people: the helots among the Spartans, the Perioecians among the Cretans, the Penestaeans among the Thessalians, and other enslaved peoples in other republics.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All warrior nations, from the most savage hordes to the civilized peoples, who make war only occasionally, indulge in such flights of patriotism.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only to find out that we may have difficulty finding a job in our chosen profession.

.In the same way that a carpenter would pass through the grades of apprentice and journeyman to attain the status of master carpenter when fully qualified by his guild, a teacher would become a master when he had been licensed by his profession, the teaching guild.^ The grades of P (pass) and F (fail) are used in the Nicholas School for seminars, Master’s Projects, program area seminars and modular courses.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These teaching guilds in various cities took on the identity "university" when granted a charter (by the Pope or the Holy Roman Emperor in Europe's case), and students were admitted to the university and passed through its grades in ways directly analogous to those of the trade guilds.The first to award academic degrees (at all levels including bachelor, master and doctorate) were the medieval Madrasahs founded in the 9th century.^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All students are expected to be registered in residence, to be approved for a leave of absence or to pay a minimum registration fee for each semester until their degree is completed.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .The University of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco is thus recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest degree-granting university in the world with its founding in 859 by the princess Fatima al-Fihri.^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Courses taken at LMU after a degree has been granted will not change the graduation GPA. Transcripts Official transcripts of courses taken at the University are issued only with the written permission of the student concerned.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A degree will not be granted while a grade of Incomplete remains on a student’s record.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Also in the 9th century, Bimaristan medical schools were formed in the medieval Islamic world, where medical degrees and diplomas were issued to students of Islamic medicine who were qualified to be a practicing Doctor of Medicine.^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A graduate student who wishes to change from oneemphasis to another before completing a degree must request approvalfrom the Program Director.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Entering students who enroll in the Master of Environmental Management or Master of Forestry degree program will receive instructions from the Nicholas School of the Environment about registering for courses.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
.The origins of the doctorate in particular dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Islamic legal education system, which was equivalent to the Doctor of Laws qualification and was developed during the 9th century after the formation of the Madh'hab legal schools.^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

^ Students and faculty have developed an honor code for the school that is distributed to all students prior to matriculation and then discussed and signed during orientation.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ College Grad Careers for Graduates with a Degree in Education There are plenty of careers for Graduates with a degree in education in our public school system.

.To obtain a doctorate, a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and at least ten years for a post-graduate course.^ A student interested in entering the Cooperative College Program should attend one of the participating undergraduate schools, a list of which is available from the Office of Enrollment Services.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This section contains a list of symbols for all courses offered at the University, excluding the courses offered at Loyola Law School.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses", and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose" which were scholarly exercises practiced throughout the student's "career as a graduate student of law." After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded doctorates giving them the status of faqih (meaning "master of law"), mufti (meaning "professor of legal opinions") and mudarris (meaning "teacher"), which were later translated into Latin as magister, professor and doctor respectively.[1]
.In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic), and the quadrivium (mathematics, geometry, astronomy and music), together known as the Liberal Arts, and who had successfully passed examinations held by their masters, would be admitted to the degree of bachelor of arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term previously usually used of a squire (i.e., apprentice) to a knight.^ Completion of requirements for the primary Bachelor’s degree.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admission to the Master of Environmental Management (MEM) and the Master of Forestry (MF) is open to students who hold a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or who have completed at least three years of study in an institution participating in the Cooperative College Program described later in this chapter.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Established by alumni and friends in honor of the founding dean of the Nicholas School, this fellowship provides full tuition to candidates pursuing the Master of Environmental Management degree.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further study, and in particular successful participation in and then moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, teacher, entitling one to teach these subjects.^ Major A major indicates a particular curriculum within a degree program offered by one of the four Colleges and two Schools.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, that is my conviction; these two systems have one point in common: the abuse of classical studies, and it is by this means that both of them have perverted the judgment and the morality of the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If a student is unsure about a particular program of study within a degree program, some Colleges will allow for an undeclared major within that college.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology, and earn first a bachelor's and then master's or doctor's degrees in these subjects.^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assistantships may be awarded to a select number of professional degree students during their first year of study to assist faculty and staff with teaching, research, professional and other projects.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Entering students who enroll in the Master of Environmental Management or Master of Forestry degree program will receive instructions from the Nicholas School of the Environment about registering for courses.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a fully qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", which is based on the Latin gradus ("step").^ A graduate student who wishes to enroll for a second Master’s degree in the School of Education may apply up to three core courses towards a second Master’s degree.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Masters Degree Career Fast Track: 3 Ways to Get Your College Degree More Quickly You can see your perfect job on the horizon.

^ The moral impulse, the principle of action, is thus forcibly taken from all men to become the prerogative of only one man.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Today the terms "master", "doctor" (from the Latin - meaning literally: "teacher") and "professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university.^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grades A, B, C, and CR denote satisfactory progress toward the degree, but a D grade must be offset by higher grades in the same term for students to remain in good academic standing.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For non-academic matters, all students are governed by the Loyola Marymount University Student Conduct Code found in the Community Standards booklet.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Most universities conferred the Master of Arts but, for instance, the highest degree was variously termed Master of Theology/ Divinity or Doctor of Theology/ Divinity depending on the place).^ This corps had full control over curriculum, methods, and requirements leading to the various academic degrees in all the schools and universities in the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The University will award a degree if all required coursework is completed, and needed documentation received, within 30 working days of the end of the term.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The university system of academic degrees has the threefold inconvenience of making education uniform (uniformity is not unity), of imposing upon it the most disastrous administration, and then of making it inflexible.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The earliest doctoral degrees (theology - Divinitatis Doctor (D.D.), philosophy - Doctor of philosophy (D.Phil., Ph.D.) and medicine - Medicinæ Doctor (M.D., D.M.)) reflected the historical separation of all University study into these three fields.^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University will award a degree if all required coursework is completed, and needed documentation received, within 30 working days of the end of the term.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University will award a degree if all required coursework is completed, and needed documentation received, within 30 working days of the University conferral date.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over time the D.D. has gradually become less common and studies outside theology and medicine have become more common (such studies were then called "philosophy", but are now classified as sciences and humanities - however this usage survives in the degree of Doctor of Philosophy).^ The standards, however, are high, and the work is intensive, so that the student, on receiving his baccalauréat, is presumed to have completed his general education and to be qualified to study for more advanced degrees in the universities.— Translator .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students may take more than two courses while in the non-degree status; however, only two courses taken in the non-degree status may apply toward a degree or credential.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Program Completion The normal time allowed for the completion of graduate degree programs is five years.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century; it also conferred similar degrees in other subjects, including medicine.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Courses taken at other academic institutions may fulfill University core requirements, Program (major/minor) requirements or transfer in as electives.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A maximum of 60 semester hours from a community college and 90 hours from a four-year institution is transferable to the baccalaureate degree program of the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The University of Paris used the term master for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh.^ The VA28-1905 forms are submitted to Muskogee at the beginning of each term of enrollment until the University is notified that benefits have been exhausted or the student graduates.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to registration for a given term, the Office of Enrollment Services prepares a list of courses to be offered as well as schedules of courses offered in other departments at Duke and at neighboring universities.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The naming of degrees eventually became linked with the subjects studied. .Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "masters", but those in theology, medicine, and law were known as "doctor". As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology, medicine and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master's degree.^ Students may take more than two courses while in the non-degree status; however, only two courses taken in the non-degree status may apply toward a degree or credential.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th and 19th Century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts (M.A.).^ The assignment of colors to signify certain faculties was to be a much later development, and one which was to be standardized only in the United States in the late 19th century.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No academic hood should ever have its border divided to represent more than a single degree.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hoods are to be lined with the official color or colors of the college or university conferring the degree; more than one color is shown by division of the field color in a variety of ways, chevron or chevrons, equal division, etc.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The practice of using the term doctor for Ph.Ds developed within German universities and spread across the academic world.^ In 1986, the committee updated the code and added a sentence clarifying the use of the color dark blue for the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University will award a degree if all required coursework is completed, and needed documentation received, within 30 working days of the end of the term.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In determining your academic regalia colors, please note the following: All PhD degrees (as opposed to Doctorate degrees) use "PhD Blue", which is dark blue, in the academic colors.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The French terminology is tied closely to the original meanings of the terms. The baccalauréat (cf. ."bachelor") is conferred upon French students who have successfully completed their secondary education and admits the student to university.^ Double Major An undergraduate student may earn a Bachelor’s degree with a double (secondary) major by successfully completing the following requirements for the second major prior to, or in the same term as, the first (primary) major: 1.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.When students graduate from university, they are awarded licence, much as the medieval teaching guilds would have done, and they are qualified to teach in secondary schools or proceed to higher-level studies.^ College Graduate What They Don't Teach You in College Four years in college, and all I got was this stupid diploma.

^ A graduate student who wishes to enroll for a second Master’s degree in the School of Education may apply up to three core courses towards a second Master’s degree.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A student’s permanent record reflects the coursework upon which the University awarded the degree or recommended a credential.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spain had a similar structure: the term "Bachiller" was used for those who finished the secondary or high-school level education, known as "Bachillerato". The standard Spanish university 5-years degree was "Licenciado", (although there were a few 3-years associate degrees called "diplomaturas", from where the "diplomados" could move to study a related licenciatura).^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Degree in Accounting Online A Little Wisdom on Getting that College Degree Before jumping on the four year degree band wagon, there are a few suggestions I would strongly make.

The highest level was "Doctor".
In the past, degrees have also been directly issued by authority of the monarch or by a bishop, rather than any educational institution. This practice has mostly died out. In Britain, Lambeth Degrees are still awarded by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
.In most countries, gaining an academic degree entitles the holder to assume distinctive academic dress particular to the awarding institution.^ Course work completed at non-U.S. institutions must be documented on an official academic record from an international institution recognized by the Ministry or Department of Education of that country.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The law of our country decrees that the most honorable careers are to be closed to whoever does not have a bachelor's * degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ European institutions have always had great diversity in their specifications of academic dress and this has been a source of confusion.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Academic dress is like a uniform or insignia identifying the status of the individual wearing them.^ This rule still applies to those who are to be individually hooded during the commencement ceremony; they should not wear the hoods in the preliminary academic procession.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Examples of degrees

.Some examples of specific degrees follow each general term.^ Normally, degree candidates in the Senior Professional Program take the required semester in residence during the term following admission.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For more information, see the article about the general term.^ Also see information about transfer programs .
  • Inver Hills Community College: Academic Programs - Degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.inverhills.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ See more Encyclopedia articles on: Education: Terms and Concepts .
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/society/A0814980.html 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See more detailed information about minor programs .
  • USC Catalogue: Academic Policies: Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Associate's degrees: AA (Associate in Arts), AS (Associate in Science), AAS (Associate in Applied Science), AGS (Associate in General Studies)
  • Extended Research Master's degrees: mag.art. .(Denmark)
  • Research Doctoral degrees: J.C.D., Ph.D. or D.Phil.^ In 1986, the committee updated the code and added a sentence clarifying the use of the color dark blue for the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree.
    • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fourth, six-year specialist degrees (Ed.S., etc.
    • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the case of the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree, the dark blue color is used to represent the mastery of the discipline of learning and scholarship in any field that is attested to by the awarding of this degree and is not intended to represent the field of philosophy.
    • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (Oxford), DIT, EdD, EngD, DTech, DBA, DPA, DHA, Dr.-Ing(Germany), DPS, D.D., D.Th. or Th.D., S.T.D, J.S.D. or S.J.D. or LL.D., DPM, DSc or ScD, DSocSci, M.D.,[7] DSW, Doctor of Agriculture
.Abbreviations for degrees can place the level either before or after the faculty or discipline, depending on the institution.^ Masters and Doctoral level students will undertake a thesis based on an experimental research project, case study project or a major product in place of research (with lead faculty permission).

^ Completed the specific courses, as identified and approved by the appropriate individual or committee and at the institutional level, needed to complete the second degree.
  • Cape Cod Community College - Academic Affairs - Second Associate Degree 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.capecod.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If the latter procedure is chosen, the candidates for degrees after reaching their seats, face toward the center aisle as a mark of respect while the faculty and trustees proceed to their places.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, DSc and ScD both stand for the (higher) doctorate in science.^ The other is an ScD degree, generally known as a legitimate doctor of science degree, except that in this instance the granting institution is the chiropractic school in question, and therefore would not be recognized as legitimate.
  • Chiropractic Schools:Catalog Analysis J 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.chirobase.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A college is an independent institution of higher learning offering a course of general studies leading to a bachelor's degree in liberal arts or science or both.
  • SDSU Editorial Style Guide: General Academic Usage 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC bfa.sdsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ College is an institution of higher learning that grants bachelor's degrees in liberal arts or science or provides college classes in both subjects.
  • University Degree Online NC > UNCG North Carolina University Degree Online 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC bls.uncg.edu [Source type: Academic]

Various other abbreviations also vary between institutions, for instance BS and BSc both stand for 'Bachelor of Science'.
.There are various conventions for indicating degrees and diplomas after one's name.^ With all the new learning institutions accepting applicants who want to pursue a university degree there is almost no reason not to further one's education.

^ Students who complete one or more of the courses of study offered by the University will be awarded the degree indicated.
  • ACADEMIC DEGREE PROGRAMS 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ncat.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abbreviations , such as B.A., M.S. and Ph.D., should be used in text only when there is a need to identify many people by academic degree and use of the full names would be cumbersome.
  • Academic degrees 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC wwwtest.wmich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cultures it is usual to give only the highest degree.^ The spam emails usually claim that the degrees are fully accredited, approved or verifiable in some way and this may actually be true at face value.

^ In the most recent of the national longitudinal studies, the highest degree of agreement between students and parents on this score was 72 percent in the case of fathers with "some college."
  • Archived - Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor's Degree Attainment Executive Summary 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

.In others, it is usual to give the full sequence, in some cases giving abbreviations also for the discipline, the institution, and (where it applies) the level of honours.^ A program of study with a concentration or (major) in some specified discipline that leads to a degree in that discipline specialty, or in some designated subdivision of the specialty at a particular level of instruction.
  • ACADEMIC DEGREE PROGRAMS 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ncat.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • ACADEMIC DEGREE PROGRAMS 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ncat.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, completing the Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, or Associate of General Studies degree at MPCC satisfies the general education requirements at the freshman and sophomore levels at transfer institutions.
  • Academic Transfer Degree - Mid-Plains Community College 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC programs.mpcc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Abbreviations with mixed upper and lower case other than academic degrees should have a period at the end.
  • University of Victoria - Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC communications.uvic.ca [Source type: Academic]

.In another variation, a 'rule of subsumption' often shortens the list and may obscure the chronology evident from a full listing.^ As a means of adaptation to climate, the material of the gowns may vary from very light to very heavy provided that the material, color, and pattern follow the prescribed rules.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since a full-time degree is often impractical and part-time study may take several years, the two-year executive M.B.A. format has become popular for physicians.
  • Advanced Degrees for Academic Emergency Physicians 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.saem.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus 'MSc BA' means that the degrees conferred were - in chronological order - BSc, BA, MSc.^ The fact is that all accredited online degree programs mean hard working and efforts, in order to get to the desired grades and overall results.

^ Earned degrees are usually conferred in ascending order, with baccalaureate degrees first and doctorates last.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (At some institutions, this order is reversed, with baccalaureate degrees conferred last.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The subsumption rule reflects the principle that a person of a given high status does not separately belong to the lower status.^ Stratton, O'Toole, and Wetzel (2007) stated that enrollment status alone does not account for lower retention rates among part-time students.
  • Academic Leadership A National Study of Community College Retention Rates Segmented by Institutional Degree of Urbanization 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.academicleadership.org [Source type: Academic]

.For member institutions of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, there is a standard list of abbreviations, but in practice many variations are used.^ If you have an unlisted degree , there is no official color and it is dependant on the individual college or university to determine the color to be used for your hood.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CLEP The Five Fastest Growing Careers - No College Degree Required There are lots of jobs available even if you don't have college degree...and many are listed as the fastest growing careers.

^ Many factors, such as the nature of the institution, the size of the graduating class, the weather, and the place of the ceremony (indoors or outdoors), affect the details of the various kinds of academic ceremonies.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most notable is the use of the Latin abbreviations 'Oxon.' and 'Cantab.' for the .Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, in spite of these having been superseded by (little used) English 'Oxf.'^ Faithful to tradition, the university, too, sends the young to the antipodes, among the plundering, slave-owning people, after having provided each of them with a little volume entitled Philosophy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

and 'Camb.' Other Latin abbreviations include St And. for the University of St Andrews, Exon. for the University of Exeter, Dunelm. for Durham University, Ebor. for the University of York and Cantuar. for the University of Kent (formerly the "University of Kent at Canterbury"). .Confusion results from the widespread use of 'SA' for the University of South Australia (instead of S.Aust.^ Appendix 5 of the University of South Australia Academic Regulations for Higher Degrees by Research determines that academic misconduct specifically encompasses, but is not limited to, the following: .
  • Academic Integrity in Higher Degrees by Research 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether inadvertent or deliberate, Appendix 5 of the University of South Australia Academic Regulations for Higher Degrees by Research determines that plagiarism includes: .
  • Academic Integrity in Higher Degrees by Research 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The University of South Australia has a responsibility to facilitate and support the highest possible standards of academic integrity and intellectual honesty in research.
  • Academic Integrity in Higher Degrees by Research 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

) because .'SA' was officially assigned to the University of South Africa.^ Transfer GPA -based on credits earned and officially transferred from an accredited college or university outside the South Dakota regental system.
  • Academic Policies - University of South Dakota - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.usd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For universities of different commonwealth countries sharing the same name, such as York University in Canada and the University of York in the UK, a convention has been adopted where a country abbreviation is included with the letters and university name.^ Abbreviations , such as B.A., M.S. and Ph.D., should be used in text only when there is a need to identify many people by academic degree and use of the full names would be cumbersome.
  • Academic degrees 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC wwwtest.wmich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain countries, including Brazil, Canada, and the nations which formerly comprised the U.S.S.R., may even use more than one grading scale.
  • » Academic Credential Evaluations for Graduate Students with Foreign Degrees » News and Press at TheDegreePeople.com » Blog Archive 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.thedegreepeople.com [Source type: General]

^ SJSU along with the California State University System sponsors over 135 programs in 35 different countries.
  • Academic Programs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

In this example, 'York (Can.)' and .'York (UK)' is commonly used to denote degrees conferred by their respective universities.^ University degree uk .

^ In practice, shortened versions have become popular, which are tolerated as long as they do not lead to confusions or wrong assumptions with respect to the person using this particular version of the academic degree.
  • bmwf: Use of academic degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.bmwf.gv.at [Source type: Reference]

^ College Loan Consolidation If you used college loans to get your degree at the university you will have to pay them back directly after graduation and most people seek a consolidation loan with a low interest rate.
  • College Degree Reviews - Exercise Science Kinesiology degrees for Personal Trainers 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC askthetrainer.com [Source type: General]

.The doubling of letters in LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. is because these degrees are in laws, not law.^ These foreign candidates must have completed their university degrees in law prior to matriculation and must take the TOEFFL to be considered.
  • Emory Law: More Than Practice: Degree Programs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is preferable that these letters come from the applicant's former law school professors.
  • Emory Law: More Than Practice: Degree Programs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.law.emory.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "These degrees are for people who can't or don't want to do a Ph.D. or research degree, who don't want to go to law or med school, or go for an MBA, but don't want to leave science," explains Tobias.
  • The Scientist - Designer Degrees or Academic Alchemy? 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC phe.rockefeller.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The doubled letter indicates the Latin plural (genitive case) legum as opposed to the singular (genitive case) legis. Abbreviations for the degrees in surgery Ch. B. and Ch. M. are from Latin chiruguriae and often indicate a university system patterned after Scottish models. The combination of M.B. with Ch. .B. arose from a need to graduate the students at the time of year allocated to graduation rituals, but the legal inability to confer the M.B. before they had been properly approved by professional regulatory bodies.^ In addition to the above stated benchmarks, students who earn three (3) or more D, F or W’s in major requirements during their first year in the major are not making timely progress toward their degree.
  • Student Academic Success-Degree Completion Policy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.life.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Students must be matriculated in the program from which they intend to graduate prior to enrolling for the final 3 credit hours of their course work in that program.

^ Students should never assume that they have approval to deviate from a stated requirement without a properly signed statement to that effect.
  • Basic Degree Requirements | Academic, College and Campus Policies, Procedures, and Forms | Academic Affairs | Metro State 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.mscd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus the Ch. B. was conferred first, and the M.B. was conferred later, after registration, and without ceremony. .In recent times the two have come to be conferred together and are widely (mis)understood to constitute a single degree.^ It generally takes time to earn a college or advanced degree — three to four years for an undergraduate degree, one or two years for a master’s degree, and even longer to earn a doctorate.
  • Avoid Fake-Degree Burns By Researching Academic Credentials 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ftc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The two recent studies at The Ohio State University and Harvey Mudd College are among the few that have been published about engineering students' time-to- degree [27-28].

.Some degrees are awarded jure dignitatis.^ Rackham offers some terminal master's degree programs, and also awards master's degrees as part of doctoral programs.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is, a person who has demonstrated the appropriate qualities to be given a particular office may be awarded the degree by virtue of the office held.^ Upon completion of the program the student will be given a certificate of achievement (AS degree optional) and may apply for registration by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists and for certification by the State of California.
  • San Diego Mesa College: Academic Program Degree Details 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.sdmesa.sdccd.cc.ca.us [Source type: Academic]

^ All full-time matriculated students in the degree programs who attended the previous 12-week session may attend the 6-week session without additional tuition fees.
  • Academic Calendar Kingsborough Community College 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.kingsborough.edu [Source type: General]

^ Requirements for Multiple Majors A student who wishes to increase career options by demonstrating broader education than is normally suggested by a single major may earn a degree with two majors.
  • Degree Requirements - Catalog for Academic Year 2006-2007 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Degree Requirements - Catalog for Academic Year 2006-2007 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is another kind of earned—but not strictly academic—degree.^ Tuesday, April 14th, 2009 If you earned academic credentials in another country, you will probably have to have your degree evaluated before getting an education or finding a job in the United States.
  • » academic credentials » TheDegreePeople Blog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.thedegreepeople.com [Source type: General]

^ Blacks earned 37,054 bachelor’s degrees in the field of business management and administration in the 2006-07 academic year.
  • African Americans Show Solid Gains at All Academic Degree Levels 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jbhe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quality Matters When making a decision to earn an online college degree, the academic quality of the institution is a critical factor.
  • UMass Online College Degree - UMassOnline 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.umassonline.net [Source type: News]

.Recently gaining popularity, Universities have been offering 'Certificates' which are awarded after taking required continuing education courses.^ School of Education required course .
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This section contains a list of symbols for all courses offered at the University, excluding the courses offered at Loyola Law School.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University will award a degree if all required coursework is completed, and needed documentation received, within 30 working days of the University conferral date.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Degree systems by regions

Asia

India and Pakistan

India and Pakistan mostly follows the colonial era British System for classification of degrees.
Arts - Referring to the performing arts and literature the corresponding degree are Bachelor of Arts(BA) and its masters is called Master of Arts(MA).Management degrees are also classified under Arts but is now a days considered a major new stream, Bachelor of Business Administration BBA and Masters Of Business Administration MBA. Another new set of Information Technology degree conferred specially in the field of computer science, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology BScIT and Master of Science in Information Technology MScIT.
.Science - Referring to the basic sciences and natural science (Biology, Physics, Chemistry etc) the corresponding degree are Bachelor of Science(BSc) and its masters is called Master of Science(MSc).^ Can religion, physics, chemistry, astronomy, physiology, history, law, ethics, industrial technology, or social science be learned from the writings left to us by the Romans?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But they have also required these poor young people at the same time to know German, English, the exact sciences, the physical sciences, history, etc.” .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Engineering - The engineering degrees in India follow two common patterns. .Bachelor of Engineering(BE) and Bachelor of Technology(B.Tech) both representing a bachelors degree in engineering.The main difference being BE is knowledge oriented (Theoretical Work) and B.Tech is skill oriented(Practical Work).^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The applicant must have completed a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university and must submit an official transcript of all previous course work.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BSET (Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technologies) .

Similarly Master of Engineering(ME) and Master of Technology(M.Tech).

Europe

.In Europe, degrees are being harmonized through the Bologna process, which is based on the three-level hierarchy of degrees: Bachelor (Licence in France), Master and Doctor.^ Bachelor Degree Online Earn Your Degree with Distance Learning Why put off getting a college degree when there are so many distance learning programs offered through accredited colleges?

^ Here's the top six tips that have helped me speed my way through my degree so that I will finish within three years instead of the traditional four.

.This system is gradually replacing the two-stage system now in use in some countries.^ Yes, that is my conviction; these two systems have one point in common: the abuse of classical studies, and it is by this means that both of them have perverted the judgment and the morality of the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The grading system used in the Nicholas School and the Graduate School is as follows: A (exceptional); B (good); C (satisfactory); F (failing); I (incomplete); Z (continuing).
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This system is also currently in use in Belgium, Canada, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Norway, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Austria

In Austria, there are currently two parallel systems of academic degrees:
.With a few exceptions, the two-cycle degree system will be phased out by 2010.[8] Some of the established degree naming has, however, been preserved, allowing universities to award the "Diplom-Ingenieur" (and for a while also the "Magister") to graduates of the new-style Master's programmes.^ Online College Degrees Where to Get Free College Money Many high school graduates and college freshman worry about not having enough money for college, but here are some places to look for free money for college.

^ Is not the same system of studies, against which St. Augustine inveighed with such vehemence, preserved under the name of classical education?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But alas, need I point out that its infatuation with everything Roman persisted even in this new phase?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Denmark

France

.In French universities, the academic degree system was quite complicated: the first degree was the baccalauréat (completed in fact after high school), then the two-year diplôme d'études universitaires générales (DEUG General Academic Studies Degree) or premier cycle (undergraduate education) or diplôme universitaire de technologie (DUT Technologic Academic Studies Degree), then the one-year licence, the one-year maîtrise (master's degree), the two forming the second cycle (graduate education), the 1–2 years Diplôme d'Études Approfondies, Special Studies Degree and the three-year doctorate, the two forming the troisième cycle (postgraduate education).^ Admission to the Master of Environmental Management (MEM) and the Master of Forestry (MF) is open to students who hold a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or who have completed at least three years of study in an institution participating in the Cooperative College Program described later in this chapter.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cooperative College Program (3-2 program) allows students to receive an undergraduate and master’s degree by spending three years at a participating undergraduate institution and two years at the Nicholas School of the Environment.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Established by Mrs. Bernice Fischer, this fund provides fellowships to second-year professional degree students at the Nicholas School and provides an award to the Master of Environmental Management graduate with the highest academic achievement.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the Bologna process, the system is now much simpler: baccalauréat (A-level degree), licence (= Bachelor), master (a new two-year degree merging maîtrise and DEA), and doctorate.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students in the one-year MF degree option will pay the flat rate for two semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students may select this option for the summer preceding their matriculation in the degree or the summer between the two years.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This system is called "LMD" system in France, which means licence-master-doctorat.

Germany

.Traditionally in Germany, students graduated after four to six years either with a Magister Artium (abbreviated M.A.) degree in Social Sciences, Humanities, Linguistics and the Arts or with a Diplom degree in Natural Sciences, Economics, Business Administration and Engineering.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why have you not applied this principle to property, which is a social institution, as if natural laws were less inviolable than human conventions?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ College Graduate What They Don't Teach You in College Four years in college, and all I got was this stupid diploma.

.Those degrees were the first and at the same time highest non-PhD/Doctorate-title in many disciplines before its gradual replacement by other, Anglo-Saxon-inspired degrees.^ First professional degrees include the Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), Juris Doctor (JD), Doctor of Medicine (MD), and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD).
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earned degrees are usually conferred in ascending order, with baccalaureate degrees first and doctorates last.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, all students must allow adequate time to make any and all corrections, and these corrections must be approved by the thesis editor before a thesis or dissertation will be accepted by the university for graduation.
  • USC Catalogue: Academic Policies: Requirements for Graduation: Graduate Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the level of academic study a Magister or Diplom has to be considered equivalent to a master's degree and marks the end of four to six years of studying with the writing of a final thesis similar to a master's thesis.^ A student's University of Michigan transcript (academic record) must show a bachelor's degree or equivalent that has been awarded by an accredited institution.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a full-time student, the normal time for completing a professional master’s degree is four semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the deadline, the mark of IP will become a mark of Q. Any extension of the six-year deadline must be approved in writing by the appropriate academic dean.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A special kind of examination is the Staatsexamen. .It is not an academic degree but a government licensing examination that future doctors, teachers, lawyers (solicitors), judges, public prosecutors, patent attorneys, and pharmacists have to pass in order to be eligible to work in their profession.^ The academic doctorate is not a run-of-the-mill degree.
  • Academic Doctoral Degrees | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If all course work for the degree is within one department, the comprehensive examination will be determined by that department only.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Course work taken on a pass/no pass basis cannot be applied toward a graduate degree.
  • USC Catalogue: Academic Policies: Requirements for Graduation: Graduate Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Students usually study at university for 4–6 years before they take the first Staatsexamen.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assistantships may be awarded to a select number of professional degree students during their first year of study to assist faculty and staff with teaching, research, professional and other projects.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To establish eligibility for university and other loans, for the student health service, and for study and laboratory space, a student must be registered.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Afterwards teachers and jurists go on to work in their future jobs for two years, before they are able to take the second Staatsexamen, which tests their practical abilities in their jobs.^ The Graduate School will not approve a change of grade if the student does not complete and submit the work to the instructor within two years of the assignment of an I grade.
  • Loyola University Chicago- Academic Policies and Degree Requirements 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.luc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ College Living Distance Learning: Earning Your College Degree Online Read how a working mother of two young toddlers is able to go back to college to earn her degree.

^ First-year students will meet in groups of approximately twenty, supported by two second-year M.B.A. advisers and a member of the faculty.
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first Staatsexamen is at a level which is equivalent to a M.Sc. or M.A.
Since 1999, the traditional degrees are gradually being replaced by Bachelor's (Bakkalaureus) and Master's (Master) degrees (see Bologna process). .The main reasons for this change are to make degrees internationally comparable, and to introduce degrees to the German system which take less time to complete (German students typically take five years or more to earn a Magister or Diplom).^ Program Completion The normal time allowed for the completion of graduate degree programs is five years.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A student who has not completed the degree within five years must request an extension of time.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part-time students should complete the program in less than three years.
  • Academic Degrees at the School of Public Health 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.uic.edu [Source type: Academic]

Some universities are still resistant to this change, considering it a displacement of a venerable tradition for the pure sake of globalization. Universities must fulfill the new standard by the end of 2007. In the future, the Diplom or Magister degree will no longer be awarded.
.Doctorates are issued under a variety of names, depending on the faculty: e.g., Doktor der Naturwissenschaften (Doctor of Natural Science); Doktor der Rechtswissenschaften (Doctor of Law); Doktor der medizinischen Wissenschaft (Doctor of Medicine); Doktor der Philosophie (Doctor of Philosophy), to name just a few.^ Philosophy graduates pursue many careers, including teaching, law, medicine, city management, news reporting and business.
  • Degrees, Programs and Academic Majors, Wichita State University 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Titles (by Subject) Art Economics History Law Literature Music Philosophy Political Theory Religion Science Sociology War and Peace .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the School of Law offers the Doctor of the Science of Law (SJD) and the School of Public Health offers the Doctor of Public Health (DrPH).
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multiple doctorates and honorary doctorates are often listed and even used in forms of address in German-speaking countries. .A Diplom (from a Universität), Magister, Master's or Staatsexamen student can proceed to a doctorate.^ Master's degrees are awarded to Rackham students who complete a master's degree program and to students in doctoral programs who receive a master's degree in the course of working toward the doctorate ( section 2.2 ).
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or 50 fee hours for a student with a master's relevant to the doctoral degree.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The doctoral promotion (e.g. to Dr.rer. nat., Dr.phil. and others) is equivalent to a .Ph.D. degree and is therefore the highest academic degree to earn.^ However, the following schools have separate disputed academic evaluation procedures for their non-Ph.D. students and for degrees not under the jurisdiction of the Graduate School.
  • Academic Policies // SCampus 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC web-app.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The catalog includes information on admission and graduation requirements, the academic calendar, and program and course listings for certificate, associate, bachelor's, master's and Ph.D. degree students.
  • 2009-2010 UAF Catalog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.uaf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Academic Degrees: B.S., University of Illinois; M.S., Ph.D., Iowa State University Areas of Expertise: Biology; Physiology, Developmental Biology of Turtles and Turtle Eggs Topics: Turtles (nesting, incubation, etc.
  • Marymount University: Faculty Experts 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.marymount.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The doctorate's degree Dr.med. for medical doctors has to be considered as different: Medical students predominantly write their doctoral theses straight after they have completed studies like other students in other disciplines have to write a Diplom, Magister or Master's thesis.^ Or 50 fee hours for a student with a master's relevant to the doctoral degree.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter are awarded to students as they complete requirements for the doctorate.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While all doctoral degree programs require some level of research, professional doctorates are more likely to draw from established facts and theories.
  • Academic Doctoral Degrees | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes incorrectly regarded as a degree, the Habilitation is an academic qualification in Germany and Austria, that allows further teaching and research endorsement after a doctorate.^ Students on academic suspension will not be allowed to register for coursework at any South Dakota regental university except when an appeal has been approved by the regental university from which the student is pursuing a degree.
  • Academic Policies - University of South Dakota - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.usd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Give a man the power to confer academic degrees and, while leaving anyone free to teach, education will be, in fact, in servitude.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Home > Divisions > Research and Planning > 2008 Academic Degree and Certificate Data .
  • 2008 Academic Degree and Certificate Data 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.adhe.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is earned by writing a second thesis (the Habilitationsschrift) or presenting a portfolio of first-author publications in an advanced topic.^ The following policy applies to those students who wish to earn two degrees simultaneously (see Dual Degree) or sequentially to a first degree (see Second Bachelor’s Degree).
  • Academic Programs - University of Alabama in Huntsville - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.uah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Any subsequent changes in topic or the proposed method of investigation must be approved in writing by the thesis committee and submitted for approval to the appropriate academic dean.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However imperfect the law that has been drafted by your commission may be, I believe that it would mark a distinct advance over the present state of public education if it were amended as I propose.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The exact requirements for satisfying a Habilitation depend on individual universities.^ If you have an unlisted degree , there is no official color and it is dependant on the individual college or university to determine the color to be used for your hood.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To satisfy the Leadership Development Program requirement, a student must attend and participate in all group and individual Leadership Development Program meetings.
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "habil.", as it is abbreviated to represent that a habilitation has been awarded after the doctorate, was traditionally the conventional qualification for serving at least as a Privatdozent (e.g.^ In the case of the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree, the dark blue color is used to represent the mastery of the discipline of learning and scholarship in any field that is attested to by the awarding of this degree and is not intended to represent the field of philosophy.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"PD Dr. habil.") (Lecturer) in an academic professorship (now called W2 and W3). .Some German universities no longer require the Habilitation, although preference may still be given to applicants who have this credential, for academic posts in the more traditional fields.^ Although some employers may check the qualifications of a prospective employees directly by calling up the university which awarded the degrees, this screening may not be effective against some degree mills as some of these degree mills provide verification services.
  • Fake University Degree Scam 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.hotscams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any student who has not met the cumulative GPA requirement of 2.00 and whose most recent academic status was “good standing” shall be placed on academic probation by the student’s academic dean.
  • Academic Policies - University of South Dakota - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.usd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normal full-time enrollment is expected to be 12 units per semester, although units may vary from 9 to 15 depending upon the student’s academic and assistantship requirements.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ireland

.In Ireland a National Diploma is below the standard of the honours bachelor degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor degree.^ Will it be objected that socialism has taken possession of the classes that do not aspire to the bachelor's degree?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The new NQAI National Framework of Qualifications, adopted in 2003, replaced the National Dipoma with the Ordinary Bachelors degree. .The framework also clarifies that although the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor degree the learning outcomes are at the same level as for the Honours Bachelors Degree.^ This is a very critical equity issue because not all high schools can offer their students the opportunity to learn the higher levels of mathematics that propel people toward degrees­no matter what their eventual major field of study.
  • Archived - Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor's Degree Attainment Cultivating ACRES, the Academic Resources Index 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bachelor Degree Online Earn Your Degree with Distance Learning Why put off getting a college degree when there are so many distance learning programs offered through accredited colleges?

.More technically, a diploma is a document attesting that its bearer has satisfied certain study requirements, as opposed to a degree being a status level in the academic community.^ Any student who has not met the cumulative GPA requirement of 2.00 and whose most recent academic status was “good standing” shall be placed on academic probation by the student’s academic dean.
  • Academic Policies - University of South Dakota - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.usd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

^ Dismissal from the M.B.A. program is automatic if and when it becomes impossible for a student to satisfy the degree requirements with respect to the Number of Course Units, the Timing Requirement, the Distribution of Courses, or the Quality Standard.
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this reason, diplomas are 'awarded to' the recipient while degrees are 'conferred upon' the graduand who then becomes a graduate, or the graduand is "admitted to" a degree.^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A graduate student who wishes to change from oneemphasis to another before completing a degree must request approvalfrom the Program Director.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 30 working days, awarding of the diploma will be deferred to the next degree conferral date.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Similarly a person 'has' a diploma, but a graduate 'is in' a status. .It is also for this reason that study for diplomas can be at undergraduate or advanced level.^ Advanced level courses prepare students for professional pursuit of art history, museum studies, conservation, criticism and secondary level teaching.
  • Degrees, Programs and Academic Majors, Wichita State University 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

Italy

.In Italy access to university is possible after gaining the high school degree, called diploma di maturità, obtained at 19 years of age, after 5 years of study in a specific high school focused on certain subjects (e.g.^ Each year the Nicholas School of the Environment welcomes a number of international students among its professional degree candidates.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence, it is understandable that in the Middle Ages education was confined to the study of the dead languages, quite improperly called the learned languages.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cooperative College Program (3-2 program) allows students to receive an undergraduate and master’s degree by spending three years at a participating undergraduate institution and two years at the Nicholas School of the Environment.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.liceo classico focused on classical subjects, including ancient Greek and Latin;, liceo scientifico focused on scientific subjects such as Maths, Chemistry and Physics but also including ancient Latin and Italian Literature; liceo linguistico focused on Foreign Llanguages; istituto tecnico focused on practical subjects such as Mechanics and Electronics).^ My thesis is precisely that exclusive instruction in Greek and Latin literature makes of all of us living contradictions.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I cannot hope to exhaust this subject here, for it deserves a practiced hand and something more than a pamphlet on “The Influence of Greek and Roman Literature on the Mentality of our Revolutions.” I must confine myself to a few salient points.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

After gaining the diploma one can enter university and enrol in any curriculum (e.g. physics, medicine, chemistry, engineering, architecture): all high school diplomas allow access to any university curriculum, although most universities have pre-admission tests.
Italy too uses the three levels degree system. .The first level degree, called laurea triennale (licence in French), is obtained after 3 years of study and a short thesis on a specific subject.^ [Twenty years before, the author, in his first essay, had already pointed to freedom of education as one of the reforms that the nation should strive to obtain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Active in the French movement to abolish the slave trade, he was the leader of the Girondins, a moderate group of republicans whose members were at first called Brissotins.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early years of the First French Republic he was an influential Jacobin Deputy and editor of the Patriote français.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The second level degree, called laurea specialistica or laurea magistrale - LS/LM) is obtained after two additional years of study, specializing in a particular branch of the chosen subject (e.g.^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students in the one-year MF degree option will pay the flat rate for two semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project should be identified during the second term of study, initiated during the summer between academic years and completed during the third and fourth terms.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

particle physics, nuclear engineering, etc.). .This degree requires a more complex thesis work, ususally involving some academic research or an internship in a private company.^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This corps had full control over curriculum, methods, and requirements leading to the various academic degrees in all the schools and universities in the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No student is allowed more than five years to complete the requirements for the master’s degree.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not a lot of students continue their university career (after succeeding another admission test) with 3 more years of Dottorato di ricerca (equivalent to a Ph.^ Students who fail to meet the satisfactory academic progress requirements or need federal financial assistance for more than the equivalent of four semesters may appeal to the Admissions and Awards Committee.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students are admitted free of charge to all regularly scheduled university athletic events held on campus during the academic year, with the exception of basketball.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A deferral of admission cannot be granted for more than one year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

D). A degree mainly devoted to research, its final thesis will be about the results of the research done.
.Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea triennale and the laurea magistrale one can attend a Master (first-level Master after the laurea triennale; second-level Master after the laurea magistrale) of one or two years, offered by universities and private organisations with a variety of subjects, lengths and costs and usually including a final internship in a private company.^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students in the one-year MF degree option will pay the flat rate for two semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The grade of Z is assigned for an independent project or a Master’s Project that extends over a period of more than one semester; a final grade is given upon completion of the project.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Netherlands

.In the Netherlands, the structure of academic studies was altered significantly in 1982. In this year the "tweefasestructuur" (Two Phase Structure) was introduced by the Dutch Minister of Education, Minister Wim Deetman.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project should be identified during the second term of study, initiated during the summer between academic years and completed during the third and fourth terms.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning of the academic year, students are made aware of work-study opportunities and informed of the application procedures.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With this two phase structure an attempt was made to standardise all the different studies and structure them to an identical timetable.^ Joint-degree students completing their core year of study in the M.B.A. program are subject to the same quality standards as all other students (see the Academic Standards section of this bulletin).
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State Standards for curricula and program structure are implemented in all credit programs.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Additional effect was that students would be persuaded stringently to produce results within a preset timeframe, or otherwise discontinue their studies. The two phase structure is still in effect today and is in line with the Bologna process.
.In order for a Dutch student to get access to a university education, he/she has to complete the appropriate pre-university secondary education "Voorbereidend Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs" (VWO (Gymnasium - Atheneum) - 6 years).^ Students are admitted free of charge to all regularly scheduled university athletic events held on campus during the academic year, with the exception of basketball.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A student who is registered for a course and who successfully completes the requirements as prescribed by the instructor receives credit on university records.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standards, however, are high, and the work is intensive, so that the student, on receiving his baccalauréat, is presumed to have completed his general education and to be qualified to study for more advanced degrees in the universities.— Translator .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are other routes possible, but only if the end level of the applicant is comparable to the VWO levels access to university education is granted.^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

^ The only certain answer is that there are some of each, but whether it is 50-50 or any other proportion is quite unknown and much discussed.
  • Fake university Degree | Fake Degree | Degree Mill | Feature: Diploma Mills 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.degree.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prove to me that it is not freedom; I, for my part, maintain that there is no other kind possible.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.For some studies specific end levels or disciplines are required, e.g.^ A program of study with a concentration or (major) in some specified discipline that leads to a degree in that discipline specialty, or in some designated subdivision of the specialty at a particular level of instruction.
  • ACADEMIC DEGREE PROGRAMS 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ncat.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific information about admissions and certificate requirements is available on the Programs of Study site.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many departments prescribe some specific general education courses in addition to required major courses.
  • WCSU Undergraduate Catalog - Academic Programs & Degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

graduating without physics, biology, and chemistry will make it impossible to follow an academic medicine study.
For some studies in the Netherlands a governmental determined limited access is in place. .This is a limitation of the number of applicants to a specific study, thus trying to control the eventual number of graduates.^ SOM offers joint-degree study with certain master’s programs in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and with a number of the other professional schools at Yale.
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, the Graduate School administers a number of certificates of graduate study for students enrolled in a degree program ( section 2.4 ).
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, on occasion a deferral of admission may be granted so that the applicant can gain experience or strengthen academic qualifications for graduate study, or for other valid reasons.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most renowned studies for their numerus clausus are the medicine and dentistry. .Every year a combination of good pre-university secondary education grades, luck, and some additional conditions determine who can start such a numerus clausus study and who can not.^ Students who complete one or more of the courses of study offered by the University will be awarded the degree indicated.
  • ACADEMIC DEGREE PROGRAMS 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ncat.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondary Education is done in conjunction with the major area of study.
  • Academic Programs - University of Alabama in Huntsville - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.uah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

.A study location and/or university to graduate from are appointed and are not subject to free choice.^ Offered by the Forest History Society, this fellowship is given annually to a Duke University graduate student who wishes to study broadly in the area of forest and conservation history.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Established by Charles and Bernard Blanchard, this fund provides scholarships to undergraduates and fellowships to graduate students studying at the Duke University Marine Laboratory.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In practice, it is only possible on very exclusive grounds (e.g. family history connected to a certain university) and seldom granted. .For example, all the members of the Dutch royal family studied at Leiden University due to the historic ties between the Dutch Royal family and this university.^ All professional degree students have the opportunity to pursue independent study with individual faculty members.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is especially important for concurrent degree students and students planning to study at the Duke University Marine Laboratory in their second year to complete all prerequisites prior to enrollment.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Member, Board of Directors of the Haifa University Center for Research and Study of Aging.

Almost all Dutch universities are government supported universities, with only very few privately owned universities in existence (i.e. one in business, and all others in theology). Leiden University is the oldest, founded in 1575. Before, the Netherlands existed out of loose provinces, i.e. "The Low Countries", which were occupied and ruled by other powers like Spain. .The occupying monarchs did not encourage education at, or allowed the foundation of a university locally, and preferred "moulding" educated people at their own institutions.^ The University of Alabama in Huntsville is committed to four core competencies that serve as the foundation for undergraduate general education requirements.
  • Academic Programs - University of Alabama in Huntsville - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.uah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Applicants are encouraged to allow sufficient time to visit classes, meet students and faculty and tour the university.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles Murray, a leading researcher on intellectual aptitude and educational success, has written about the mistake of expecting people even of average intelligence to thrive in university.
  • Devaluing a university degree 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.ottawacitizen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, marking the victory on the Spanish, "Willem van Oranje" (William of Orange, William the Silent) underlined the founding of the Dutch Republic by granting Leiden rights to found its own, local university.^ This is what Aristotle teaches us, and he maintains that a good republic will never grant them civil rights.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The Netherlands distinguishes between HBO (higher professional education, polytechnic education) and WO (scientific education, research universities). In the past, the HBO graduates received titles as engineer (ing.) and baccalaureus (bc.). The title ing. is at a level of BEng, while bc. is at a level of Bachelor of... (other than BA, BSc and LLB). In the past theology graduates from preachers' schools got the title dominee (ds.), while now they get a Bachelor degree. Now HBO graduates receive titles as Bachelor of... .(other than BA, BSc and LLB) and Master of...^ It is usually possible to change coursework advisors, with the approval of both the current and prospective advisors, and it is common to have as a Master’s Project advisor someone other than the coursework advisor.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(other than MA, MSc and LLM). For getting access at a HBO, a HAVO diploma is usually required, which is seen as lower than a VWO diploma. VWO diploma holders may also enlist to HBOs if they wish to do so.
As mentioned before all university studies in the Netherlands have in principle the same length (four years) and exist out of two phases:
.
  • The "propedeutische fase" (1–2 years): Should the student not be able to finish this phase in the given time frame of 2 years, than he or she has to abandon the study and will not be allowed to continue this or another study.^ Students seeking spring semester admission should submit their applications no later than October 1 prior to their matriculation.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During the second year of study, professional students may fulfill the assistantship requirement by working independently on their Master’s Project.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the School has the right to examine the progress of each student to determine eligibility for continuation of awards beyond the first year.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .After finishing this phase the student follows another two years' study after which the student has a level equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon BSc (Bachelor of Science), BA (Bachelor of Arts) or LLB (Bachelor of Laws).
  • The "doctorale fase" (3–4 years): Completing the first phase successfully gives the student access to the second phase.^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
    • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Here the student is expected to conclude the phase within the given time frame of 3 to 4 years.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The most compliant of the three indicators was that of a senior year test given to nearly all (92.7 percent) of the HS&B/So students.
    • Archived - Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor's Degree Attainment Cultivating ACRES, the Academic Resources Index 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A student who unsuccessfully attempts a course two times will not be allowed to repeat the course for a period of one academic year (four quarters).
    • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Again, failure to finish within the time given will lead to discontinuation. This phase is concluded with the "doctoraal examen" (doctoral exam). This is not similar to any type of doctoral exam that would grant the student with any type of PhD title. .Successful completion however does grant the student the Dutch degree of "drs."^ The standards, however, are high, and the work is intensive, so that the student, on receiving his baccalauréat, is presumed to have completed his general education and to be qualified to study for more advanced degrees in the universities.— Translator .
    • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    "doctorandus", ir. ("ingenieur") or "mr." ("Meester in de rechten"). These two Dutch titles are more and more replaced by the Anglo Saxon titles MSc (Master of Science), MA (Master of Arts), and LLM (Master of Laws), depending on the area of study.
.For medical students the "doctorandus" degree is not equivalent to the MD (Medical Doctor) degree in the Anglo Saxon culture, but it is comparable to a MSc, and does not give the medical student to opportunity to treat patients.^ Admission as a non-degree student does not guarantee future admission to the MEM or MF degree.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the student does not receive the degree as expected, he or she must file a new declaration at a later time.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All professional degree students have the opportunity to pursue independent study with individual faculty members.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this a minimum of two years additional study (internships) is required.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the second year of study, professional students may fulfill the assistantship requirement by working independently on their Master’s Project.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In completing the project, the student applies theoretical and analytical training acquired during the two years of study to actual natural resource or environmental problems.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The correct notation for a Dutch physician who did complete his or her medical studies, but did not pursue a doctor (PhD-like) study is "drs." (e.g. drs. Jansen) and not "dr." in medicine like with many other disciplines, The professionel title "arts" (= physician) or other medical specialisation can be added behind one's namee.g. drs. E.Xample, arts, or drs.E.Xample, surgeon. The title Dr. for physicians is only used by physicians who have obtained a PhD. In the old medical curriculum the title doctorandus (drs.) is obtained after at least .4 years of study, with the completion of 240 ECTS. Doctorandus in medicine corresponds to a MSc level.^ The project should be identified during the second term of study, initiated during the summer between academic years and completed during the third and fourth terms.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In completing the project, the student applies theoretical and analytical training acquired during the two years of study to actual natural resource or environmental problems.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If offered financial assistance, professional students normally will receive the award for two years of study; it is expected that they will complete their degree within this period of time.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the UvA, beginning with the study year 2009-2010, the students are enlisted for obtaining a Bachelor Curius+, nominally requiring 3 years of study and then they may follow a Master's degree in medicine.^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a full-time student, the normal time for completing a professional master’s degree is four semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally, degree candidates in the Senior Professional Program take the required semester in residence during the term following admission.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After obtaining the physician diploma, Dutch physicians must still work as residents for two to six years in their preferred field of expertise to become a registerd medical specialist..
A doctorandus in law is allowed to carry the title "meester" (master, abbreviated as mr. Jansen) and some studies like for example physics grant the title "ingenieur" (engineer, noted as ir. Jansen). Not uncommon, the Dutch "drs." abbreviation can cause much confusion in other countries, since it is perceived as a person who has a PhD in multiple disciplines.
Nowadays many Dutch universities offer specific MSc, MA or LLM studies, thus integrating into and merging with the international scientific community. In addition, on many Dutch universities lessons ("hoorcolleges") or complete "curricula" are conducted in English instead of Dutch. In the Netherlands the degree MPhil is not legally recognised. .However, universities may still use it, and some universities have decided (instead of stopping with granting a MPhil) to grant a MA or a MSc (which are legally recognised) together with granting a MPhil.^ However, on occasion a deferral of admission may be granted so that the applicant can gain experience or strengthen academic qualifications for graduate study, or for other valid reasons.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9][10]
After successfully obtaining a "drs.", "ir.", "mr.", MSc, MA or LLM degree, the student has the opportunity to follow a promotion study (informally called PhD) to eventually obtain the title doctor. These too are structured ideally according to a preset time schedule of 4 to 6 years. During these 4–6 years the promotion student has to be mentored by a professor, or more common, multiple professors. The holders of Dutch MA or MSc degrees may sign with either ir. (for graduates in engineering) or drs. (for graduates in other fields) before their own name.[9] Those who bear a Dutch LLM degree may sign with mr. before their own name.[9]
.The promotion study has to be concluded with at least a scientific thesis that has to be defended to "a gathering of his/ her peers", in practice the Board of the Faculty with guest professors from other faculties and/or universities added.^ To establish eligibility for university and other loans, for the student health service, and for study and laboratory space, a student must be registered.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M. de Montalembert himself, while regretting that the study of ancient literature did not go far enough, cited the reports of the inspectors and the deans of the university faculties.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.More and more common practice nowadays (and in some disciplines even mandatory) is that during the promotion study the student writes and submits scientific publications to peer-reviewed journals, that eventually need to be accepted for publication.^ Students should maintain close contact with their advisors during the development and writing of the Master’s Project.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the second year of study, professional students may fulfill the assistantship requirement by working independently on their Master’s Project.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the number of publications is often debated and varies considerably, a minimum of four (one per year of promotion study) is quite accepted in the field of the exact sciences, physics, chemistry, technology, and medicine.^ Can religion, physics, chemistry, astronomy, physiology, history, law, ethics, industrial technology, or social science be learned from the writings left to us by the Romans?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But they have also required these poor young people at the same time to know German, English, the exact sciences, the physical sciences, history, etc.” .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Dutch doctors may bear instead of the title dr. before their name the letter D behind their name; they are not allowed to use PhD behind their name, since PhD is not a Dutch degree; there is the title doctor (dr.) instead of the degree PhD. If the Dutch universities use the description PhD on their English publications, this is purely informal, to inform English readers of the value of that curriculum. Those who have multiple doctor titles use dr.mult. before their name.[11] The honoris cause doctors use dr.h.c. before their name.[11]
.After successful conclusion of a promotion study (in Dutch: "promoveren"), the student is allowed to bear before his/her name the title of "doctor", abbreviated as "dr.". This is similar for all Dutch promotion graduates.^ All professional degree students must file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to be considered for student loans and work-study.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The student must have one letter of recommendation; this letter should indicate why the applicant should be allowed to undertake non-degree study at Duke.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Offered by the Forest History Society, this fellowship is given annually to a Duke University graduate student who wishes to study broadly in the area of forest and conservation history.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The discipline in which the promotion is obtained is not specifically noted. Hence for example a doctor in law, medicine, or mathematics all put the same abbreviation in front of their name, (e.g. dr. Jansen). As with the "doctorandus" degree, nothing is noted behind the name of the doctor to specify the discipline. Stacking of the same title as seen in other countries like for example Germany (Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Musterfrau) is highly uncommon in the Netherlands and not well received. Combining different Dutch titles is allowed (for example mr. dr. Jansen, dr. mr. Jansen, dr. ir. Jansen, mr. ir. drs. Jansen, mr. ir. Jansen). Also using ir. ing. .Jansen is highly common, saying that one holds a HBO engineering degree together with a WO engineering degree.^ One might almost say, on the contrary, that this resolve on the part of the state to make all citizens conform to a common type is proportionate to the patriotism of each country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[12] What is not allowed is specifying dr. drs. Jansen (dr. Jansen should be used instead). A combination of a Dutch title with an international title is not allowed, therefore one should choose either for rendering all his/her classical Dutch titles before his/her name, or translate his/her titles as shown below:[12]
Those who are entitled to bear the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) are entitled to chose instead to sign with an M (from Master) behind their names, instead of using their Dutch titles, e.g. A. Jansen, M.[13] This may be very useful in combining pre-Bologna Dutch titles with post-Bologna international degrees.[13] E.g. signing as drs. A. Jansen, MSc is not allowed; signing with A. Jansen, M, MSc should be used instead. The commas are optional, therefore signing as A. Jansen M MSc is also allowed. Those who are entitled to bear the titles ingenieur (ing.) and baccalaureus (bc.) are entitled to sign with B (from Bachelor), which is eventually followed by the specialization field. As mentioned above, doctors may use the letter D behind their names.
.In the modifications to the Law on higher education and scientific research, the new degrees BAA and BASc (Bachelor of Applied Arts and Bachelor of Applied Science) will be introduced for the graduates of the polytechnics (HBOs).^ I add that the bachelor's degree will forcibly impose a classical education even on those schools supposedly free, which should, it is said, come into existence as a result of the law.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The law of our country decrees that the most honorable careers are to be closed to whoever does not have a bachelor's * degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To contradict oneself, to make God contradict Himself, and to make us learn to contradict ourselves—this is the whole of the teaching of Rollin and the sum and substance of the kind of education that leads to the bachelor's degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[9]
"Doctors" (dr.), informally called PhD graduates, can proceed to teach at universities as "Universitair Docent" (UD – assistant professor). With time, experience, and/ or achievement, this can evolve to a position as "Universitair Hoofd Docent" (UHD – associate professor). Officially an UHD still works under the supervision of a "hoogleraar", the head of the department and commonly a professor. The position of "hoogleraar" is the highest possible scientific position at a university, and equal to the US "full" professor.
In the Netherlands, the title of professor (noted as prof. Jansen or professor Jansen) is connected to ones function. In practice, professors are head of a scientific department of a university faculty. However, this is not a given; it is also possible that a department is headed by a "plain" doctor, based on knowledge, achievement, and expertise. Officially it is not possible to use the title professor if not connected to a university. Should a professor decide to leave the university, thus he or she also loses the privilege to use the title of professor. In practice however, different customs are observed. Rule of thumb however is that retired professors often still note the title in front of their name (or they use the title emeritus professor = em. prof.), whereas people who switch to a non-university job must switch from the professor title to the "dr." abbreviation. Signing as prof. dr. A. Jansen is not uncommon.
.Contrary to some other European countries, in the Netherlands academic titles are rarely used outside of academia and are not listed on official documentation (e.g.^ Course work completed at non-U.S. institutions must be documented on an official academic record from an international institution recognized by the Ministry or Department of Education of that country.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

passport and drivers licence) as for example in Germany. .Dutch academic titles however are legally protected and can only be used by graduates from Dutch institutions of higher education.^ It is understood that each Texas institution of higher education may have limitations that invalidate courses after a specific length of time.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, on occasion a deferral of admission may be granted so that the applicant can gain experience or strengthen academic qualifications for graduate study, or for other valid reasons.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Course work completed at non-U.S. institutions must be documented on an official academic record from an international institution recognized by the Ministry or Department of Education of that country.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Illegal use is considered a misdemeanor and subject to legal prosecution (it is a misdemeanor against the public order, punishable with a fine up to 3700 Euro, according to art. 435, point 3 of the Dutch Book of Criminal Law).[14][15] .Holders of foreign degrees therefore need special permission before being able to use a recognized Dutch title, but they are free to use their own foreign title (untranslated).^ Do they not have holders of bachelor's degrees as their leaders?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Article 7.23, paragraph 3 of the Dutch Higher Education and Scientific Research Act provides the Informatie Beheer Groep with the possibility to grant such a permission.[16][17][18]

Norway

.Prior to 2003, there were around 50 different degrees and corresponding education programs within the Norwegian higher education system.^ Major A major indicates a particular curriculum within a degree program offered by one of the four Colleges and two Schools.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Education Core courses provide the academic foundation that supports an intensive program of specialized technical education at the certificate, diploma, and associate degree levels.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a student is unsure about a particular program of study within a degree program, some Colleges will allow for an undeclared major within that college.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2003, a reform was instituted to replace this older system with an "international system."
For example, many degrees had titles that included the Latin term candidatus/candidata. The second part of the title usually consisted of a Latin word corresponding to the profession or training. These degrees were all retired in 2003.
.The reform of higher education in Norway, Kvalitetsreformen ("The Quality Reform"), was passed in the Norwegian Parliament, the Stortinget, in 2001 and carried out during the 2003/2004 academic year.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project should be identified during the second term of study, initiated during the summer between academic years and completed during the third and fourth terms.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students are admitted free of charge to all regularly scheduled university athletic events held on campus during the academic year, with the exception of basketball.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It introduced standard periods of study and the titles master and bachelor (baccalaureus).
.The system differentiates between a free master's degree and a master's degree in technology.^ Master's degrees require between 24 and 72 credit hours of graduate-level course work, depending on the graduate program.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not more than one-sixth of the credits required for any given master's degree may be double-counted between a certificate and that master's.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter corresponds to the former sivilingeniør degree (not to be confused with a degree in civil engineering, which is but one of many degrees linked to the title sivilingeniør, which is still in use for new graduates who can chose to also use the old title).^ He is the one who says what they shall be permitted to eat and drink, on what plan their houses are to be constructed, how many rooms they are to have, and how they are to be furnished.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also usually possible to change programs, provided that the student has met prerequisites for the new program and provided that it is still possible for the student to meet all requirements of the new program before graduation.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All pre-2001 doctoral degree titles were replaced with the title "Philosophical Doctor degree", written philosophiæ doctor (instead of the traditional doctor philosophiæ).^ A doctoral candidate who applies for a student-initiated degree program will revert to pre-candidate status (including the tuition assessment) until all candidacy requirements for the new student-initiated degree program are fulfilled.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No course numbered 990, 995 or with "doctoral," "dissertation," or "preliminary" in the title may be counted toward a master's degree.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's the top six tips that have helped me speed my way through my degree so that I will finish within three years instead of the traditional four.

The title dr. philos. is a substantially higher degree than the PhD, and is reserved for those who qualify for such a degree without participating in an organized doctoral degree program.

Poland

In Poland the system is similar to the German one. For instance, Warsaw University confers the following university degrees and titles:
  • licencjat title (the equivalent of BA degree, granted after at least 3 years of study),
  • inżynier title (the equivalent of BS degree, granted after at least 3,5 years of study
  • magister or magister inżynier title (the equivalent of an MA or MS degree, granted after 5 years of study, or 2 years of additional study by holders of a previous degree),
  • doktor degree (Doctor's degree, Ph.D.),
  • doktor habilitowany degree (Polish Habilitation degree, requires approval by an external ministerial body),
The profesor (Professor's) title is officially conferred by the President of Poland.

Russia, Ukraine and some other former USSR republics

.In Russia, Ukraine and some other former USSR republics they strongly distinguish educational kinds of academic degrees and "real" academic degrees connected with scientific researches.^ The university system of academic degrees has the threefold inconvenience of making education uniform (uniformity is not unity), of imposing upon it the most disastrous administration, and then of making it inflexible.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To contradict oneself, to make God contradict Himself, and to make us learn to contradict ourselves—this is the whole of the teaching of Rollin and the sum and substance of the kind of education that leads to the bachelor's degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Give a man the power to confer academic degrees and, while leaving anyone free to teach, education will be, in fact, in servitude.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The educational degrees are awarded after finishing college education.^ Online college degrees are the future of education.

^ College Grad Careers for Graduates with a Degree in Education There are plenty of careers for Graduates with a degree in education in our public school system.

^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

.There are several levels of education one must choose between 2nd and 3rd year usually on the 3rd year of study.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project should be identified during the second term of study, initiated during the summer between academic years and completed during the third and fourth terms.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrangements to undertake an Independent Studies course must be completed during the semester prior to the one in which the student expects to enroll in the course.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  1. Bachelor degree - usually takes 4 years of college.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The applicant must have completed a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university and must submit an official transcript of all previous course work.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A maximum of 60 semester hours from a community college and 90 hours from a four-year institution is transferable to the baccalaureate degree program of the University.
    • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(minimum level to be recognized as having Higher Education)
  2. Specialist degree is awarded after 5 years of college.^ If offered financial assistance, professional students normally will receive the award for two years of study; it is expected that they will complete their degree within this period of time.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Cooperative College Program (3-2 program) allows students to receive an undergraduate and master’s degree by spending three years at a participating undergraduate institution and two years at the Nicholas School of the Environment.
    • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(4 + 1)
  3. Magister degree is awarded after 6 years of college.^ Degrees are awarded three times a year.
    • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jobs averaging $75,000 or more annually, for which fewer than 50% of current job holders have 4+ year college degrees: .
    • Finding Good Careers, Degree Not Required 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.citytowninfo.com [Source type: News]

    ^ We went on a mission to find out which metro areas of the U.S. had the best high paying jobs for people without a 4 year college degree.
    • Finding Good Careers, Degree Not Required 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.citytowninfo.com [Source type: News]

    (4 + 2)
.Usually Specialist or Magister degrees incorporates Bachelor degree in them, but only high level degree is stated in final diploma.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some require a college degree while others require only a high-school education or an equivalent G.E.D. By Brittany Tucker   |  Published 1/28/2009 More topics: Secondary Education .

^ General Education Core courses provide the academic foundation that supports an intensive program of specialized technical education at the certificate, diploma, and associate degree levels.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Specialist and Magister degrees require taking final state exams and written work on practical application of studied skills or research thesis (usually 20-50 pages) and is roughly equivalent to Master's degree.^ Normally, degree candidates in the Senior Professional Program take the required semester in residence during the term following admission.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All professional degree students must file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to be considered for student loans and work-study.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

First level academic degree is called "candidate of ... sciences" .(say, candidate of physical-mathematical sciences, or candidate of engineering sciences, candidate of historical sciences, etc).^ But they have also required these poor young people at the same time to know German, English, the exact sciences, the physical sciences, history, etc.” .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This degree requires extensive research efforts, taking some classes, publications in peer-reviewed academic journals (usually 3 publications suffice), taking 3 exams (one in their speciality, one in a foreign language and one in the history and philosophy of science) and writing and defending an in-depth thesis (80-200 pages) called a "dissertation". In addition, an applicant must print out 200 copies of annotation to the thesis, no more than 24 typewriter pages long, and send it to all relevant research organizations and major scientific libraries.^ It will emerge from the struggle happier, more enlightened, better organized, greater, freer, more moral, and more religious than you have made it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When science replaces intuition, inquiry is substituted for authority, and the method of philosophy takes the place of mere reliance on dogma; another end requires another procedure, and other procedures give other dispositions to the mind.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Normally, degree candidates in the Senior Professional Program take the required semester in residence during the term following admission.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This "auto-referate" must generate several unsolicited written responses for the dissertation to be admitted into defense status. .Special scientific council of no less than 20 notable specialists in the field (appointed by Academy of Sciences) then reviews the thesis, and appoints at least two recognized specialists in the field (called "official opponents"; one of them must be from an outside research organization), who must agree to review the dissertation and be present in person at the time of defense with written analysis and conclusion.^ Freedom may be considered from the point of view of persons and in relation to material things— ratione personae et ratione materiae, as the legal scholars say; for to abolish competition in methods of instruction is no less a violation of freedom than to abolish competition among men.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only two prerogatives are to be left to the state university: first, the right to say what one must know in order to obtain an academic degree; second, the right to close off innumerable careers to those who will not comply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But even these differences are nothing in comparison with those that must characterize two nations of which one lives by labor and the other by theft.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the council appoints a "leading organization", where the applicant must present his work at an internal colloquium, and obtain a written positive conclusion.^ Applicants must have a fluent command of oral and written English.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students must obtain written permission of the instructor to audit a course.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The applicant must have completed a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university and must submit an official transcript of all previous course work.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Once the process is set, the council recommends the thesis for defense. .Upon open defense in front of the same council the members of the council vote (it takes dominant majority - 2/3 - to pass) and then a chair writes a statement on recommending to award the degree "candidate of ...^ Normally, degree candidates in the Senior Professional Program take the required semester in residence during the term following admission.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each year OARD year publishes deadlines for conferral of degrees in the same term in which a candidate meets all requirements.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The candidate, in consultation with the Dissertation Chair of the committee, will select a subject of investigation and determine the availability of the required sources, facilities, materials, and equipment for the research and the writing of the dissertation.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

sciences" to the defendant. .All paperwork including audio tapes and thesis is then sent to so called Highest Attestation Commission which upon review makes final approval and then issues the diploma of "candidate of science". The "candidate of sciences" degree is roughly equivalent to US Ph.D. degree, although it requires longer research efforts, more publications (actually in US publications are not required for Ph.D. degree), wider exposure, and larger peer pool to pass.^ Find colleges by location, size, degree programs, athletics, admission requirements, student body characteristics, and more.
  • The Best Career Opportunities (High-Paying Jobs), College Degree Not Required 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.citytowninfo.com [Source type: News]

^ Normally, degree candidates in the Senior Professional Program take the required semester in residence during the term following admission.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finally, there is a "doctor of ... sciences" (Doktor nauk) degree in Russia and some former USSR academic environment. .This degree is sought after by established scientists who made discovery-level contributions into certain field (formally - who established new direction or new field in science).^ OARD establishes two deadlines for conferral of degree in the following term without requiring a new registration.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if your degree is in an advance computer science field, usually the school chooses Science Gold for the degree color.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leonard designed gowns for his class at Williams College in 1887 and had them made by Cotrell and Leonard, a firm established by his family in Albany, New York.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It requires discovery of new phenomenon, or development of new theory, or essential development of new direction, etc. .This usually takes a decade or two of hard work after receiving "candidate of sciences" degree, an extensive list of publications in peer-reviewed academic journals (usually ~50-300+ papers), publishing a few monographs, extensive participation in various panels and peers (journals, conferences, grant/award panels, etc), and establishing a school of "candidates of sciences" under own supervision (so at least a few of your students have received "candidacy" degrees working with you on your discovery or in your new field/direction).^ Established by the International Paper Corporation, this fellowship is for Nicholas School students.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if your degree is in an advance computer science field, usually the school chooses Science Gold for the degree color.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By getting this information on your own and purchasing your regalia from Academic Apparel, you will be saving money, and getting a regalia set that looks at least as good as what your school offers, and often it looks and feels significantly better than the bulk manufactured gowns many colleges are now selling (and ours will last longer than those gowns too).
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It requires writing a deep and advanced thesis (usually 300-800 pages) and defending it in front of special council of prominent scientists in the field (or in adjacent fields if the field/discovery is completely new) in a similar to "candidate of sciences" defense manner.^ The last day to complete and submit to Rackham OARD all degree requirements is the date by which candidates must meet all degree requirements without a new registration.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before advancing to candidacy, students must complete 4 credit hours of cognate coursework with a grade of B- or better; departments or programs may have additional cognate requirements ( section 2.1.1.1 ).
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cognate member's role is to broaden the scholarly representation of the dissertation committee beyond the candidate's home program and to provide a perspective on the quality of the dissertation from outside the field of specialization of the candidate.
  • 2. Degree Requirements, Rackham Graduate School, University of Michigan 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.rackham.umich.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Upon voting all paperwork is again sent to the Highest Attestation Commission which upon approval awards the diploma of "doctor of ... sciences".
.There is no equivalent of this "doctor of sciences" degree in US academic system.^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have an unlisted degree , there is no official color and it is dependant on the individual college or university to determine the color to be used for your hood.
  • Academic Code. An Academic Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.graduationgown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ College Grad Careers for Graduates with a Degree in Education There are plenty of careers for Graduates with a degree in education in our public school system.

.It is roughly equivalent to Habilitation in Germany, France, Austria, and some other European countries.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spain

.Before the Bologna Process, there are "Diploma" (bachelor's degree for 3 years) and "Licenciado" (for 5 years) but after it has changed to Grado for all universities (except for medical and architecture, which will be master's "still under discussion" if they can certify a minimum of 5 years' professional experience) and Master to the ones who make the post-grade master courses (60 to 120 ECTS credits in one or two years) and Doctor if you continue studies.^ Do they not have holders of bachelor's degrees as their leaders?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Admission to the Master of Environmental Management (MEM) and the Master of Forestry (MF) is open to students who hold a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university or who have completed at least three years of study in an institution participating in the Cooperative College Program described later in this chapter.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A limited number of deficiencies may be made up during the first year of residence; however, these courses will not count toward the 48 units of credit required for the MEM or MF degree.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Students must look to make an official Master with ETCS credit because some university are making their own Master's without the ECTS credits from the Bologna Process, but these are only like the Diploma.

Sweden

Switzerland

.Before the Bologna Process, because there are four official languages in Switzerland, the Universities' degrees were different, depending on the three languages French, German and Italian.^ Because it has been monopolized and enclosed in an enchanted circle by university degrees.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The applicant must have completed a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university and must submit an official transcript of all previous course work.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In French-speaking universities, the first academic degree was the Licence: 4 to 5 years of study, equivalent to the Master's degree [19] in the UK or the USA.^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The postgraduate degree was the diplôme d'études approfondies DEA or DESS: 1–2 years of study, equivalent to the Master of Advanced Studies degree. .In the Swiss-German Universities, the first degree was called Lizentiat, a 4-year degree, and the second was the Diplom nach dem ersten akademischen Grad.^ Only two prerogatives are to be left to the state university: first, the right to say what one must know in order to obtain an academic degree; second, the right to close off innumerable careers to those who will not comply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to seven Fellows are competitively selected during the first semester of study and are awarded a summer internship stipend and tuition support for second year of study.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Italian-speaking University, the first degree was called licenza, a 4-year degree; the second was the post laurea, which took 1–2 years.^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up to seven Fellows are competitively selected during the first semester of study and are awarded a summer internship stipend and tuition support for second year of study.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is especially important for concurrent degree students and students planning to study at the Duke University Marine Laboratory in their second year to complete all prerequisites prior to enrollment.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Doctoral's degree is the last stage at all the universities; it requires 3–5 years, depending on the field.^ This corps had full control over curriculum, methods, and requirements leading to the various academic degrees in all the schools and universities in the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Ukraine

This subsection is for an image on the right-hand side. For information see subsection "Russian, Ukraine and some other former USSR republics".

United Kingdom

England, Northern Ireland and Wales
The standard first degree in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is the Bachelors degree with honours (e.g. .BA (hons) for arts subjects, BEng (hons) for Engineering and BSc (hons) for science).^ Titles (by Subject) Art Economics History Law Literature Music Philosophy Political Theory Religion Science Sociology War and Peace .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This usually takes three years' full-time study.^ Most students pursue internships during the summer between academic years of study, although internships may be secured at other times and for longer durations.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an individualized study arranged by a student with a full-time faculty member and approved by the Chairperson of the Department and the Dean.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students with only three years of study at one of the institutions in the Cooperative College Program may be eligible for undergraduate state and federal grant programs.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Honours degrees are usually categorised by one of four grades:
  • First class honours (1st)
  • Second class honours, divided into:
    • Upper division, or upper second (2:1)
    • Lower division, or lower second (2:2)
  • Third class honours (3rd)
.Students who do not achieve the standard for the award of honours may be given an ordinary or pass degree which is without honours.^ Professional degree students who wish to study at the Duke Marine Lab during the summer may enroll for credit in Marine Lab courses in either summer session or both at no additional tuition charges.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students who officially withdraw from a course(s) or from the College may be entitled to a refund based on the refund policy.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assistantships may be awarded to a select number of professional degree students during their first year of study to assist faculty and staff with teaching, research, professional and other projects.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Graduateship (post-nominal GCGI) awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute is mapped to a British Honours degree.
Level 6 Graduate Diploma in engineering, awarded by the Engineering Council via the City & Guilds of London Institute, is mapped at the same level of a British BEng.
.Some students study an integrated Master's, which is still a first degree.^ Assistantships may be awarded to a select number of professional degree students during their first year of study to assist faculty and staff with teaching, research, professional and other projects.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Entering students who enroll in the Master of Environmental Management or Master of Forestry degree program will receive instructions from the Nicholas School of the Environment about registering for courses.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All professional degree students must file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to be considered for student loans and work-study.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This takes four years of study and is usually designated by the subject, such as MEng for engineering, MPhys for physics, MMath for mathematics, and so on. Grades are as above. .The 4-year MEng degree in particular has now become the standard first degree in engineering in the top UK universities, replacing the older 3-year BEng.^ A maximum of 60 semester hours from a community college and 90 hours from a four-year institution is transferable to the baccalaureate degree program of the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's the top six tips that have helped me speed my way through my degree so that I will finish within three years instead of the traditional four.

^ It is especially important for concurrent degree students and students planning to study at the Duke University Marine Laboratory in their second year to complete all prerequisites prior to enrollment.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Level 7 Postgraduate Diploma in engineering, awarded by the Engineering Council via the City & Guilds of London Institute, is mapped at the same level of a British MEng.
.Unlike the case in the United States, due to earlier specialisation in education, Master's degrees may take only one year of full-time study, and the usual amount of time spent working for a Ph.D. is three years full-time.^ Established by alumni and friends in honor of the founding dean of the Nicholas School, this fellowship provides full tuition to candidates pursuing the Master of Environmental Management degree.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a full-time student, the normal time for completing a professional master’s degree is four semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Therefore, whilst the usual amount of time spent studying from Bachelors level through to doctorate in the United States is nine years, it is in most cases only seven in the United Kingdom, and may be just six, since a Master's degree is not always a precondition for embarking on a PhD.
.Recently, there has been a significant rise in the number of courses offering "Postgraduate Diplomas", often in very specific, vocationally-related subjects.^ Courses offered in this number range do not carry degreegranting credit.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very few summer course offerings are available on the Durham campus of the Nicholas School.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Texas Common Course Numbering System was developed in part to assist students in identifying which courses at one college will meet specific course requirements at another college.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many institutions (e.g. .The Open University) offer these courses over one year, with an additional year or two required for the award of a Master's.^ A limited number of deficiencies may be made up during the first year of residence; however, these courses will not count toward the 48 units of credit required for the MEM or MF degree.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each program area requires additional courses or recommends additional preparation, as follows: .
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students in the one-year MF degree option will pay the flat rate for two semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The popularity of these courses is in part due to legislative requirements to demonstrate managerial competence in public-sector related functions.^ Each of the professional programs has required courses or required areas of study, and responsibility for meeting these requirements before graduation rests with the student, with the assistance of the coursework advisor.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Courses required as a part of the program elected by the student or required by the advisor must be retaken if failed.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Foundation degree can be awarded for having completed two years of study in what is usually a vocational discipline.^ Professional degree students must complete at least 18 units of course work with at least 6 units of B and/or A grades during the first full year of study and may not receive a grade of F in any course to be eligible for federal financial aid for their second year.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students in the one-year MF degree option will pay the flat rate for two semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assistantships may be awarded to a select number of professional degree students during their first year of study to assist faculty and staff with teaching, research, professional and other projects.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Foundation degree is comparable to an associate's degree in the United States, and can be awarded by a University, or College of Higher Education.^ Online college degrees are the future of education.

^ College Degrees How to Get a Free College Education How to get a free college education without ever going to a college or university.

^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Scotland
.The standard first degree in Scotland is either a Master of Arts which only awarded by the Ancient Universities of Scotland (whereas a Bachelor of Arts is awarded by all other modern institutions), for arts and humanities subjects, or a Bachelor of Science, for natural and social science subjects.^ One comes from Nature; the other is a social institution.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Why have you not applied this principle to property, which is a social institution, as if natural laws were less inviolable than human conventions?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What should we say if at Saint-Cyr, * in order to prepare our youth for modern military science, all they were taught was to throw stones with a slingshot?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

These can either be studied at general or honours levels. .A general degree (MA or BSc) takes three years to complete; an honours degree (MA Hons or BSc Hons) takes four years to complete.^ Applicants from other countries must meet the same criteria as applicants from the United States, including a four-year bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although professional degree students have five years from the first date of matriculation in the school to complete their degree requirements, they are eligible for federal financial assistance for the equivalent of four full-time semesters only.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A maximum of 60 semester hours from a community college and 90 hours from a four-year institution is transferable to the baccalaureate degree program of the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The general degree is not in a specific subject, but involves study across a range of subjects within the relevant faculty.^ This is our second annual study identifying the highest paying jobs which do not generally require a college degree.
  • The Best Career Opportunities (High-Paying Jobs), College Degree Not Required 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.citytowninfo.com [Source type: News]

.The honours degree involves two years of study at a sub-honours level in which a range of subjects within the relevant faculty are studied, and then two years of study at honours level which is specialised in a single field (for example classics, history, chemistry, biology, etc).^ Major A major indicates a particular curriculum within a degree program offered by one of the four Colleges and two Schools.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assistantships may be awarded to a select number of professional degree students during their first year of study to assist faculty and staff with teaching, research, professional and other projects.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, that is my conviction; these two systems have one point in common: the abuse of classical studies, and it is by this means that both of them have perverted the judgment and the morality of the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

This also reflects the broader scope of the final years of Scottish secondary education, where traditionally five Highers are studied, compared to (typically) three English or Welsh A-Levels. .The Higher is a one year qualification, as opposed to the two years of A-Levels, which accounts for Scottish honours degrees being a year longer than those in England.^ If you are looking for a different academic year than the one listed above, view our archived catalogs .
  • 2009-2010 UAF Catalog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.uaf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A student who unsuccessfully attempts a course two times will not be allowed to repeat the course for a period of one academic year (four quarters).
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, a student who withdraws from all courses for two consecutive quarters will be suspended for one academic year (4 quarters).
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advanced Highers add an optional final year of secondary education, bringing students up to the level of their A-Level counterparts - students with strong A-Levels or Advanced Highers may be offered entry directly into the second year at Scottish universities.^ However imperfect the law that has been drafted by your commission may be, I believe that it would mark a distinct advance over the present state of public education if it were amended as I propose.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The standards, however, are high, and the work is intensive, so that the student, on receiving his baccalauréat, is presumed to have completed his general education and to be qualified to study for more advanced degrees in the universities.— Translator .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Honours for MA or BSc are classified into three classes:
  • First class honours
  • Second class honours, divided into
    • Division one (2:1)
    • Division two (2:2)
  • Third class honours
Students who complete all the requirements for an honours degree, but do not receive sufficient merit to be awarded third-class honours may be awarded a Special Degree
Postgraduate Master's Degrees may be offered in some subjects; however, unlike England and Wales, these are not designated Master of Arts, as this is an undergraduate degree. .Postgraduate degrees in arts and humanities subjects are usually designated Master of Letters (MLitt); in natural and social sciences, as Master of Science (MSc).^ Why have you not applied this principle to property, which is a social institution, as if natural laws were less inviolable than human conventions?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Titles (by Subject) Art Economics History Law Literature Music Philosophy Political Theory Religion Science Sociology War and Peace .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Front Page Titles (by Subject) 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Non-doctoral postgraduate research degrees are usually designated Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or Master of Research (MRes). .First doctoral research degrees in arts, science and humanities subjects are usually designated Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).^ While the emphasis in technical education is on specialized occupational offerings, each Associate Degree program includes at least one General Education Core course from each of the areas of Humanities/Fine Arts, Social Sciences/ Behavioral Sciences, and Natural Sciences/Mathematics.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Titles (by Subject) Art Economics History Law Literature Music Philosophy Political Theory Religion Science Sociology War and Peace .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberal Arts and Sciences, General Studies and Humanities, Other .
  • IBHE - Academic Degree Programs in Illinois 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ibhe.state.il.us [Source type: Academic]
  • IBHE - Academic Degree Programs in Illinois 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ibhe.org [Source type: Academic]

North America

Mexico

The education in Mexico is slightly different to other countries. The majority of universities are public. After finishing the "Preparatoria" or also called as "Bachillerato" you enter to the university. The Preparatoria is the minimum acceptable academic level. It is finished at the age of 18. In this elemental academic level. .Sometimes the student may choose an area to specialize such as: Economy-Administration, Physics-Mathematics, Chemistry-Biology, or Humanities (according to the "Carrera" the student wants to study).^ Subject Area: Economics Collection: An Introduction to the Study of Liberty - Works to Begin with Topic: Popular Political Economy .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

It consists in three major degrees. 1st, "Licenciatura", 2nd "Maestría", and 3rd "Doctorado".
The "Carrera" (Career) is the study of a precise academic branch. Such as Economics, Business Administration, Architecture, Medicine, Laws, etcetera. This stage is quite long. The normal length is of 8-9 semesters (4-4.5 years) of full time study. Normally, the student needs to write a Thesis, for his/her graduation. In other cases, the student may take the Profesional Exam, to be graduated. Also, in university the student may specialize in a more profound branch. .For example, in the Economics career, which is going to be taken as the example, at the ITAM University (the best university in Economics of México, and also ranked as one of the bests in South America) 4 semesters are dedicated to just Economics and 4 more to the "Área de Concentración" (Specialization) like Business Economics, Economics and Laws, Political Economics, Financial Economics.^ M. de Montalembert himself, while regretting that the study of ancient literature did not go far enough, cited the reports of the inspectors and the deans of the university faculties.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this time he publicly defended the existing “University" system against the attacks of Bastiat and others on the occasion of the “Law of 1850.” Known as very conservative and even reactionary, he became much more liberal in his later political career.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Titles (by Subject) Art Economics History Law Literature Music Philosophy Political Theory Religion Science Sociology War and Peace .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Generally, the students make "prácticas" (practices) at enterprises, so they arrive to the real world with a little experience.^ Make an effort to recall what state of mind you were in when, on leaving school, you entered the practical world.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

After the graduation you are degreed with a Diploma. For example "Licenciado en Economía". Note: I have an Economics Diploma = I have an Economics "licenciatura". But it is wrong to say "I am "diplomado" in Economics, the correct way is "I am a Licenciado in Economics"
Next the university, the student may take "Diplomados" (Courses). They last from 2–4 months. In this way, the student may increase his/her knowledge without studying the Master Degree.
Most of the Mexicans stay in this level. There are a few which decide to study the "Maestría" (Master Degree). This master may take from 2–3 years. A thesis is obligated to graduate. It consists in a very high and advance academic level. Most of the people have a good job when being a "Maestro en Economía". It is commonly studied after a few years of working, and sometimes the students work and study.
Finally is the "Doctorado" (Doctorate Degree), this is the most honored academic level the student may have. It is commonly studied at an age higher than 30. It lasts from 2 to 3 years normally. .A person that has a Doctorate Degree, is very well seen in the society, has very high posts like the CEO. Mostly, they work in the Government or have their own enterprises.^ Very well; let them plunge their own children into it; I leave them free to do so.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

A "Doctor in Economics" is commonly an intellectual eminence.

United States

.In the United States, since the late 1800s, the threefold degree system of bachelor, master and doctor has been in place, but follows a slightly different pattern of study from the European equivalents.^ Academic Degrees Use lower case when using bachelor's, master's or doctor's degree.
  • Capitalization 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Q. I want to get a Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate, will they be dated differently?
  • Academic Degrees by Mail 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.maildropnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gowns for the bachelor's or master's degrees are untrimmed.
  • ACE | Academic Costume Code & Ceremony Guide 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.acenet.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United States, most standard academic programs are based on the four-year bachelor's degree (most often Bachelor of Arts, B.A., or Bachelor of Science, B.S.), a one- or two-year master's degree (most often Master of Arts, M.A., or Master of Science, M.S.; either of these programs might be as much as three years in length) and a further one or two years of coursework and research, culminating in "comprehensive" examinations in one or more fields, plus perhaps some teaching experience, and then the writing of a dissertation for the doctorate (most often doctor of philosophy, Ph.D. or other types such as Ed.D., Psy.D., Th.D.) for a total of ten or more years from starting the bachelor's degree (which is usually begun around age 18) to the awarding of the doctorate.^ And is it not strange that we should spend our whole youth in making ourselves masters of an instrument that is good for nothing—or not good for much, since nothing is more urgent when one begins to know it than to forget it?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, that is my conviction; these two systems have one point in common: the abuse of classical studies, and it is by this means that both of them have perverted the judgment and the morality of the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only two prerogatives are to be left to the state university: first, the right to say what one must know in order to obtain an academic degree; second, the right to close off innumerable careers to those who will not comply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This timetable is only approximate, however, as students in accelerated programs can sometimes earn a bachelor's degree in three years or, on the other hand, a particular dissertation project might take four or more years to complete.^ Students are allowed a period of seven years to complete the program.
  • SAIT.ca - Bachelor of Applied Technology Petroleum Engineering 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC sait.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dual degree program can be completed within five years.
  • Combined Degrees - Academic Handbook: Student Affairs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC medschool.umaryland.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Completion of requirements for the primary Bachelor’s degree.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, a graduate may wait an indeterminate time between degrees before candidacy in the next level, or even an additional degree at a level already completed.^ Working at the local Subway has become almost a rite of passage for teenagers, as it was for left Smith back in 1994 He, like DeLuca, was 17 when he began his relationship with Subway--Smith worked there part time during high school and college before graduating to the next level at Subway: ownership.

^ University graduates holding relevant science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology, or geophysics) or engineering degrees are accepted; but additional courses are usually required before starting the programs.
  • SAIT.ca - Bachelor of Applied Technology Petroleum Engineering 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC sait.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In accordance with Academic Policy Statement 801007, graduate courses completed at other accredited colleges and universities may be applied as transfer credit toward a graduate degree at Sam Houston State University at the discretion of each graduate program and the college in which it is housed.
  • Degree Requirements and Academic Guideline | Graduate Catalog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, there is no time-limit on the accumulation of academic degrees.^ There is no appeal to academic probation.
  • SFCC Admissions & Registration - Academic Standards Policy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.spokanefalls.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no appeal to academic warning.
  • SFCC Admissions & Registration - Academic Standards Policy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.spokanefalls.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diploma Diplomas are granted and mailed to students who have completed all academic degree requirements and who have no outstanding financial obligations to the University.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some schools—mostly junior colleges and community colleges, but some four-year schools as well—offer an associate's degree for two full years of study, often in pre-professional areas.^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This corps had full control over curriculum, methods, and requirements leading to the various academic degrees in all the schools and universities in the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchman, A., Schuman , C. & Kogan , L., Community factors associated with school achievement in New York City, New York: City University of New York, Center for Social Research, 1975.

.This may stand alone, or sometimes be used as credit toward completion of the four-year bachelor's degree.^ Completion of requirements for the primary Bachelor’s degree.
  • Academic Degree Requirements and Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An alternative to a standard four year degree would be attending a school focused entirely upon Aviation.

^ At Kaplan University, you can earn credits toward your nursing degree online and complete your requirements by gaining hands-on experience at a real-world nursing facility in your area.

In the United States, there is also another class of degrees called "First Professional degree." These degree programs are designed for professional practice in various fields other than academic scholarship. .Most professional degree programs require a prior bachelor's degree for admission, and so represent at least about five total years of study and as many as seven or eight.^ Men twenty-five years of age will be required every year to make a public declaration, in the temple, of the names of their friends.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The law of our country decrees that the most honorable careers are to be closed to whoever does not have a bachelor's * degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Some fields such as fine art, architecture, or divinity call their first professional degree a "master's degree" (e.g., M.F.A., M.Div.) because most of these degrees require at least the completion of a bachelor's degree, while the professional degrees in medicine (the M.D. or D.O.) and law (the J.D.) are doctorates.[20] .There is currently some debate in the architectural community to rename the degree to a doctorate in the manner that was done for the law degree decades ago, however, this would also require increasing the length of their education.^ However imperfect the law that has been drafted by your commission may be, I believe that it would mark a distinct advance over the present state of public education if it were amended as I propose.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

There are also religious-exempt degrees in 21 jurisdictions.

Oceania

Australia

The Australian academic degrees are diplomas (1–2 years), advanced diplomas (1–2 years), bachelors degrees (3 years), bachelor's degrees with honours (4 years) or postgraduate diplomas (bachelors + 1 year), graduate diplomas (bachelors+1 year), master's degrees (bachelors + 1–2 years) and doctorates (high Honours or Masters + 3–4 years). .Most degrees are issued ungraded, with bachelors degrees with honours being the exception.^ The law of our country decrees that the most honorable careers are to be closed to whoever does not have a bachelor's * degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The bachelors degree is the standard university qualification. .In Australia, unlike some other countries, honours degrees require an additional year of research and study on top of a bachelors degree, and are undertaken by invitation only.^ The law of our country decrees that the most honorable careers are to be closed to whoever does not have a bachelor's * degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This corps had full control over curriculum, methods, and requirements leading to the various academic degrees in all the schools and universities in the country.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Masters degrees may be by coursework or research. Doctorates are typically by research only (i.e. PhDs), although some universities have introduced undergraduate-level doctorate degrees. .(Nevertheless, professionals in some fields use the title "doctor" in spite of possessing only Bachelors or Masters degrees.^ Will it be objected that socialism has taken possession of the classes that do not aspire to the bachelor's degree?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

) .Some bachelors degrees (e.g.^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Bachelors of Engineering or Bachelor of Medice/Bachelor of Surgery) may take longer than three years to complete, and double bachelors degrees (i.e. completing two bachelors degrees simultaneously in four to five years) are common.

South America

Brazil

Undergraduate students in Brazilian universities normally graduate either with a Bacharel degree (equivalent to an American B.S. or B.A.) or with a professional degree (roughly modeled on the old German Diplom).
.Bacharel degrees are awarded in most fields of study in the arts, humanities, social sciences, mathematics, or natural sciences and normally take four years to complete (some degrees, as in Law, require an extra fifth year to be obtained).^ The law of our country decrees that the most honorable careers are to be closed to whoever does not have a bachelor's * degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The intellectual energies of this country were thereafter turned toward the study of social questions—in itself a perfectly natural and beneficial pursuit.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Professional degrees are awarded in state-regulated professions such as architecture, engineering, psychology, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or human medicine and are named after the profession itself, i.e. one graduates with a degree of Engenheiro (engineer), Arquiteto (architect), or Médico (physician/surgeon) for example. .A typical course of study leading to a first professional degree in Brazil normally takes five years of full-time study to complete, with the exception of the human medicine course which requires six years.^ Complete a four- or five-year, full-time program of study (or its part-time equivalent) at a college.

^ Courses offered in the first two years of college study are those which: .
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dual degree program can be completed within five years.
  • Combined Degrees - Academic Handbook: Student Affairs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC medschool.umaryland.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to the standard Bacharel and professional degrees, Brazilian universities also offer the Licenciatura degree, available for students who want to qualify as school teachers.^ Graduate School: the part of a university that offers programs for advanced degrees.
  • College Degrees - understand degree levels 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.swaphandmedowns.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ University representatives are available to meet with students.
  • GCC AZ: Advisement Center: Academic Advisement 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.gccaz.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unable to qualify for any graduate school with this degree.
  • Academic Probation Awards 2007 - Worst Online Degrees - Online Degree Reviews 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.onlinedegreereviews.org [Source type: General]

.Licenciatura courses exist mostly in mathematics, humanities, and natural sciences.^ The maximum credit on the General Exams is 18 semester hours (in the areas of English, Humanities, Natural Science and Social Science).
  • Distance Degrees, Academic Policies, Extended Studies, Adams State College 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.adams.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writing (6 credits) Quantitative Reasoning (6 credits) Natural Sciences (6 credits) Social Sciences & Humanities (12 credits) Diversity (3 credits) Global Awareness (3 credits) .
  • Degree Requirements - SAS Office of Academic Services 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC sasundergrad.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Biological Sciences Mathematics Chemistry Physics Computer Science Courses are also offered in atmospheric and environmental science, astronomy, optics, and statistics.
  • Academic Programs - University of Alabama in Huntsville - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.uah.edu [Source type: Academic]

Tecnólogo (Technologist) is also available in technology-related fields and can be normally obtained in three years only.
Admission as an undergraduate student in most top public or private universities in Brazil requires that the applicant pass a competitive entrance examination known as Vestibular. .Contrary to what happens in the United States, candidates must declare their intended university major when they register for the Vestibular.^ Students must be matriculated in the program from which they intend to graduate prior to enrolling for the final 3 credit hours of their course work in that program.

^ Upon graduation, you will receive a degree from one of the most respected business institutions in the United States--Indiana University!
  • IUS Business: Academic Programs and Degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ius.edu [Source type: News]

^ This appears to have happened because many public school districts in the United States require teachers to have a master’s degree before they are certified to teach.
  • African Americans Show Solid Gains at All Academic Degree Levels 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jbhe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although it is theoretically possible to switch majors afterwards (in a process known within the universities as transferência interna), that is actually quite rare in Brazil.^ Our management has engaged in a legal contract (agreement) with these universities - colleges offering cheapest degree possible within 14 working days.
  • Home - Cheapest Fastest Accredited University Degree 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC cheapestdegree.com [Source type: General]

^ Through our patented review process we are able to match prospective students with the best possible University.
  • Online College Degree, College Degree Online. In 7 Days! 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC degreepros.homestead.com [Source type: General]

.Undergraduate curricula tend to be more rigid than in the United States and there is little room to take classes outside one's major.^ Saturday class schedules and rooms More...
  • Whitworth University Adult Degree Program 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.whitworth.edu [Source type: General]

^ Upon graduation, you will receive a degree from one of the most respected business institutions in the United States--Indiana University!
  • IUS Business: Academic Programs and Degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ius.edu [Source type: News]

^ More than 70% of SPP students are employed while pursuing their degrees -- classes are offered in the late afternoon and early evening to accommodate full- and part-time students.
  • Degree Requirements 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC policy.gmu.edu [Source type: News]

.Individuals who hold either a Bacharel degree, a professional diploma or Licenciatura are eligible for admission into graduate courses leading to advanced master's or doctor's degrees.^ Yes, I accuse the course of instruction leading to the baccalaureate degree of wantonly preparing the whole of the youth of France for socialist utopias and social experiments.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Criteria for admission into master's and doctor's programs vary in Brazil.^ All materials to be submitted for consideration for admission into the Ph.D. program, including application forms, references, and transcripts must go to the Admissions office.
  • Southern Evangelical Seminary and Bible College > Academic > Degrees / Schools > Doctor of Philosophy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ses.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Re-entry into the College will vary according to the nature of the instructional program.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admission to the MD/Masters Programs is determined by the individual MD/Masters Advisory Committee in consultation with the Medical School Admissions Committee.
  • Combined Degrees - Academic Handbook: Student Affairs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC medschool.umaryland.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some universities require that candidates take entrance exams; others make admission decisions based solely on undergraduate transcripts, letters of recommendation, and possibly oral interviews.^ Take appropriate admissions exam.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admission to Ohio University requires the applicant to: 1.
  • ACADEMIC PROGRAMS - Associate Degree in Nursing 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.hhs.ohiou.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requirements for a Second Bachelor's Degree In order to qualify for a second bachelor's degree, regardless of whether the first was granted by LSUS or by some other college or university, the candidate must earn at least 33 term hours beyond those counted in fulfilling previous degree requirements.
  • Degree Requirements - Catalog for Academic Year 2006-2007 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Degree Requirements - Catalog for Academic Year 2006-2007 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In most cases, however, especially for the doctorate, the candidate is required to submit a research plan and one faculty member must agree to serve as his/her supervisor before the candidate can be admitted into the program; The exception are the Natural Sciences post-graduate programs, that accepts students with very broad and/or vague research prospects (sometimes the prospect is given in promptu during the interview), preferring to let the students define their study program and advisor in the course of the first year of studies.
.Master's degrees usually take two years to obtain and are classified into academic master's degrees or professional master's degrees.^ Only two prerogatives are to be left to the state university: first, the right to say what one must know in order to obtain an academic degree; second, the right to close off innumerable careers to those who will not comply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Requirements for an academic master's degree include taking a minimum number of advanced graduate classes (typically between five and eight)and submitting a research thesis which is examined orally by a panel of at least two examiners (three is the preferred number), sometimes including one external member who must be from another university or research institute.^ [In the fragment from which we borrowed note 5 above, the author examines these two questions: First, whether self-sacrifice is a preferable political motive to self-interest.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only two prerogatives are to be left to the state university: first, the right to say what one must know in order to obtain an academic degree; second, the right to close off innumerable careers to those who will not comply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [It is important to distinguish between the American system of independent colleges and universities, free, within very broad limits, to establish their own requirements for academic degrees, and the French system, established by the First Empire, against which Bastiat protests.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The emphasis of the thesis must be in adding some value to the academic knowledge, but not necessarily in being original. .Professional master's degrees on the other hand normally involve taking a larger number of classes, and, in the case of engineering programs in particular, often completing a project as an intern in an engineering company and submitting a final project report.^ He received a master's degree in engineering.
  • Abbreviations 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For a full-time student, the normal time for completing a professional master’s degree is four semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She received her master of science degree in engineering.
  • Abbreviations 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Different to that, Academic Programs of Master's in Business Administration are full time MBAs, and demand a much larger number of subjects (760 hours), and are equivalent to USA programs, although they also demand defending a thesis at the end of the course. The Executive MBA comprehend 480 hours of study and it also requires a thesis at the end. This happens because both Academic or Executive MBAs are eligible to giving classes at Bachelor degrees' program.
The Master degree is a pre-requisite for the admission in a Doctorate program in Brazil.
.Master's titles in Brazil normally include an explicit reference to the field of study in which they were awarded, e.g.^ Degrees in these fields include the study of criminology and other police sciences.
  • African Americans Show Solid Gains at All Academic Degree Levels 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jbhe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 29 percent of all master’s degrees awarded to African Americans in 2007 were in the field of education.
  • African Americans Show Solid Gains at All Academic Degree Levels 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jbhe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, more than three fifths of all master’s degrees awarded to blacks in the 2006-07 academic year were in the two fields of education and business.
  • African Americans Show Solid Gains at All Academic Degree Levels 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jbhe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

one graduates with a degree of .Mestre em Engenharia (Master of Engineering), Mestre em Economia (Master of Economics), and so on.^ Elsewhere in the whole panoply of higher education subject matter, people opt for a master's degree in education, engineering, economics, journalism--it is a perfectly acceptable and legitimate degree.
  • The Scientist - Designer Degrees or Academic Alchemy? 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC phe.rockefeller.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visit the Computer Engineering Web site Computer Networking - College of Engineering Program Information: Master The area of computer networking has become an essential component of any effort for economic and social progress.
  • Degrees, Programs and Academic Majors, Wichita State University 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.wichita.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The generic title Mestre em Ciências (Master of Sciences) is used sometimes though, especially in the natural sciences (physics, biology, chemistry, etc.^ The Academic Certificate does not require a general studies component even though requirements of the certificate may include courses that currently meet specific general studies designations such as Humanities and Fine Arts, Social and Behavioral Sciences, etc.
  • Degrees & Programs - Mesa Community College 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.mesacc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The basis of virtually all scientific research, the pure sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics provide the most variety and greatest opportunities with Chicago's two national laboratories, with biochemistry and molecular biology preparing the next generation of doctors.
  • IIT Undergraduate Admission | Degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.iit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum credit on the General Exams is 18 semester hours (in the areas of English, Humanities, Natural Science and Social Science).
  • Distance Degrees, Academic Policies, Extended Studies, Adams State College 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.adams.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .The word profissional is normally added to the title to distinguish it from an academic master's degree, e.g.^ Need for the Proposed Degree Program * Does the program fit with the campus' and college's Academic Master Plan?

^ For a full-time student, the normal time for completing a professional master’s degree is four semesters.
  • Academic_Information_for_Professional_Degree_Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC registrar.duke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) recommends writing academic degrees in lower case, except when using the degree as a title.

Mestre Profissional em Engenharia Aeronáutica (Professional Master in Aeronautical Engineering).
.Doctor's degrees on the other hand normally take four additional years of full-time study to complete and are of a higher standing than a master's degree; With very few exceptions (namely, people with outstanding accomplishments in research), a Master degree or equivalent is required for admission in a Doctorate Program.^ Complete a four- or five-year, full-time program of study (or its part-time equivalent) at a college.

^ Additionally, a student is subject to the residency requirements as stated for each degree program.
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time limit for completing the doctoral degree is eight years.
  • USC Catalogue: Academic Policies: Requirements for Graduation: Graduate Students 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Requirements for obtaining a doctor's degree include taking additional advanced courses, passing an oral qualifying exam, and submitting a longer doctoral dissertation which must represent a significant original contribution to knowledge in the field to which the dissertation topic is related.^ Advanced courses in major fields.
  • WCSU Undergraduate Catalog - Academic Programs & Degrees 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.wcsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requirements for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy in education and Doctor of Education.

^ In addition, other requirements for taking each course are identified.
  • Academic Information 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.centralgatech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That contrasts with master's theses, which, in addition to being usually shorter than doctoral dissertations, are not required to include creation of new knowledge or revision/reinterpretation of older views/theories.^ The Ph.D. program usually takes six terms of study beyond the master's degree, and includes original research, which culminates in a dissertation.
  • Degrees Offered - Academic Departments & Programs - UM SPH 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.sph.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This optional service (you may or may not want to choose/pay or this additional service) is provided to give further recognition or authenticity to your degree / master / doctorate documents.
  • Home - Cheapest Fastest Accredited University Degree 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC cheapestdegree.com [Source type: General]

^ The Online degree in Masters of Business Administration attracts professionals from wide variety of fields because it provides the business and management knowledge to open new careers opportunities.
  • University Degree Online, University Degree Online in India, Master, Bachelor, Graduate, University, MBA 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.indiaedumart.com [Source type: News]

.The doctoral dissertation is examined in a final oral exam before a panel of at least two members (in the state of São Paulo the preferred number is five, while the other regions prefer three members), usually including one or two external examiners from another university or research institute.^ At the doctoral level, the research product is a dissertation.
  • Degree Requirements and Academic Guideline | Graduate Catalog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Degree Requirements and Academic Guideline | Graduate Catalog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC ftp.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program consists of formal coursework and an MPH capstone project, as well as a DrPH qualifying exam, oral exams and a dissertation project that addresses challenges of the students’ work settings.
  • Combined Degree Programs - Academic Overview - Master of Public Health - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jhsph.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before one accepts a variable simply because it has been used for decades or because a federal agency paid for it, one must examine the bricks and mortar of that variable very carefully.
  • Archived - Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor's Degree Attainment Executive Summary 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conventions for naming doctoral degrees follow similar rules to those used for master's degree, i.e. an explicit reference to the field of study is normally included in the title itself, e.g. Doutor em Engenharia (Doctor of Engineering), Doutor em Direito (Doctor of Laws), Doutor em Economia (Doctor of Economics), etc., although a generic title like Doutor em Ciências (Doctor of Sciences) may be occasionally used.
Finally, a small number of Brazilian universities, most notably the public universities in the state of São Paulo still award the title of Livre-Docente (free docent), which is of higher standing than a doctorate and is obtained, similar to the German Habilitation, by the submission of a second (original or cumulative) thesis and approval in a Livre-Docência examination that includes giving a public lecture before a panel of full professors.

Colombia

In Colombia, the system of degrees is a bit similar to the U.S. model. .After completing their high school, or "bachillerato", students (called "bachilleres") can take one of two options.^ If the law that creates and disposes of property can take one step toward equality, why should it not take two?
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first is called a "Profesional", which is similar to a Bachelor's Degree requiring from nine to eleven semesters of study according to the program chosen.^ If only the knowledge required for the bachelor's degree still bore some relation to the needs and the interests of our age!
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The other option is called a "Técnico"; this degree only three years of study and prepares the student for technical or mechanical labors, similar to the associate's degree given in the U.S.
After this, students, now called "profesionales" or "técnicos", can opt for higher degrees. .Formal education after the Bachelor's degree is the Master's degree with the title of "Magíster", and Doctorate's degree known as "Doctorado". The Master's degree has a normal duration of two years.^ To contradict oneself, to make God contradict Himself, and to make us learn to contradict ourselves—this is the whole of the teaching of Rollin and the sum and substance of the kind of education that leads to the bachelor's degree.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

More commonly students prefer to take an specialization's degree, "Especialización", after their bachelor's degree rather than the more formal Master and Doctorate paths. .This program is very popular in the country, because it requires only one year to complete and because the student only acquires the technical knowledge, without the bulk of the theoretical subjects.^ Both are one-year programs.
  • Union Theological Seminary - Academic Program 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.utsnyc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a student completes requirements for only one major and graduates with that degree, he/she will be required to go into a second degree program to complete requirements for the second degree.
  • Degree Requirements - Catalog for Academic Year 2006-2007 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Degree Requirements - Catalog for Academic Year 2006-2007 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.lsus.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students will participate in a one-year internship after completing the first year of the core M.B.A. program.
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A similar situation in Colombia, when compared to the U.S. system, is that the students may go directly to the "Doctorado" without having to take the "Master" or "Especialización".

Chile

In Chile, the system in a nutshell is as follows: Quite similar to the case described for Colombia, students may opt to be "Profesionales"(Professionals) or "Técnicos"(Technicians). .After completion of high school, students may follow professional or technical studies at Universities or Technical schools.^ Many students entering professional schools (e.g.
  • Academic Programs - University of Alabama in Huntsville - acalog ACMS™ 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC catalog.uah.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Actions in violation of this policy constitute a violation of the Student Conduct Code, and may subject an individual or entity to university discipline and/or legal proceedings.
  • Academic Policies // SCampus 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC web-app.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students bring diverse talents and learning styles to UB. Independent study may provide opportunities for students to learn in ways that work best for them.
  • UB Undergraduate Catalog 2004-2005: Undergraduate Education: Academic and Degree Options 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC undergrad-catalog.buffalo.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Only Universities and the Academies of the Armed Forces can give Academic Degrees.^ Academic Degrees: B.S., University of Illinois; M.S., Ph.D., Iowa State University Areas of Expertise: Biology; Physiology, Developmental Biology of Turtles and Turtle Eggs Topics: Turtles (nesting, incubation, etc.
  • Marymount University: Faculty Experts 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.marymount.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Academic Degrees: Ph.D., Indiana University Areas of Expertise: Metaphysics, Epistemology, History of Philosophy, Logic and Cognitive Science .
  • Marymount University: Faculty Experts 18 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.marymount.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Students may receive credit toward the M.B.A. degree for Yale College courses only if such credit has been authorized by the SOM director of student and academic services.
  • Yale University Bulletin | School of Management 2009–2010 | M.B.A. Degree Requirements and Academic Policies 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, traditional professions require an Academic Degree, but there are many professions that not require the degree because they were conceived as strictly "professional" not academic.^ This can be a difficult process, because universities in India do not document semester credit hours in the same manner as the US. However, when clients are able to obtain the actual number of credit hours from the university, they are usually able to satisfactorily demonstrate that they have at least as many contact hours as those required for a US Bachelor Degree.
  • » academic credentials » TheDegreePeople Blog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.thedegreepeople.com [Source type: General]

^ Complete academic requirements to become licensed in a recognized profession.

^ This appears to have happened because many public school districts in the United States require teachers to have a master’s degree before they are certified to teach.
  • African Americans Show Solid Gains at All Academic Degree Levels 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.jbhe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The degrees are as follows:
"Licenciado" it is similar to the Bachelor, but to get it is necessary to complete at least eight semesters of study on the subjects which are part of the Mayor. .This degree is enough to continue developing an academic career, however, to get a professional title -which is not academic, but allows you to get a professional practice, you have to continue one or two additional years of study.^ If you are looking for a different academic year than the one listed above, view our archived catalogs .
  • 2009-2010 UAF Catalog 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.uaf.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cal State East Bay offers a strong academic course of study with a real-world curriculum to prepare you for a lifetime of personal achievement and career success.

^ Community colleges are public, two-year schools that provide an excellent education, whether you're considering an associate's degree, a certificate program, technical training, or plan to continue your studies at a four-year college.
  • College Degree - why go to college 12 September 2009 4:28 UTC www.collegeboard.com [Source type: General]

.(For example to be an engineer it is necessary to study four years to get a Licentiate in Engineering Sciences, and two additional years to get a Professional Title and become an engineer.^ Generally, the M.P.H. curriculum consists of 60 credit hours taken in four terms, i.e., two academic years.
  • Degrees Offered - Academic Departments & Programs - UM SPH 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.sph.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Courses offered in the first two years of college study are those which: .
  • 2003 - 2005 Graduate Catalog: Degree Requirements & Academic Guidelines 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Year three and four of the applied degree involve advanced studies in accounting theory, auditing, taxation and e-business with options to study more in-depth courses.
  • sait.ca - Bachelor of Applied Business Administration 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC sait.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Sometimes it is possible to take additional subjects and get a "Magister" degree besides the professional title.^ Front Page Titles (by Subject) 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy .
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

)
"Magister" is the equivalent to the Master degree in English speaking countries.
"Doctorado" is the equivalent to the Doctorate or Phd. .There is no separate classification for Professional Doctorates.^ There can be no professional enhancement without personal awareness, and also we cannot grow personally unless we are professionally on purpose and sharing what we have with others responsibly.

.In particular, the engineering profession may be complicated for the foreigner since there is two types of engineers: those who got an Academic Degree such as Civil Engineers or Armed Forced Politechnical Engineers, and those who are "Ingenieros en Ejecución" (Professional Engineers) which are considered technicians more focused to apply the engineering, and completed only four years of study.^ It is imposed by force, by those who momentarily have force at their command.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is as much of it here as there is in any of those who propose to organize or disorganize societies.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is in the world an infallible man (or sect), then turn over to him (or to it) not only education, but complete and plenary power, and have done with it.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.They are not able, by law, to authorise plans or drawings like engineers with a degree or architects.^ Pre Professional Degree Programs To see more information on our excellent Pre Professional Programs go to: Pre-Dental Program Pre-Medical Program Pre-Optometry Program Pre-Pharmacy Program Cooperative Engineering Program Pre-Law  Program .
  • Pre Professional Degree Programs 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.stthom.edu [Source type: News]

^ While all doctoral degree programs require some level of research, professional doctorates are more likely to draw from established facts and theories.
  • Academic Doctoral Degrees | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bachelor degree is a waste of time unless you want to go to a professional field like law or a doctor, engineer etc.
  • How important is a university degree? 23 September 2009 4:19 UTC www.discovervancouver.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Venezuela

Titles in Venezuela start with the Certificado de Educación Básica (literally, Certificate of Basic Education), awarded upon completing 6th grade. The next title is earned upon completing 11th grade, and may be Bachiller en Ciencias (literally, Bachelor of the Sciences), Bachiller en Humanidades (literally, Bachelor of Humanities), or Técnico en Ciencias (literally, Technician of the Sciences). .The reason for this diversity is because some schools provide vocational education as part of their high school curriculum (thereby allowing them to hand out "Technician" titles) while elsewhere, the student is required to decide whether to study Sciences or Humanities for the last two years of secondary school.^ [The French baccalauréat, corresponding roughly, in time, to the first two years of college in America, is conferred by the secondary schools (the collège or the lycée ).
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The free institutions, which will with difficulty arise beside the state schools and church schools, will feel the necessity of giving the human mind its true nourishment; namely, the knowledge of what things are, and not the knowledge of what was said about them two thousand years ago.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was the state to which the education provided by the clergy had reduced public opinion in France in regard to the family, property, liberty, and society, when the Revolution broke out.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Titles at the higher education level usually depend on the institution handing them out. Technical schools award the student with the tile of Técnico Superior Universitario (literally, University Higher Technician, to distinguish from Technicians of the Sciences). Universities award the student with the title of Ingeniero (literally, Engineer) or with the title Licenciado (literally, Licentiate) after completing a five-year program. .The Engineer have more physics subjects than the Licenciate, but both are five-year careers.^ Incensed by this blindness on their part, he predicted the collapse of the Union and gave it no more than five years to exist.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some higher education institutions may award Diplomados (literally, Diploma) but the time necessary to obtain one varies.^ [Twenty years before, the author, in his first essay, had already pointed to freedom of education as one of the reforms that the nation should strive to obtain.
  • Online Library of Liberty - 9.: Academic Degrees and Socialism - Selected Essays on Political Economy 10 February 2010 10:45 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Medical Doctors are awarded the title "Médico Cirujano" after completing a 6 year-career.
Post-graduate education follows conventions of the United States (being named "Master's" and "Doctorate" after the programes there)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Makdisi, George (April-June 1989), "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West", Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175–182 [175–77], doi:10.2307/604423 
  2. ^ The Guinness Book Of Records, 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2
  3. ^ John Bagot Glubb:
    By Mamun's time medical schools were extremely active in Baghdad. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the Caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid. As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas to those who were considered qualified to practice. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 AD and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia.
    (cf. Quotations on Islamic Civilization)
  4. ^ Al-Azhar University, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 975, was a Jami'ah ("university" in Arabic) which offered a variety of post-graduate degrees (Ijazah).
  5. ^ Note: In the U.S. and Europe (except U.K.), the M.D. Program of Study is a full-time four to five year course that requires a prior bachelor's degree. There are six or seven year "straight M.D. programs" after high school, similar to "straight Ph.D. programs", in some Universities
  6. ^ Note: In the U.S., some pharmacy schools offer the PharmD as a six-year program which does not require a prior bachelor's degree and is more akin to a professional Master's degree, while currently there is debate among the pharmacy community and pressure from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy to make schools offer it as a 4-year post-bachelors program.
  7. ^ Note: In the UK and the Commonweatlh (except Canada), the M.D. degree is a graduate research degree distinct from the professional medical MBBS or MBChB degree
  8. ^ Wadsack, Ingrid; Kasparovsky, Heinz (2004) (PDF), Higher Education in Austria (2nd ed.), Vienna: Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, ISBN 3-85456-453-8, http://www.fulbright.at/dokumente/us_citizens/general/hssystem_04e.pdf 
  9. ^ a b c d Welke titel mag ik voeren? Dutch-Flemish Accreditation Organization.
  10. ^ MPhil graad wordt niet meer verleend University of Leiden.
  11. ^ a b Welke titel mag ik voeren als ik gepromoveerd ben? Postbus 51.
  12. ^ a b Bachelor-mastertitulatuur: titels combineren
  13. ^ a b Burgervragen Citizens' questions letter from the Dutch Department of Education, Culture and Science.
  14. ^ Art. 435 Sr
  15. ^ Art. 435 Sr (translated by Google)
  16. ^ Informatie Beheer Groep (IB-Groep) under commission of the Dutch Ministery of Education, Culture, and Science (http://www.ibgroep.nl/International_visitors/Welcome.asp).
  17. ^ More information on legislation on http://www.ibgroep.nl/International_visitors/Diploma_assessment/diploma_assessment.asp.
  18. ^ Application forms via Application for a recognized Dutch title.
  19. ^ Rectors' Conference of the Swiss Universities
  20. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education. Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients," InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). Ethics Opinion 1969-5. Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education. Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). Encyclopedia Britannica, 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).

External links

Academic degrees
Associate's degrees (U.S.) AA, AAS, ABA, ABS, AOS, AS, AMusA (Australia), ASN
Foundation degrees (U.K.) FdA, FdEd, FdEng, FdMus, FdBus, FdSc, FdTech
Bachelor's degrees AB or BA, BAcy, BAdm, BAgrEc, BArch, BBA, BBus, BCom or BComm, BCS, BCL, STB, BD, BDent, BDS, B.Ed., BEc, BEng or BE, BSBME, BFA, BHSc, BGS,BHE, BHK, BID, BJ, BTh, BLibStud, BLIS, BMath, BMedSc or BMedSci, BMus, BSN, BPE, BPharm, BS or BSc or SB, BSc(Agr) or BSA, BSocSci, BSW, BTech, LLA, LLB, MB ChB or MB BS or BM BS or MB BChir or MB BCh BAO, MA (Cantab.), MA (Dubl.), MA (Hons), MA (Oxon.)
Master's degrees MArch, MA, MAT, MALS or MLS, MS or MSc, MSt, DEA, MAcy, MALD, MApol, MPhil, MRes, MFA, MTech, MBA, MBI, MBT, MComm, MDes, MTh, MTS, MDiv, MEd, MMT, MPA, MPD, MPS, MSN, MProfStuds, MJ, MST, MSW, MPAff, MLIS, MLitt, MPH, MPM, MPP, MPT, MRE, MTheol/ThM/MTh, STM, LLM, MEng, MSci, MBio, MChem, MPhys, MMath, MMedSc or MMedSci, MMus, MESci, MGeol, MTCM, MSSc, BCL (Oxon), BPhil (Oxon), ThM
Licentiate degrees: Lic Arts, LDS, JCL, STL, SSL, LSS, PhL
Specialist degrees EdS, SSP
Engineer's degrees AE, BE, BME, CE, CE, ChE, EE, CpE, ECS, EnvE, MSE, ME, NavE, NuclE, Ocean E, SysE, Eng
First-professional degrees AuD, DC, DCM, DDS, DMD, JD, MD (US), DPT, ND, OD, DO (US only), PharmD, DP, PodD, DPM, MDiv, MHL, DVM, PD, STB
Doctoral degrees PhD, DPS, EdD, DEng, EngD, DEnv, DBA, DD, JCD, SSD, JUD, DSc, DLitt, DA, MD (out of US and Canada), DMA, DMus, DCL, ThD, DrPH, DPT, DPhil, PsyD, DSW, JD, LLD, LHD, JSD, SJD, JuDr, STD, DMin

Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

A degree is an award given by given by a university or, in some countries, a college, normally to people who have done an advanced course of study, and passed exams or written a thesis.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

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