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The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy.

In many countries, it is an honorary title.

"Academician" may also be a functional title and denote a full member of the National Academy of Sciences in those countries where the academy has a strong influence on national scientific life, particularly countries that were part of, or influenced by, the Soviet Union. In such countries, "Academician" is used as an honorific title (like "Doctor", "Professor", etc.) when addressing or speaking about someone. Countries where the term Academician is used in this way include China, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine.

The British honour "Fellow of the Royal Society" (FRS) can be considered a rough equivalent.

There also exists a lower-rank title, variously translated Corresponding Member or Associate Member, Russian: член-корреспондент (chlen-korrespondent).

In Finland, "Academician" (Finnish: akateemikko) is an honorary title and the President of the Republic nominates the Academicians. There can be 12 Finnish Academicians representing science and scholarly pursuits and eight Academicians representing fine arts and literature at the same time. The Academy of Finland is the state funding agency of Finnish science and letters, but it has no organizational connection to Finnish Academicians. The scientists and scholars funded by the Academy of Finland are called Academy Professors (Finnish: akatemiaprofessori) and Academy Research Fellows (Finnish: akatemiatutkija). In addition to Academy of Finland, Finland has four independent national academies.

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