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Accountancy
Emblem-money.svg
Key concepts
Accountant · Bookkeeping · Trial balance · General ledger · Debits and credits · Cost of goods sold · Double-entry system · Standard practices · Cash and accrual basis · GAAP / IFRS
Financial statements
Balance sheet · Income statement · Cash flow statement · Equity · Retained earnings
Auditing
Financial audit · GAAS · Internal audit · Sarbanes–Oxley Act · Big Four auditors
Fields of accounting
Cost · Financial · Forensic · Fund · Management · Tax
.Accountancy is the art of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers.^ Prepares financial statements/management information.
  • Accountancy Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kent.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accountancy Accountancy is the art of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ABOUT CASH gives further information about CASH and community accountancy.

[1] .The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management; the art lies in selecting the information that is relevant to the user and is reliable.^ The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management.Elliot, Barry & Elliot, Jamie: Financial accounting and reporting, Prentice Hall, London 2004, ISBN 0273703641, p.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prepares financial statements/management information.
  • Accountancy Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kent.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accountancy Accountancy is the art of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Accountancy is a branch of mathematical science that is useful in discovering the causes of success and failure in business.^ In formal language theory , a branch of mathematics used in both computer science and linguistics, a grammar is a precise description of a language – that is, of a set of strings over some alphabet.
  • Sentence Generator Algorithm | Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC accounting.zouze.com [Source type: General]

^ ACCOUNTING EQUATION is a mathematical expression used to describe the relationship between the assets, liabilities and owner's equity of the business model.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Current number crunchers or business professionals looking to make a career switch will be well-served by the Master of Science in Accountancy program.
  • Online Accounting Degrees - How to become an Accountant 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.jobprofiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principles of accountancy are applied to business entities in three divisions of practical art, named accounting, bookkeeping, and auditing.^ Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks .
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping practice .
  • Accounting Firms on Long Island, NY - Citidex Long Island 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.citidexli.com [Source type: News]

^ Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
  • Accounting Firms on Long Island, NY - Citidex Long Island 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.citidexli.com [Source type: News]

[3]
Accounting is defined by the AICPA as "The art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof."[4]
.Accounting is thousands of years old; the earliest accounting records, which date back more than 7,000 years, were found in the Middle East.^ Courses in the major are to be no more than seven years old.

^ Accounting is thousands of years old; the earliest accounting records were found in the Middle East which date back more than 7,000 years.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She has worked with other small business owners who think it is enough to simply "know" their company made $30,000 during the year (based only on the fact that it owns $30,000 more than it did on January 1).
  • Basic Accounting Concepts | AccountingCoach.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accountingcoach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds.^ The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An accounting information system is the combination of people, procedures and business records that a company maintains to manage financial data.
  • Accounting Quizzes and Accounting Trivia -- Fun Trivia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Associate of Science in Accounting Accountants help to ensure that companies run more efficiently, public records are kept more accurately, and taxes are paid properly and on time.
  • Associate of Arts Degrees AA in Accounting Online 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myassociatedegree.org [Source type: Academic]

.Accounting evolved, improving over the years and advancing as business advanced.^ Accounting evolved, improving over the years and advancing as business advanced."Friedlob, G. Thomas 1996, p.1"> Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, John Wiley & Sons, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0471130753, p.1 Early accounts served mainly to assist the memory of the businessperson and the audience for the account was the proprietor or record keeper alone.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This accounting landscape is continually changing as managers invent new ways of doing business and researchers identify areas where accounting policies/procedures can be improved.
  • Monmouth College - Department of Accounting - Welcome 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC department.monm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students interested in transferring to a four-year college or university to major in Accounting upon completion of a degree from JSRCC should enroll in the Business Administration AS transfer program.
  • Accounting AAS 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.jsr.vccs.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.Early accounts served mainly to assist the memory of the businessperson and the audience for the account was the proprietor or record keeper alone.^ Assists in the day-to-day maintenance of accounting records and the...
  • Accounting Jobs | Indeed.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accounting evolved, improving over the years and advancing as business advanced."Friedlob, G. Thomas 1996, p.1"> Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, John Wiley & Sons, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0471130753, p.1 Early accounts served mainly to assist the memory of the businessperson and the audience for the account was the proprietor or record keeper alone.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keeping Separate Business Records: Even in a small business you should, before you start, set up a business account even if you're a sole proprietor.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

.Cruder forms of accounting were inadequate for the problems created by a business entity involving multiple investors, so double-entry bookkeeping first emerged in northern Italy in the 14th century, where trading ventures began to require more capital than a single individual was able to invest.^ What Double-Entry accounting is and how it works.

^ Cruder forms of accounting were inadequate for the problems created by a business entity involving multiple investors, so double-entry bookkeeping first emerged in northern Italy in the 14th century, where trading ventures began to require more capital than a single individual was able to invest.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BOKIN is an accounting system based on double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Accounting - Free Software Directory - Free Software Foundation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC directory.fsf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The development of joint stock companies created wider audiences for accounts, as investors without firsthand knowledge of their operations relied on accounts to provide the requisite information.^ Provided with Accounts Receivable, Contracts allows you to easily set up and track contract terms, scope of work, status, contacts and billing information for each contract and contract item.
  • Construction Accounting Software – Sage Timberline Office 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sagecre.com [Source type: General]

^ By investing thousands of hours, we have created clear and concise managerial accounting information for both business people and students of all ages.
  • Managerial Accounting|Introduction to Managerial Accounting|Free Cost and Management Accounting Articles-Concepts Help|Garrison|Noreen 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accountingformanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This information may be accessed on-line at anytime, and is an invaluable tool to utilize for making sound business decisions, providing data for investors, analyzing opportunities, generating predictions, preparing presentations, and managing accounts.

[6] This development resulted in a split of accounting systems for internal (i.e. management accounting) and external (i.e. financial accounting) purposes, and subsequently also in accounting and disclosure regulations and a growing need for independent attestation of external accounts by auditors.[7]
.Today, accounting is called "the language of business" because it is the vehicle for reporting financial information about a business entity to many different groups of people.^ The group of accounts used by a business.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accounting is also widely referred as a “language of business”.

^ The accounting stationery used to record financial information about specific accounts.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

.Accounting that concentrates on reporting to people inside the business entity is called management accounting and is used to provide information to employees, managers, owner-managers and auditors.^ The group of accounts used by a business.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of accounting information to plan and control the activities of a business.
  • GW Bulletin 2009-2010 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Accounting provides information about the financial position of a business or company.
  • Basic Accounting Lesson Plans, Bookkeeping, Teaching Business 101, Worksheets 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.moneyinstructor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Management accounting is concerned primarily with providing a basis for making management or operating decisions.^ You might also work in the managerial/cost accounting area which is concerned with internal reporting and decision-making or the financial reporting area which involves the preparation of financial information for use by investors, creditors and others or in internal audit which is concerned with the operational and financial efficiency of the company.
  • Careers in Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.uakron.edu [Source type: News]

^ The program also gives you the foundation and breadth needed to make informed managerial decisions, while electives allow for learning advanced managerial accounting, information assurance, computer auditing, and even fraud management.

^ Accounting Manager Handling daily bookkeeping and assure that the accounting data is available on an accurate, concise and up to date basis.
  • Book keeping ANDAMAN ACCOUNTING in Krabi; Business and Financial assistant 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accounting-krabi.com [Source type: News]

.Accounting that provides information to people outside the business entity is called financial accounting and provides information to present and potential shareholders, creditors such as banks or vendors, financial analysts, economists, and government agencies.^ In contrast, financial accounting is concerned with providing information to stockholders, creditors, and others who are outside an organization.
  • Managerial Accounting|Introduction to Managerial Accounting|Free Cost and Management Accounting Articles-Concepts Help|Garrison|Noreen 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accountingformanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of financial and managerial accounting information.

^ Information systems Financial accounting and reporting .
  • Accountancy Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kent.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because these users have different needs, the presentation of financial accounts is very structured and subject to many more rules than management accounting.^ The accounting requirements are very different.

^ What is the difference between financial accounting and management accounting?
  • Basic Accounting Concepts | AccountingCoach.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accountingcoach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An accounting information system is the combination of people, procedures and business records that a company maintains to manage financial data.
  • Accounting Quizzes and Accounting Trivia -- Fun Trivia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The body of rules that governs financial accounting is called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP.[8]

Contents

Etymology

The word "Accountant" is derived from the French word Compter, which took its origin from the Latin word Computare. .The word was formerly written in English as "Accomptant", but in process of time the word, which was always pronounced by dropping the "p", became gradually changed both in pronunciation and in orthography to its present form.^ Job Cost allows you to manage every step of the change order process to ensure that your change orders are accurate, timely and profitable for your business.
  • Construction Accounting Software – Sage Timberline Office 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sagecre.com [Source type: General]

^ SOLUTION: GNU ac always pays attention to the ut_type record, so there's no possibility of chalking up time to anything but user processes.
  • Accounting Utilities Manual 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

History

Token accounting in ancient Mesopotamia

Map of the Middle East showing the Fertile Cresent circa. 3rd millennium BC
.The earliest accounting records were found amongst the ruins of ancient Babylon, Assyria and Sumeria, which date back more than 7,000 years.^ She has worked with other small business owners who think it is enough to simply "know" their company made $30,000 during the year (based only on the fact that it owns $30,000 more than it did on January 1).
  • Basic Accounting Concepts | AccountingCoach.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accountingcoach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Associate of Science in Accounting Accountants help to ensure that companies run more efficiently, public records are kept more accurately, and taxes are paid properly and on time.
  • Associate of Arts Degrees AA in Accounting Online 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myassociatedegree.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers found that Americans are using nearly 1 billion more gallons of gasoline each year than they did in 1960 because of expanding waistlines, according to this AP article .

.The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds.^ The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds.
  • Accounting | eHow.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An accounting information system is the combination of people, procedures and business records that a company maintains to manage financial data.
  • Accounting Quizzes and Accounting Trivia -- Fun Trivia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Associate of Science in Accounting Accountants help to ensure that companies run more efficiently, public records are kept more accurately, and taxes are paid properly and on time.
  • Associate of Arts Degrees AA in Accounting Online 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myassociatedegree.org [Source type: Academic]

Because there is a natural season to farming and herding, it is easy to count and determine if a surplus had been gained after the crops had been harvested or the young animals weaned.[5]
Complex accounting tokens made of clay, from Susa, Uruk period, cira 3500 BCE. Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.
.During the period 80003700 BCE, the Fertile Crescent witnessed the spread of small settlements supported by agricultural surplus.^ A statement that reports the changes that have taken place in the Retained Earnings account during the fiscal period; prepared as a supporting document for the balance sheet.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tokens, shaped into simple geometric forms such as cones or spheres, were used for stewardship purposes in relation to identifying and securing this surplus, and are examples of accounts that referred to lists of personal property.^ Lists locations and product use examples.
  • Google Directory - Computers > Software > Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Open Directory - Computers: Software: Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Using payroll software, you can determine that payments are made automatically into employee accounts, and you can easily refer to payroll history to analyse your payroll accounts for taxation purposes.
  • Accounting Software Tips, Accounting Software Programs, Business Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC accountingsoftware.lifetips.com [Source type: General]

^ When the data thus produced are abstracted in reports (usually quarterly or annually) for the use of persons outside the organization, the process is called financial accounting.
  • accounting (finance) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[10] Some of them bore markings in the form of incised lines and impressed dots. Neolithic community leaders collected the surplus at regular intervals in the form of a share of the farmers’ flocks and harvests. .In turn, the accumulated communal goods were redistributed to those who could not support themselves, but the greatest part was earmarked for the performance of religious rituals and festivals.^ The CPA examination is rigorous, and less than one-half of those who take it each year pass every part on the first try.
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 2-day CPA examination is rigorous, and only about one-quarter of those who take it each year pass every part they attempt.
  • Accounting Career 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.collegegrad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This useful online dictionary could be good for students who need to check terms.
  • Intute - Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.intute.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.In 7000 BCE, there were only some 10 token shapes because the system exclusively recorded agricultural goods, each representing one of the farm products levied at the time, such as grain, oil and domesticated animals.The number of token shapes increased to about 350 around 3500 BCE, when urban workshops started contributing to the redistribution economy.^ No, there was only a contribution of labor.

^ Accounting Systems record and process accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll and trial balance.

^ As the economy grows, the number of business establishments will increase, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up books, prepare taxes, and provide management advice.
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Accounting Career 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.collegegrad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the new tokens stood for raw materials such as wool and metal and others for finished products among which textiles, garments, jewelry, bread, beer and honey.^ The academic programs at Post University are accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges using the same standards applied to other universities such as Harvard and Yale.
  • Online Associate Accounting Degree, Accredited Online Accounting Degree Programs 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.justcolleges.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other analytical reports are prepared as needed to investigate specific problems such as a decline in the profitability of a product line.
  • Managerial Accounting|Introduction to Managerial Accounting|Free Cost and Management Accounting Articles-Concepts Help|Garrison|Noreen 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.accountingformanagement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A business that transforms raw materials into finished products through the use of labor and machinery.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

[11]
The invention of a form of bookkeeping using clay tokens represented a huge cognitive leap for mankind.[12] The cognitive significance of the token system was to foster the manipulation of data. .Compared to oral information passed on from one individual to the other, tokens were extra-somatic, that is outside the human mind.^ Our focus is to see that every student's individual needs are met by ensuring one-on-one attention at a level unmatched by any other higher learning institutions.

^ The accounting principle that allows the financial information from one period to be compared to that of another period; also, the comparison of financial information of two or more businesses.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How do you choose one of the Certified Public Accountants with no information other than the address and phone number?

.As a result, the Neolithic accountants were no longer the passive recipients of someone else's knowledge, but they took an active part in encoding and decoding data.^ I am a founding member of my CPA partnership , but no longer take active part in the practice.
  • New York Accountancy Reform and You | NYSSCPA.ORG 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nysscpa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result has been more and more auditors and accountants, with broad computer skills are specializing in fixing software problems or developing software that will meet unique analytical or data management needs.
  • Accounting School - Accounting College 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC accounting-gateway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knowledge of current federal income tax laws as they relate to individual income taxation is critical for accountants.
  • accounting- UC Davis Extension 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC extension.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The token system substituted miniature counters for the real goods, which eliminated their bulk and weight and allowed dealing with them in abstraction by patterning, the presentation of data in particular configurations.^ Students will encounter real-world scenarios where they will use accounting information resources and systems, and present conclusions based on accounting and business data.
  • Associate of Arts Degrees AA in Accounting Online 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myassociatedegree.org [Source type: Academic]

As a result, heavy baskets of grains and animals difficult to control could be easily counted and recounted. .The accountants could add, subtract, multiply and divide by manually moving and removing counters.^ Do you know how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide?

[13]
Globular token envelope with a cluster of accounting tokens. Clay, Susa, Uruk period (4000 to 3100 BCE). Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.
Economic tablet with numeric signs. Proto-Elamite script in clay, Susa, Uruk period (3200 BC to 2700 BCE). Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.
.The Mesopotamian civilization emerged during the period 37002900 BCE amid the development of technological innovations such as the plough, sailing boats and copper metal working.^ This is in sharp contrast to entries during the accounting period (such as utility bills or fees for services rendered) that depend on source documents.
  • Accounting Cycle: Adjusting Entries in Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.college-cram.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Clay tablets with pictographic characters appeared in this period to record commercial transactions performed by the temples.^ An itemized record of all the transactions in a depositor's account over a given period, usually a month.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] Clay receptacles known as bullae (Latin: 'Bubble'), were used in Elamite city of Susa which contained tokens. These receptacles were spherical in shape and acted as envelopes, on which the seal of the individuals taking part in a transaction were engraved. .The symbols of the tokens they contained were represented graphically on their surface, and the recipient of the goods could check whether they matched with the amount and characteristics expressed on the bulla once they had received and inspected them.^ You can then check your credit card / debit card statements to make sure the amounts match.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING is wherein revenue and expenses are recorded in the period in which they are earned or incurred regardless of whether cash is received or disbursed in that period.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once exam fees are received by NASBA, the candidate will be issued an NTS. NOTE: Candidates should ONLY sign up for the sections they are prepared to take.
  • Board of Accountancy Certified Public Accountant Examination 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC egov.oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fact that the content of bulla was marked on its surface produced a simple way of checking without destroying the receptacle, which constituted in itself an exercise in writing that, despite being born spontaneously as a support for the existing system for controlling merchant goods, ultimately became the definitive practice for non-oral communication.^ So the idea of being able to write off a good meal is right up my alley.

^ This is happening despite the fact that small businesses are still reporting that access to finance is difficult, or is being offered at a high price.

^ The audit job involves lots of writing, from documenting different accounting systems and describing the procedures involved in testing a client’s control structure to writing memos to the client requesting information.
  • Accounting :: WetFeet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.wetfeet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eventually, bullae were replaced by clay tablets, which used symbols to represent the tokens.[14]
.During the Sumerian period, token envelop accounting was replaced by flat clay tablets impressed by tokens that merely transferred symbols.^ Journal entries made to close, or reduce to zero, the balances in the temporary capital accounts and to transfer the net income or net loss for the period to the capital account.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ACCRUED EXPENSES are expenses incurred during an accounting period for which payment is postponed.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A statement that reports the changes that have taken place in all of the stockholders' equity accounts during the period.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

.Such documents were kept by scribes, who were carefully trained to acquire the necessary literary and arithmetic skills and were held responsible for documenting financial transactions.^ Accountants are responsible for the financial accounting and auditing activities of a business, such as overseeing the books, payroll, tax compliance, and the like.
  • Online Accounting Courses: Financial Planning & Tax Preparation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accountants may analyze financial transactions and trends, make financial forecasts, create reports, verify financial documents, and prepare balance sheets and income statements.

^ Some formal classroom training also may be necessary, such as training in specialized computer software.
  • Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] Such records preceded the earliest found examples of cuneiform writing in the form of abstract signs incised in clay tablets, which were written in Sumerian by 2900 BCE in Jemdet Nasr. .Therefore "token envelop accounting" not only preceded the written word but constituted the major impetus in the creation of writing and abstract counting.^ Not only is Kathy experienced in book keeping and accounting in business, she has a wealth of experience in financial and business procedure creation and implementation.

^ Accounting majors need only to complete the application for scholarships available through the Department or the Dean’s office in order to be considered for all scholarships available in any given year.
  • Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This text provides only a preliminary introduction to some major issues in nonprofit financial accounting regulations and practices, specifically in the context of legal requirements.
  • Financial Accounting for NPOs 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.muridae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Accounting in the Roman Empire

Part of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti from the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) at Ancyra, built between 25 BCE - 20 BCE.
The Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Latin: "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus") is a remarkable account to the Roman people of the Emperor Augustus' stewardship. .It listed and quantified his public expenditure, which encompassed distributions to the people, grants of land or money to army veterans, subsidies to the aerarium (treasury), building of temples, religious offerings, and expenditures on theatrical shows and gladiatorial games.^ This is a key site for UK business lecturers, offering a news service, events listings, a journal, workshops, publications and information on funding opportunities.
  • Intute - Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.intute.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ While accounting does offer more flexibility and variety than most people think, you won’t be asked to reinvent the wheel or build a better mousetrap.
  • Accounting :: WetFeet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.wetfeet.com [Source type: News]

.It was not an account of state revenue and expenditure, but was designed to demonstrate Augustus' munificence.^ Accounting principle that states that revenue is recognized and recorded on the date it is earned even if cash has not been received.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accountants employed by Federal, State, and local governments guarantee that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regulations.
  • Accounting Career 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.collegegrad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accountants employed by Federal, State, and local governments ensure that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regulations.
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The significance of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti from an accounting perspective lies in the fact that it illustrates that the executive authority had access to detailed financial information, covering a period of some forty years, which was still retrievable after the event.^ Information systems Financial accounting and reporting .
  • Accountancy Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kent.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 3, 2009 by admin · Leave a Comment Filed under: Accounting Electronic Invoicing – Some unknown facts .

^ The accounting records and reports are maintained separately and contain financial information related only to the business.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

.The scope of the accounting information at the emperor's disposal suggests that its purpose encompassed planning and decision-making.^ Emphasis is placed on the usage of accounting information in managerial decision making.
  • Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ACCOUNTING MEASUREMENT AND DISCLOSURE is the concepts of measurement and information disclosure required for decision making.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American Accounting Association defines accounting as "the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information."
  • University of North Carolina Wilmington - The Career Center - Explore and Research Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.uncwil.edu [Source type: News]

[16]
.The Roman historians Suetonius and Cassius Dio record that in 23 BC, Augustus prepared a rationarium (account) which listed public revenues, the amounts of cash in the aerarium (treasury), in the provincial fisci (tax officials), and in the hands of the publicani (public contractors); and that it included the names of the freedmen and slaves from whom a detailed account could be obtained.^ Sales   A revenue account to record the amount of the merchandise sold.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While CPAs often serve as business consultants to the public and corporations or associations, they also provide services such as assurance, financial accounting, merger & acquisition, financial planning and analysis, tax preparation and more.
  • Accounting Degree Programs Online, Best Accounting Schools & Degrees 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The degrees closely related to accounting are general accounting degree, forensic accounting, general accounting, public accounting degree, MBA accounting degree and tax accounting degree.
  • Accounting Degree Programs Online, Best Accounting Schools & Degrees 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The closeness of this information to the executive authority of the emperor is attested by Tacitus' statement that it was written out by Augustus himself.[17]
.
Roman writing tablet from the Vindolanda Roman fort of Hadrian's Wall, in Northumberland (1st-2nd century AD) requesting money to buy 5,000 measures of cereal used for brewing beer.
^ So we (preparers of financial statements) are going to use money as a measurement system and we will record our assets at the amount actually paid for them.

Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum.
.Records of cash, commodities, and transactions were kept scrupulously by military personnel of the Roman army.^ This is because “internal control” systems will: 1) protect cash and other assets; 2) promote efficiency in processing transactions; and, 3) ensure reliability of financial records.

.An account of small cash sums received over a few days at the fort of Vindolanda cira 110 CE shows that the fort could compute revenues in cash on a daily basis, perhaps from sales of surplus supplies or goods manufactured in the camp, items dispensed to slaves such as cervesa (beer) and clavi caligares (nails for boots), as well as commodities bought by individual soldiers.^ Also supplies integrated accounting and sales solutions for manufacturer rep agencies.
  • Open Directory - Computers: Software: Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The reports reveal that companies have been proactive in implementing electronic invoicing because of improved efficiency for cash flows, accounts receivable and marketing.

^ James Bierstaker Forensic Accounting Small Business Tax: Getting Started Become an Accountant : Accounting Basics Ernst & Young chairman and CEO Jim Turley speaks to USC's Leventhal School of Accounting The advantages of cash basis accounting .
  • Accounting Degree Programs Online, Best Accounting Schools & Degrees 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The basic needs of the fort were met by a mixture of direct production, purchase and requisition; in one letter, a request for money to buy 5,000 modii (measures) of braces (a cereal used in brewing) shows that the fort bought provisions for a considerable number of people.^ So we (preparers of financial statements) are going to use money as a measurement system and we will record our assets at the amount actually paid for them.

^ The individual signing your experience letters must hold one of the designations we accept, must have had the authority to review, direct and evaluate on a continuing basis your accounting activities.
  • New Hampshire Board of Accountancy - Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you use your passport, we only need the pages showing your picture and signature; and .
  • New Hampshire Board of Accountancy - Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.The Heroninos Archive is name given to a huge collection of papyrus documents, mostly letters, but also including a fair number of accounts, which comes from Roman Egypt in 3rd century CE. The bulk of the documents relate to the running of a large, private estate[19] is named after Heroninos because he was phrontistes (Koine Greek: manager) of the estate which had a complex and standarised system of accounting which was followed by all its local farm managers.^ Manages accounting systems.
  • Accountancy Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kent.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Follow up on the references, including contacting the accounting association to ensure there are no complaints.
  • Accounting Resources and Services | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ CPAjobs.com Jobs for CPAs at all levels of their careers, in both private and public accounting.
  • Accounting Jobs: Accountant Employment Listings | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

[20] .Each administrator on each sub-division of the estate drew up his own little accounts, for day to day running of the estate, payment of the workforce, production of crops, the sale produce, the use of animals, and general expetidirure on the staff.^ You will then discover how to extend the trial balance to produce the required information to generate the final accounts, consisting of a balance sheet and a profit and loss account.
  • Accountancy, BSc (Hons) | Courses | Study | Edge Hill University 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.edgehill.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CPAs generally have their own businesses and provide a variety of services to the public, such as general accounting and payroll for other businesses and tax filings for businesses and individuals.
  • Accounting Jobs: Accountant Employment Listings | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Accounts receivable including reconciliation of vendor accounts, receipt of all payments and follow up calls for all delin Accounting and Auditing Services .
  • Accounting and Auditing Services Jobs | Monster.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC jobsearch.monster.com [Source type: News]

.This information was then summarized as pieces of papyrus scroll into one big yearly account for each particular sub—division of the estate.^ One of the "Big 5" accounting firms.
  • Accounting Resources and Services | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, accountants often orient their careers into one of four areas: public accounting, management accounting, government accounting, and internal auditing.

^ Finance & accounts Saudi Arabian Airlines, one of the premier flag carriers in the Middle East, has 0penings within its Finance division for experienced...
  • Accounting Jobs,Post Positions,Listing Openings,Internships for Free Online,Accounting Job Opportunities,USA Job Search Web Site 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.learn4good.com [Source type: News]

Entries were arranged by sector, with cash expenses and gains extrapolated from all the different sectors. .Accounts of this kind gave the owner the opportunity to take better economic decisions because the information was purposefully selected and arranged.^ The American Accounting Association defines accounting as "the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgements and decisions by users of the information."
  • University of North Carolina Wilmington - The Career Center - Explore and Research Careers 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.uncwil.edu [Source type: News]

^ Management accounting deals with providing managers in organization with accounting information so they can make an informed business decision.
  • Accounting Degree Programs Online, Best Accounting Schools & Degrees 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emphasis is placed on the usage of accounting information in managerial decision making.
  • Accounting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[21]
.Simple accounting is mentioned in the Christian Bible (New Testament) in the Book of Matthew, in the Parable of the Talents.^ Accounting, 23rd Edition and over 400,000 other books are available for Amazon Kindle Amazons new wireless reading device.
  • Amazon.com: Accounting (9780324662962): Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, Jonathan Duchac: Books 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[22]

Islamic accounting & algebra

.In the Holy Qur’an, the word hesab (Arabic: account) is used in its generic sense, relating to one's obligation to account to God on all matters pertaining to human endeavour.^ The degrees closely related to accounting are general accounting degree, forensic accounting, general accounting, public accounting degree, MBA accounting degree and tax accounting degree.
  • Accounting Degree Programs Online, Best Accounting Schools & Degrees 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A list of all the accounts and their assigned account numbers, used in journalizing transactions.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A separate ledger that contains accounts for all creditors; it is summarized in the Accounts Payable controlling account in the general ledger.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

.According to the Holy Qur’an, followers are required to keep records of their indebtedness (Sura 2, ayah 282), thus Islam thus provides general approval and guidelines for the recording and reporting of transactions.^ These standards, often referred to as generally accepted government auditing standards (GAGAS), are to be followed by auditors and audit organizations when required by law, regulation, agreement, contract, or policy.
  • Accounting and Auditing (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Accounting guideline requiring that a financial report include enough information so that it is complete.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accountancy is the language of business, providing a way to describe and report business transactions.
  • Miami University: Majors: Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.miami.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]

[23]
The Islamic law of inheritance (Sura 4, ayah 11) defines exactly how the estate is calculated after death of an individual. The power of testamentary disposition is basically limited to one-third of the net estate (i.e. the assets remaining after the payment of funeral expenses and debts), providing for every member of the family by allotting fixed shares not only to wives and children, but also to father and mothers.[24] The complexity of this law served as an impetus behind the development of algebra (Arabic: al-jabr) by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī and other medieval Islamic mathematicians. Al-Khwārizmī's Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala (Arabic: "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing", Baghdad, c. 825) devoted a chapter on the solution to the Islamic law of inheritance using linear equations.[25] .In the twelfth century, Latin translations of al-Khwārizmī's Kitāb al-Jamʿ wa-l-tafrīq bi-ḥisāb al-Hind (Arabic: Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation) on the use of Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.^ Attacking from the sea, where the majority of Accountants fear to tread, Accounting Pirates use their knowledge of numbers to calculate the correct ships to plunder and the correct forms to tax it.
  • Accounting - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of review the number of jobs was small but there were some very good jobs covering numerous jobs within this market, including IT and accounting positions.
  • Finance & Accounting: The Riley Guide 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rileyguide.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, it condenses this data into the savacct summary file, which contains the number of times the command was called and the system resources used.
  • Accounting Utilities Manual 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
The development of mathematics and accounting was intertwined during the Renaissance. Mathematics was in the midst of a period of significant development in the late 15th century. Hindu-Arabic numerals and algebra were introduced to Europe from Arab mathematics at the end of the 10th century by the Benedictine monk Gerbert of Aurillac, but it was only after Leonardo Pisano (also known as Fibonacci) put commercial arithmetic, Hindu-Arabic numerals, and the rules of algebra together in his Liber Abaci in 1202 that Hindu-Arabic numerals became widely used in Italy.[27]
.While there is no direct relationship between algebra and bookkeeping, the teaching of the subjects and the books published addressed the same group, namely the children of merchants who were sent to reckoning schools (in Flanders and Germany) or abacus schools (known as abbaco in Italy), where they learned the skills useful for trade and commerce.^ "There is a relationship between the two."

^ However, there are laws that prevent public accountants from performing multiple duties for the same clients, which is to limit a public accountants power to a single group.

^ Graduates of the Bachelor of science in business administration program will have opportunities to use the knowledge and skills that they learn in the classes to gain experience in real world scenarios and case studies in various aspects of business… Additional Information » .
  • Accounting Jobs and Degrees - Accountant Job Profile 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.jobprofiles.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is probably no need for algebra in performing bookkeeping operations, but for complex bartering operations or the calculation of compound interest, a basic knowledge of arithmetic was mandatory and knowledge of algebra was very useful.^ At present, there are no national certification standards for bookkeepers like there are for CPA's or EA's.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

^ There are several basic ways of describing a corporation’s dividend policy: no...

^ There are some very interesting features here, but also a few things that I think need to be improved on.

[28]

Luca Pacioli and double-entry bookkeeping

Bartering was the dominant practice for traveling merchants during the Middle Ages. When medieval Europe moved to a monetary economy in the 13th century, sedentary merchants depended on bookkeeping to oversee multiple simultaneous transactions financed by bank loans. .One important breakthrough took place around that time: the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping[29], which is defined as any bookkeeping system in which there was a debit and credit entry for each transaction, or for which the majority of transactions were intended to be of this form.^ No matter how long or convoluted an entry might be the only governing rule is that the debit column total and the credit column total must be the same.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve considered buying an accountant’s notebook and tracking spending (with her) there, but I don’t know how to do the double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ One area where there is less competition is in credit cards.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .The historical origin of the use of the words ‘debit’ and ‘credit’ in accounting goes back to the days of single-entry bookkeeping in which the chief objective was to keep track of amounts owed by customers (debtors) and amounts owed to creditors.^ In the context of debits and credits, a credit is an entry made on the right side of an account.

^ It will allow you to keep track of creditors, debtors, invoices and VAT.  It will also provide you with instant access to many financial reports.

^ Payroll specialists keep track of employees' working hours, vacation time, sick days and overtime.
  • Accounting Jobs: Accountant Employment Listings | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

‘Debit,’ is Latin for ‘he owes’ and ‘credit’ Latin for ‘he trusts’.[31]
.The earliest extant evidence of full double-entry bookkeeping is the Farolfi ledger of 1299-1300.[29] Giovanno Farolfi & Company were a firm of Florentine merchants whose head office was in Nîmes who also acted as moneylenders to Archbishop of Arles, their most important customer.^ I’ve considered buying an accountant’s notebook and tracking spending (with her) there, but I don’t know how to do the double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ Each individual in a public accounting firm who signs any attest report issued from an office of the public accounting firm located in this state shall hold an Ohio permit.
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ At issue are inspections of audit firms based in other countries that certify the books of companies whose securities are registered in the United States.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .The oldest discovered record of a complete double-entry system is the Messari (Italian: Treasurer's) accounts of the city of Genoa in 1340. The Messari accounts contain debits and credits journalised in a bilateral form, and contains balances carried forward from the preceding year, and therefore enjoy general recognition as a double-entry system.^ Assets and expenses carry a debit balance.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ This free online bookkeeping course is composed of sequential online bookkeeping lessons, covering the bookkeeping language, terminology and definitions; bookkeeping systems; debits and credits; double entry bookkeeping; financial statements; how transactions are properly analyzed, recorded, and summarized; property and property rights; the accounting equation; the cash and accrual basis of accounting; the general ledger and journals; types of business activities; types of organizations; and more.
  • Free Accounting and Bookkeeping Education 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dwmbeancounter.com [Source type: General]

^ No matter how long or convoluted an entry might be the only governing rule is that the debit column total and the credit column total must be the same.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

[33]
Pacioli's portrait, a painting by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).The open book to which he is pointing may be his Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalità.[34]
Luca Pacioli's "Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalità" (Italian: "Review of Arithmetic, Geometry, Ratio and Proportion") was first printed and published in Venice in 1494. It included a 27-page treatise on bookkeeping, "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis" (Italian: "Details of Calculation and Recording"). .It was written primarily for, and sold mainly to, merchants who used the book as a reference text, as a source of pleasure from the mathematical puzzles it contained, and to aid the education of their sons.^ The means by which the program may be used to recruit individuals, including high school students, who are members of minority groups to enter an accounting education program or the accounting profession; .
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It represents the first known printed treatise on bookkeeping; and it is widely believed to be the forerunner of modern bookkeeping practice.^ On the 500th anniversary of the first printed publication in accounting, this encyclopedia is a prime reference source on the history of accounting practice and thought.
  • Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Summa Arithmetica, Pacioli introduced symbols for plus and minus for the first time in a printed book, symbols that became standard notation in Italian Renaissance mathematics.^ Excellent Service This was the first time I purchased a book on-line (amazon.com).
  • Amazon.com: Accounting (9780324662962): Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, Jonathan Duchac: Books 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Summa Arithmetica was also the first known book printed in Italy to contain algebra.[35]
.Although Luca Pacioli did not invent double-entry bookkeeping,[36], his 27-page treatise on bookkeeping contained the first known published work on that topic, and is said to have laid the foundation for double-entry bookkeeping as it is practiced today.^ I’ve considered buying an accountant’s notebook and tracking spending (with her) there, but I don’t know how to do the double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ This is called double-entry bookkeeping, and is the type done in nearly every business.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

^ Accounting has many rules, but a basic one is this: use double-entry bookkeeping .
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

[37] .Even though Pacioli's treatise exhibits almost no originality, it is generally considered as an important work, mainly because of its wide circulation, it was written in vernacular Italian language, and it was a printed book.^ No doubt because I arrived in the middle of working hours for most people - and this… .

[38]
According to Pacioli, accounting is an ad hoc ordering system devised by the merchant. .Its regular use provides the merchant with continued information about his business, and allows him to evaluate how things are going and to act accordingly.^ Read about business accounting information .
  • Accounting Resources and Services | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ My intent is to provide a site with a little humor blended in where real, helpful, and mostly free small business accounting and bookkeeping information, tools, tutorials/courses, and products can be found, acquired, and used by small businesses and individuals.
  • Free Accounting and Bookkeeping Education 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dwmbeancounter.com [Source type: General]

^ This program singles out the importance of both the practices and principals of large and small business as well as providing… Additional Information » .
  • Online Accounting Degrees - How to become an Accountant 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.jobprofiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pacioli recommends the Venetian method of double-entry bookkeeping above all others.^ I’ve considered buying an accountant’s notebook and tracking spending (with her) there, but I don’t know how to do the double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ It does not work on all businesses and there are other methods that can be used.

^ This is called double-entry bookkeeping, and is the type done in nearly every business.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

.Three major books of account are at the direct basis of this system: the memoriale (Italian: memorandum), the giornale (journal), and the quaderno (ledger).^ Inventory Management – Physical to Book Value Matching the physical inventory to the accounting general ledger may seem like a difficult task.

^ The process of transferring information from the general journal to individual general ledger accounts, the fourth step in the accounting cycle.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ACCOUNTING DATA is all the information and data contained in journals, ledgers and other records that support financial statements, e.g.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ledger is considered as the central one and is accompanied by an alphabetical index.[39]
.Pacioli's treatise gave instructions in how to record barter transactions and transactions in a variety of currencies – both being far more commonplace than they are today.^ Instead, Congress forced accounting regulators to give banks leeway to claim assets are worth much more than they could be sold for.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more info on how they’re doing as a company, check out their Global Annual Review for 2008 .
  • Entry level jobs in Accounting | One Day, One Job 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.onedayonejob.com [Source type: General]

^ Depreciation is a non-cash expense and is nothing more or less than an attempt to record that these assets go down in value over time.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

.It also enabled merchants to audit their own books and to ensure that the entries in the accounting records made by their bookkeepers complied with the method he described.^ Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks .
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services.
  • Accounting Firms on Long Island, NY - Citidex Long Island 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.citidexli.com [Source type: News]

^ Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping practice .
  • Accounting Firms on Long Island, NY - Citidex Long Island 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.citidexli.com [Source type: News]

.Without such a system, all merchants who did not maintain their own records were at greater risk of theft by their employees and agents: it is not by accident that the first and last items described in his treatise concern maintenance of an accurate inventory.^ An inventory costing method that assumes that the last items purchased are the first items sold.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The greater extent one can assign a cost to the program that truly incurred it, the more accurate the organization's financial records and reports.
  • Financial Accounting for NPOs 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.muridae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An inventory system in which a constant, up-to-date record of the amount of merchandise on hand is maintained.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

[40]
.The nature of double-entry can be grasped by recognizing that this system of bookkeeping did not simply record the things merchants traded so that they could keep track of assets or calculate profits and losses; instead as a system of writing, double-entry produced effects that exceeded transcription and calculation.^ They prepapre profit and loss statements, balance sheets, cost studies, and tax reports, and they advise clients on other accounting and tax problems.
  • Miami University: Majors: Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.miami.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Miami University: Majors and Minors 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.miami.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Graduating from an accounting and bookkeeping certificate program means you have learned theoretical and practical applications of recordkeeping and accounting systems for business, along with maintaining financial records of expenditures, profit and loss and payables and receivables.
  • Accounting Degree Programs Online, Best Accounting Schools & Degrees 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.academicinfo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, Congress forced accounting regulators to give banks leeway to claim assets are worth much more than they could be sold for.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of its social effects was to proclaim the honesty of merchants as a group; one of its epistemological effects was to make its formal precision based on a rule bound system of arithmetic seem to guarantee the accuracy of the details it recorded.^ There’s a formal system of “debits and credits” that describes these changes, but the concept is simple: if you make a change to one side, you must make one on the other as well.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ The Russo Group, a marketing firm in Lafayette, La., hired a CFO whose strict rules reduced expenses by 18 percent in one year.

^ ACCOUNTING is primarily a system of measurement and reporting of economic events based upon the accounting equation for the purpose of decision making.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though the information recorded in the books of account was not necessarily accurate, the combination of the double entry system's precision and the normalizing effect that precision tended to create the impression that books of account were not only precise, but accurate as well.^ ACCT 307 Accounting Information Systems .

^ A system in which accounting information is recorded and processed by hand.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The accounting records and reports are maintained separately and contain financial information related only to the business.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of gaining prestige from numbers, double entry bookkeeping helped confer cultural authority on numbers.^ Besides helping college students find entry level positions, we also have a number of other career related projects, which you can see to the right → .
  • Entry level jobs in Accounting | One Day, One Job 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.onedayonejob.com [Source type: General]

^ This is called double-entry bookkeeping, and is the type done in nearly every business.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

^ Making entries into a software program does not require a trained bookkeeper but it is important that you, the business owner, have a full understanding of double entry accounting.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

[41]

Post-Pacioli

.The spread of the Italian accounting rules over the rest of Europe and thence further afield, was the result of treatises, some of them strongly based on Pacioli's work, describing and explaining the system and its practice.^ Not Rocket Science Several insiders use the phrase “it’s just accounting” when describing their line of work.
  • Accounting :: WetFeet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.wetfeet.com [Source type: News]

^ The FASB believes the rule can be applied more fairly and take into account the currently dysfunctional state of some markets.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maintain current knowledge and familiarity with published accounting principles, rules, bulletins, opinions, concepts, practices, and procedures.
  • Accounting and Auditing Services Jobs | Monster.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC jobsearch.monster.com [Source type: News]

The "Quaderno doppio" (trans. .Double-entry Ledger, Venice, 1534) of Domenico Manzoni da Oderzo was one of the first reproductions of Pacioli's "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis".^ Accounting has many rules, but a basic one is this: use double-entry bookkeeping .
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

.This work, important because of elaborate examples, was very popular and widespread among merchants: it enjoyed no less than seven editions between 1534 and 1574. Other books that are directly or indirectly based on Pacioli's work are Hugh Oldcastle's "A Profitable Treatyce called the Instrument or Boke to learne to knowe the good order of the kepyng of the famous reconynge called in Latyn, Dare and Habere, and in Englyshe, Debitor and Creditor" (London, 1543), a translation of Pacioli's treatise, and Wolfgang Schweicker's "Zwifach Buchhalten" (trans.^ Accounting, 23rd Edition and over 400,000 other books are available for Amazon Kindle Amazons new wireless reading device.
  • Amazon.com: Accounting (9780324662962): Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, Jonathan Duchac: Books 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ If the regulators and standard-setters do not act now to improve the standards, then the Congress will have no other option than to act itself.” .
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At issue are inspections of audit firms based in other countries that certify the books of companies whose securities are registered in the United States.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Double-entry bookkeeping, Neurenberg, 1549), a translation of the "Quaderno doppio".^ I’ve considered buying an accountant’s notebook and tracking spending (with her) there, but I don’t know how to do the double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ This is called double-entry bookkeeping, and is the type done in nearly every business.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

^ Accounting has many rules, but a basic one is this: use double-entry bookkeeping .
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

[42]
.It was the Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin who persuaded merchants to make it a rule to summarize accounts at the end of every year in a chapter entitled Coopmansbouckhouding op de Italiaensche wyse (Dutch: "Commercial Book-keeping in the Italian Way") of his Wisconstigheg hedachtenissen (Dutch: "Mathematical memoirs", Leiden, 1605–08).^ Every year, Congress makes changes - some big, some little - making it just a little more difficult to complete your tax return.
  • Accounting News - Topix 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]
  • Accounting News - Topix 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ If getting your books organized—and keeping them that way—seems too daunting, the article recommends delegating the task.

^ Business owners who keep two sets of books are not altogether uncommon.

.Although the balance sheet he required every enterprise to prepare every year was based on entries of the ledger, it was prepared separately from the major books of account.^ Accountants may analyze financial transactions and trends, make financial forecasts, create reports, verify financial documents, and prepare balance sheets and income statements.

^ Accumulated Depreciation, while it does reduce Net Worth, is a Contra Asset account and belongs in the Asset section of the balance sheet.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the economy grows, the number of business establishments will increase, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up books, prepare taxes, and provide management advice.
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The oldest semi-public balance sheet recorded was that of the East India Company dated 30 April 1671, which was submitted to the company's General Meeting on in 30 August 1671. The publication and audit of the balance sheet was still a rarity in England until the passing of the Bank Charter Act 1844.^ A public accountant who has passed the licensing exam on accounting theory, practice, auditing, and business law.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Statements, records, schedules, working papers, and memoranda that are so made in an audit by a certified public accountant or public accountant and that are in the possession of the auditor of state also are not a public record.
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Every type of company will, of course, tailor its chart of accounts, procedures, subsidiary records, etc., to meet its own operating and organizational needs and the philosophy of its...

[43]
.In 1863, the Dowlais Iron Company had receovered from a business slump, but had no cash to invest for a new blast furnace, despite having made a profit.^ NetSuite.com/Accounting O Omega Accountancy - Payroll, Bookkeeping & Company Formation UK provider of accounting and payroll services for new and established businesses including company formation, taxation advice and bookkeeping.
  • Accounting Resources and Services | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ (L) “Equity interest” means any capital interest or profit interest in a sole proprietorship, partnership, professional association, corporation-for-profit, limited liability company, or other business organization.
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ New York's venture-capital market saw funds flowing faster to biotechs and other firms, both for start-ups and established businesses that have not yet made a profit.
  • Accounting News - Topix 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]
  • Accounting News - Topix 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

.To explain why there were no funds to invest, the manager made a new financial statement that was called a comparison balance sheet, which showed that the company was holding too much inventory.^ Major Financial Statements and Software The Balance sheet The balance sheet is a "point in time" statement.
  • Cash Flow, Small Business Accounting, Small Business Accounting Software, Business Accounting Software - My Own Business, Inc. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.myownbusiness.org [Source type: General]

^ Its most famous provision requires chief executives to sign off on their companies’ books, guaranteeing that the financial statements released to investors are not fraudulent.
  • Accounting :: WetFeet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.wetfeet.com [Source type: News]

^ They prepapre profit and loss statements, balance sheets, cost studies, and tax reports, and they advise clients on other accounting and tax problems.
  • Miami University: Majors: Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.miami.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Miami University: Majors and Minors 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.miami.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This new financial statement was the genesis of Cash Flow Statement that is used today[44].^ I’d be interested in income statements and cash flow too!
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ The statement of cash flows.
  • GW Bulletin 2009-2010 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fundamental concepts underlying financial statements and the informed use of accounting information.
  • GW Bulletin 2009-2010 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.gwu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Between the publication of Pacioli's "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis" and the 19th century, there were few other changes in accounting theory.^ ADVANCED ACCOUNTING covers accounting operations, patterns, merger of public holding companies, foreign currency operations, changing financial statement prepared in foreign and local currencies.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CPAs generally have their own businesses and provide a variety of services to the public, such as general accounting and payroll for other businesses and tax filings for businesses and individuals.
  • Accounting Jobs: Accountant Employment Listings | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ The public accounting firm has never practiced public accounting in this state or any other state or foreign country and will undergo a peer review within eighteen months of registration.
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There was a general theoretical consensus that the double-entry method was superior because it could solve so many accounting problems simultaneously, but despite this consensus, accounting practices were remarkably varied, and merchants in the 16th and 17th centuries seldom maintained the high standards of the double-entry method.^ Comparative analysis of accounting principles and practices outside the United States; international financial accounting standards; current problems of international financial reporting, accounting planning and control for international operations; multinational companies.

^ If the board, after conducting the hearing, determines that the public accounting firm does not comply with the standards and practices, it may issue an order that requires both of the following: .
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ An advanced-level discussion of variance analysis, cost allocation, transfer pricing, and the use of modeling to solve business problems.
  • Master of Accounting Program 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huizenga.nova.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The application of double entry bookkeeping varied across countries, industries, and individual firms, depending in part on its audience.^ I’ve considered buying an accountant’s notebook and tracking spending (with her) there, but I don’t know how to do the double-entry bookkeeping.
  • Understanding Accounting Basics (ALOE and Balance Sheets) | BetterExplained 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC betterexplained.com [Source type: General]

^ Entry-level job that can vary with the size of the company from specialization in one part of the system to a wide range of recordkeeping tasks.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Across the U.S., firms and individuals in the accounting profession are answering the urgent need for help for victims of the 7.0 magnitude earthquake disaster in the...

.This audience shifted in general from sole proprietorship alone to a larger more dispersed group of partnership, coinvestors, shareholders, and even eventually the state, as capitalism became more sophisticated.^ ASSET SALE is the sale of certain named assets of a corporation, partnership or sole proprietorship.
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (B) “Public accounting firm” means a sole proprietorship, a partnership, a limited liability company, a professional association, a corporation-for-profit, or any other business organization that is engaged in the practice of public accounting in this state.
  • Lawriter - ORC - Chapter 4701: ACCOUNTANCY BOARD LAW 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC codes.ohio.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Closely held (private) corporation equity accounts are a little more complicated than a sole proprietorship or partnership.

[45]
.In the Ottoman Empire, which at its peak ruled over Anatolia, Middle East, North Africa, the Balkans and parts of Eastern Europe, the merdiban (Persian: ladder or stairs) accounting system that had been adopted from the Ilkhanate in the 14th century was used for 500 years until the end of the 19th century.^ Good news out of the Middle East is rare these days, and this article offers hope that conditions are improving for everyone in a country ruled by the oppressive Taliban until just a few years ago.

^ To the unfamiliar, these transactions might appear confusing until T-Accounts are used.

^ This textbook uses an integrated learning system to help you complete homework and lead you to accounting mastery.
  • Amazon.com: Accounting (9780324662962): Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, Jonathan Duchac: Books 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[46] .Both the Ilkhanians and the Ottomans used siyakat script (from the Arabic siyak, to lead or herd), which was stenographic writing style of Arabic used only in official documents which prevented ordinary people from reading important state correspondence.^ Recommended Sites Providing Word and Excel Tutorials Both Excel and Word are excellent business tools, but like any tool only if you know how to use them.
  • Free Accounting and Bookkeeping Education 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dwmbeancounter.com [Source type: General]

[47] .The title for each entry is given by extending the last letter of the first word in a straight line, so that the lines between successive entries would be laid out in the style of steps of a ladder.^ But I never thought I would hear any administration praise an article that laid out how badly the financial situation had deteriorated on its watch.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most last s that I've examined have the same problem here as ac does—they log everyone out as soon as they see an ftp entry.
  • Accounting Utilities Manual 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bean Counter's Small Business Tips-The Steps In The Ladder To A Successful Business On Line Version of Small Business Tips PDF E-Book Download Version of Small Business Tips .
  • Free Accounting and Bookkeeping Education 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dwmbeancounter.com [Source type: General]

[48] Permission to replace the merdiban accounting system with double-entry accounting was given by Sultan Abdülhamid II to the Ministry of Finance in 1880.[49]

Accounting scandals

.The year 2001 witnessed a series of financial information frauds involving Enron Corporation, auditing firm Arthur Andersen, the telecommunications company WorldCom, Qwest and Sunbeam, among other well-known corporations.^ Z A Andersen Contact information for the firm formerly known as "Arthur Andersen."
  • Accounting Resources and Services | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Arthur Andersen & Co; Corporate culture.
  • Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ March 26, 2002 - Arthur Andersen chief executive Joseph Berardino resigned, bowing to mounting pressure as a result of the accounting firm's role in the Enron scandal.
  • Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.These problems highlighted the need to review the effectiveness of accounting standards, auditing regulations and corporate governance principles.^ G.E. is committed to the highest standards of accounting and good corporate governance.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, accountants often orient their careers into one of four areas: public accounting, management accounting, government accounting, and internal auditing.

^ To highlight these types of problems so that they can be monitored, abnormal spoilage is recorded in a Loss from Abnormal Spoilage Account in the general ledger and is not included in the job costing inventory accounts (work in process, finished goods, and cost of goods sold).
  • Accounting Terms - Accounting Glossary - Accounting Dictionary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ventureline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cases, management manipulated the figures shown in financial reports to indicate a better economic performance.^ Also includes a separate subscription of The Accounting Research Manager , which is a comprehensive, up-to-date database of financial reporting literature.
  • Accounting and Auditing (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Management information and computer systems, internal control, audit evidence, professional responsibilities and legal liabilities, standards of reporting financial information.

^ They also prepare financial reports for non-management groups, including stockholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities.
  • Accounting Career 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.collegegrad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In others, tax and regulatory incentives encouraged over-leveraging of companies and decisions to bear extraordinary and unjustified risk.^ Some accountants may work directly for private individuals to help with tax returns, financial decisions, investments or other money related matters.
  • Accounting Jobs and Degrees - Accountant Job Profile 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.jobprofiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They also prepare financial reports for other groups, including stockholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities.
  • Accountants and Auditors 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.The Enron scandal deeply influenced the development of new regulations to improve the reliability of financial reporting, and increased public awareness about the importance of having accounting standards that show the financial reality of companies and the objectivity and independence of auditing firms.^ Auditing - Standards Auditing, internal - Standards Auditing, internal Financial Statements .
  • Accounting and Auditing (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This requirement does not include publicly held companies, non public accounting consulting firms, any private industry, privately held or publicly held oil companies, private or publicly owned financial investment and banking firms, private power companies and so forth.
  • New Hampshire Board of Accountancy - Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nh.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 26, 2002 - Arthur Andersen chief executive Joseph Berardino resigned, bowing to mounting pressure as a result of the accounting firm's role in the Enron scandal.
  • Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

[50]
In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history, the Enron scandal undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure.[51] .The scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world.^ One of the "Big 5" accounting firms.
  • Accounting Resources and Services | Business.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ March 26, 2002 - Arthur Andersen chief executive Joseph Berardino resigned, bowing to mounting pressure as a result of the accounting firm's role in the Enron scandal.
  • Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ June 15, 2003 - A jury in Houston convicted accounting firm Arthur Andersen of obstruction of justice.
  • Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kipnotes.com [Source type: Academic]

It involved a financial scandal of Enron Corporation and their auditors Arthur Andersen, which was revealed in late 2001. After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures conducted throughout the 1990s, Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December 2001.[52]
.One consequence of these events was the passage of Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, as a result of the first admissions of fraudulent behavior made by Enron.^ Includes relevant information on the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
  • Accounting and Auditing (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Such inspections are required by the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002.
  • ACCOUNTING - Floyd Norris Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC norris.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also provides current news and events related to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
  • Accounting and Auditing (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The act significantly raises criminal penalties for securities fraud, for destroying, altering or fabricating records in federal investigations or any scheme or attempt to defraud shareholders.^ Name passed by SENATE / Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act of 2002 or White-Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement Act of 2002 or Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability Act of 2002 .
  • Accounting and Auditing (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[53]

Notes and references

  1. ^ Elliot, Barry & Elliot, Jamie: Financial accounting and reporting, Prentice Hall, London 2004, ISBN 0273703641, p. 3[1]
  2. ^ Elliot, Barry & Elliot, Jamie: Financial accounting and reporting, Prentice Hall, London 2004, ISBN 0273703641, p. 3
  3. ^ Goodyear, Lloyd Earnest: Principles of Accountancy, Goodyear-Marshall Publishing Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1913, p.7 [2]
  4. ^ Singh Wahla, Ramnik. AICPA committee on Terminology. Accounting Terminology Bulletin No. 1 Review and Résumé. 
  5. ^ a b Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, John Wiley & Sons, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0471130753, p.1
  6. ^ Carruthers, Bruce G., & Espeland, Wendy Nelson, Accounting for Rationality: Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 1, July 1991, pp. 40-41,44 46,
  7. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.302)[3]
  8. ^ Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, Wiley, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0471130753, p. 4
  9. ^ Pixley, Francis William: Accountancy — constructive and recording accountancy (Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd, London, 1900), p4 [4]
  10. ^ a b c Salvador Carmona & Mahmoud Ezzamel:Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt, IE Business School, IE Working Paper WP05-21, 2005), p.6 [5]
  11. ^ Denise Schmandt-Besserat: From Tokens to Writing: the Pursuit of Abstraction, Bulletin Of The Georgian National Academy Of Sciences, 2007, vol. 175, no. 3, p.162–3 [6]
  12. ^ Oldroyd, David & Dobie, Alisdair: Themes in the history of bookkeeping, The Routledge Companion to Accounting History, London, July 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-41094-6, Chapter 5, p.96
  13. ^ Denise Schmandt-Besserat: From Tokens to Writing: the Pursuit of Abstraction Bulletin Of The Georgian National Academy Of Sciences, 2007, vol. 175, no. 3, p.165 [7]
  14. ^ Panosa, M. Isabel: The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity, Digithum, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, May 2004, p.4 [8]
  15. ^ Salvador Carmona & Mahmoud Ezzamel:Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt, IE Business School, IE Working Paper WP05-21, 2005), p.7 [9]
  16. ^ Oldroyd, David: The role of accounting in public expenditure and monetary policy in the first century AD Roman Empire, Accounting Historians Journal, Volume 22, Number 2,, Birmingham, Alabama, December 1995, p.124 [10]
  17. ^ Oldroyd, David: The role of accounting in public expenditure and monetary policy in the first century AD Roman Empire, Accounting Historians Journal, Volume 22, Number 2,, Birmingham, Alabama, December 1995, p.123 [11]
  18. ^ Bowman, Alan K., Life and letters on the Roman frontier: Vindolanda and its people Routledge, London, January 1998, ISBN 978-0-415-92024-7, p. 40-41,45
  19. ^ Farag, Shawki M., The accounting profession in Egypt: Its origin and development, University of Illinois, 2009, p.7 [12]
  20. ^ Rathbone, Dominic: Economic Rationalism and Rural Society in Third-Century AD Egypt: The Heroninos Archive and the Appianus Estate, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521037638, 1991, p.4
  21. ^ Cuomo,Serafina: Ancient mathematics, Routledge, London, ISBN 9780415164955, July 2001, p.231
  22. ^ Matt. 25:19
  23. ^ Lewis, Mervyn K.: Islam and accounting, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2001, p. 113 [13]
  24. ^ Lewis, Mervyn K.: Islam and accounting, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2001, p. 109 [14]
  25. ^ Gandz, Solomon (1938), "The Algebra of Inheritance: A Rehabilitation of Al-Khuwarizmi", Osiris (University of Chicago Press) 5: 319–91, doi:10.1086/368492 
  26. ^ Struik, Dirk Jan (1987), A Concise History of Mathematics (4th ed.), Dover Publications, ISBN 0486602559
  27. ^ Alan Sangster, Greg Stoner & Patricia McCarthy: "The market for Luca Pacioli's Summa Arithmetica" (Accounting, Business & Financial History Conference, Cardiff, September 2007) p. 1–2
  28. ^ Heeffer, Albrecht: On the curious historical coincidence of algebra and double-entry bookkeeping, Foundations of the Formal Sciences, Ghent University, November 2009, p.7 [15]
  29. ^ a b Heeffer, Albrecht: On the curious historical coincidence of algebra and double-entry bookkeeping, Foundations of the Formal Sciences, Ghent University, November 2009, p.11 [16]
  30. ^ Mills, Geofrey T. "Early accounting in Northern Italy: The role of commercial development and the printing press in the expansion of double-entry from Genoa, Florence and Venice" (The Accounting Historians Journal, June 1994)
  31. ^ Thiéry, Michel: Did you say Debit?, Assumption University (Thailand), AU-GSB e-Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2009, p.35 [17]
  32. ^ Lee, Geoffrey A., The Coming of Age of Double Entry: The Giovanni Farolfi Ledger of 1299-1300, Accounting Historians Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1977 p.80 [18]
  33. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.300)[19]
  34. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue:3 pages:289–304)[20]
  35. ^ Alan Sangster, Greg Stoner & Patricia McCarthy: "The market for Luca Pacioli's Summa Arithmetica" (Accounting, Business & Financial History Conference, Cardiff, September 2007) p.1–2 [21]
  36. ^ Carruthers, Bruce G., & Espeland, Wendy Nelson, Accounting for Rationality: Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 1, July 1991, pp. 37
  37. ^ vSangster, Alan: "The printing of Pacioli's Summa in 1494: how many copies were printed?" (Accounting Historians Journal, John Carroll University, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2007)
  38. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.292)[22]
  39. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.296)[23]
  40. ^ Alan Sangster, Using accounting history and Luca Pacioli to teach double entry, Middlesex University Business School, September 2009, p.9 [24]
  41. ^ Poovey, Mary "A history of the modern fact" (University of Chicago Press, 1998) Ch.2 p.30, 58 & 54
  42. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.301)[25]
  43. ^ Takatera, Sadao: Early experiences of the British balance sheet, Kyoto University Economic Review, Vol. 83, October 1962, p.37-38, 41, 44-45 [26]
  44. ^ Watanabe, Izumi: The evolution of Income Accounting in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain, Osaka University of Economics, Vol.57, No. 5, January 2007, p.27-30[27]
  45. ^ Carruthers, Bruce G., & Espeland, Wendy Nelson, Accounting for Rationality: Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 1, July 1991, p.39-40
  46. ^ Toraman, Cengiz, Yilmaz, Sinan & Bayramoglu, Fatih: Estate accounting as a public policy tool and its application in the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century, Spanish Journal of Accounting History,] no. 4, Madrid, June 2006, p.1
  47. ^ Erkan, Mehmet, Aydemir, Oguzhan & Elitas, Cemal: An Accounting System used between 14th & 19th centuries in the Middle East: The Merdiven (Stairs) Method, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, July 2006, p.6-7 [28]
  48. ^ Elitaş, Cemal, Güvemli, Oktay, Aydemir, Oğuzhan, Erkan, Mehmet, Özcan, Uður & Oğuz, Mustafa:Accounting method used by Ottomans for 500 years: Stairs (Merdiban) Method, Ministry of Finance of the Turkish Republic, Istanbul, April 2008, ISBN 9789758195152, p.596 [29]
  49. ^ Karabiyik, Vehbi: 'Financial organization in the Ottoman Empire and modernization activities in finance and accounting field commencing with the establishment Of Ministry Of Finance In XIX Century, Association of Accounting and Finance Academicians, Istanbul, March 2007, p.18 [30]
  50. ^ a b Astrid Ayala and Giancarlo Ibárgüen Snr.: "A Market Proposal for Auditing the Financial Statements of Public Companies" (Journal of Management of Value, Universidad Francisco Marroquín, March 2006) p. 41 [31]
  51. ^ Bratton, William W. "Enron and the Dark Side of Shareholder Value" (Tulane Law Review, New Orleans, May 2002) p. 61
  52. ^ "Enron files for bankruptcy". BBC News. 2001-12-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1688550.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  53. ^ Aiyesha Dey, and Thomas Z. Lys: "Trends in Earnings Management and Informativeness of Earnings Announcements in the Pre- and Post-Sarbanes Oxley Periods (Kellogg School of Management, Evanston, Illinois, February, 2005) p. 5

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Infobox/Accountancy
.Accounting is the process by which financial information about a business is recorded, classified, summarized, interpreted, and communicated.^ (Redirected from Accounting ) Jump to: navigation , search Accounting is the process by which financial information about a business is recorded, classified, summarized, interpreted, and communicated.
  • Accountancy - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The accounting stationery used to record financial information about specific accounts.
  • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The nature of financial and managerial accounting information.

.Accounting is the language of business.^ Accounting is also widely referred as a “language of business”.

^ Accounting is the language of the business world.
  • UNL | CBA | Academics | Departments | Accountancy 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC cba.unl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Accounting is the language of business.
  • Accountancy - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Accountancy - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Catagories

.
  1. Financial accounting is "a major accounting branch describing the collection, recording and extraction of financial information, in order to summarize in a form of periodic profit and loss account, a balance sheet and a cash flow statement in accordance with legal, professional, and capital market requirements". The main task is prepare regular financial report.
  2. Managerial accounting is the branch of accounting for internal use, to which an organization prove information only accessible to its insiders to assist decision-makers.^ The accounting records and reports are maintained separately and contain financial information related only to the business.
    • Glencoe Student Site: Glossary 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An introduction to financial and managerial accounting for non-business majors.
    • Accountancy - Undergraduate Catalog 2009-2010 | Western Illinois University 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wiu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Needs to utilize their financial information to assist with decision-making.

    The mission of Managerial accounting utilize inform, control functions of management for future use.

Contents

  1. Principles of accounting
  2. Introduction to accountancy
  3. The Accounting Equation
  4. Double entry
  5. Debtors
  6. Creditors
  7. Prepayments
  8. Accruals
  9. Depreciation

Proposed additional sections

Glossary and Appendices

Other pages

Resources

BOOKS:
SOFTWARE:

Simple English

Accountancy or accounting is the profession that deals with a company's money, books and records. Accountants are persons who perform the accounting work, and also carry out the auditing or checking of a company's books and records. In Britain, this auditing is often carried out by a chartered accountant.

When accountants perform accounting work, they write in the books of account (ledgers) that belong to a company. Every time money is spent or earned, it is written in the ledger. The information found in the ledger is mostly used by lenders, managers, investors, tax authorities (people who know a lot about taxes), and other decision makers. These people look at the ledger and make decisions about how to spend money in the future.

Contents

Etymology (Where the word "accountant" comes from)

The English word accountant comes from the word accomptant. Accomptant comes from the French word compter. The French word compter comes from the Latin word computare. Even though the letter 'p' is in both of these words, a person cannot hear it when speaking aloud.

The English spelling for the word accountant comes from the sound of the word accomptant. Because the 'p' is silent, both of these words sound similar. The word accountancy comes from the word accountant.[1]

History

Early history

Accountancy is very old. It started when humans first started to farm and form towns and cities. People who thought about economics (keeping track of money and valuable things) thought of a way to write down the sizes and values of crops.

Simple accounting is found in the Christian Bible (New Testament) in the Book of Matthew, in the Parable (story) of the Talents.[2] Simple accounting is also found in the Islamic Quran.[3]

In the twelfth-century A.D., the Arab writer, Ibn Taymiyyah, wrote a book called Hisba. This book has details about accounting systems that were used by Muslims before the mid-seventh century A.D. Muslim accounting was influenced (changed) by Romans and Persians. In his book, Ibn Taymiyyah gives details of a complex governmental accounting system.

Luca Pacioli and modern accountancy

[[File:|thumbnail|right|300px||
Painting of Luca Pacioli, thought to be painted by Jacopo de' Barbari
]]

Luca Pacioli (1445 - 1517), also known as Friar Luca dal Borgo, is said to be the person who gave "birth" to accountancy. He wrote a textbook in Latin called Summa de arithmetica, geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita (Summa on arithmetic, geometry, proportions and proportionality, Venice 1494). This textbook was used in the abbaco schools that are found in northern Italy. Sons of merchants and craftsmen were taught in these schools. This textbook was written about math. It has the first printed description of how merchants from Venice kept their accounts. Merchants from Venice used a system called the double-entry bookkeeping system.

Double-entry bookkeeping is where there is a debit and credit entry for every transaction.[4]

Pocioli wrote down this system but he did not invent it, but he is still called the "Father of Accounting". The system he wrote had most of the accounting cycle as it is known today. He wrote about using journals and ledgers, and warned that a person should not got to sleep at night until the debits were the same as the credits. His ledger had accounts for assets (things that have value), liabilities (debts and loans that are to be paid to someone else), capital (money), income and expenses. He showed how to write year-end closing entries and suggested that a trial balance be used to prove that a ledger is balanced. His treatise (long essay) in the book also has info about other topics, such as accounting ethics and cost accounting.

Post-Pacioli

The first book written in the English language on accounting was published in London, England by John Gouge (or Gough) in 1543.

In 1588 John Mellis from Southwark, England wrote a short book of instructions for keeping accounts.

There was another book written in 1635 that was described as The Merchants Mirrour, or directions for the perfect ordering and keeping of his accounts formed by way of Debitor and Creditor. This book was written by Richard Dafforne, who was an accountant. This book has many references to books about accountancy that were written much earlier. One chapter of this book is titled "Opinion of Book-keeping's Antiquity". In this chapter the author says that, according to another author, the bookkeeping he wrote about was used two-hundred years earlier in Venice.

Another writer from the Netherlands wrote that double-entry bookkeeping was done by the Greeks.

There were several editions of Richard Dafforne's book. The second edition was published in 1636. The third edition was published in 1656. Another edition was published in 1684. The book is very complete in how it describes scientific accountancy. It contains a lot of detail and explanation. The science that supports accountancy was liked by many people in the seventeenth century. This is supported by the fact that there were so many editions. Starting at this point in history, there have been many books written about accountancy. Many authors claim to be professional accountants and teachers of accountancy. Because of this, it shows that there were professional accountants who were employed in the seventeenth century.

Types of accounting

  • Financial accounting is "a major branch of accounting involving the collection, recording and extraction of financial information, and the summary of it in the form of a periodic profit and loss account, a balance sheet and a cash flow statement in accordance with legal, professional, and capital market requirements".[5]
  • Management accounting is a type of accounting where decision-makers see more details.
  • Open-book accounting is an accounting principle. This principle tries to make accounting easier for the public to see.
  • Tax accounting is a type of accounting that makes sure tax laws are followed.
  • Accounting scholarship studies the theory of accountancy.

A financial audit is where an internal audit and an external audit are done. For an external audit, an independent (unrelated) auditor takes a look at financial statements and accounting records. By looking at these records, the auditor can find out if these records are true, fair and follow Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Internal audit tries to get info for management usage, and is done by employees.

Notes and references

The English Wikibooks has more about this subject:
  1. Pixley, Francis William: Accountancy - constructive and recording accountancy (Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd, London, 1900), p4[1]
  2. Matt. 25:19
  3. Quran 2:282
  4. Mills, Geofrey T. "Early accounting in Northern Italy: The role of commercial development and the printing press in the expansion of double-entry from Genoa, Florence and Venice" (The Accounting Historians Journal, June 1994)
  5. [wps.pearsoned.co.uk/wps/media/objects/1065/1090612/glossary.html]

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Accountancy, which are similar to those in the above article.








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