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Accountancy
Emblem-money.svg
Key concepts
Accountant · Bookkeeping · Trial balance · General ledger · Debits and credits · Cost of goods sold · Double-entry system · Standard practices · Cash and accrual basis · GAAP / IFRS
Financial statements
Balance sheet · Income statement · Cash flow statement · Equity · Retained earnings
Auditing
Financial audit · GAAS · Internal audit · Sarbanes–Oxley Act · Big Four auditors
Fields of accounting
Cost · Financial · Forensic · Fund · Management · Tax

Accountancy is the art of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers.[1] The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management; the art lies in selecting the information that is relevant to the user and is reliable.[2]

Accountancy is a branch of mathematical science that is useful in discovering the causes of success and failure in business. The principles of accountancy are applied to business entities in three divisions of practical art, named accounting, bookkeeping, and auditing.[3]

Accounting is defined by the AICPA as "The art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof."[4]

Accounting is thousands of years old; the earliest accounting records, which date back more than 7,000 years, were found in the Middle East. The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds. Accounting evolved, improving over the years and advancing as business advanced.[5]

Early accounts served mainly to assist the memory of the businessperson and the audience for the account was the proprietor or record keeper alone. Cruder forms of accounting were inadequate for the problems created by a business entity involving multiple investors, so double-entry bookkeeping first emerged in northern Italy in the 14th century, where trading ventures began to require more capital than a single individual was able to invest. The development of joint stock companies created wider audiences for accounts, as investors without firsthand knowledge of their operations relied on accounts to provide the requisite information.[6] This development resulted in a split of accounting systems for internal (i.e. management accounting) and external (i.e. financial accounting) purposes, and subsequently also in accounting and disclosure regulations and a growing need for independent attestation of external accounts by auditors.[7]

Today, accounting is called "the language of business" because it is the vehicle for reporting financial information about a business entity to many different groups of people. Accounting that concentrates on reporting to people inside the business entity is called management accounting and is used to provide information to employees, managers, owner-managers and auditors. Management accounting is concerned primarily with providing a basis for making management or operating decisions. Accounting that provides information to people outside the business entity is called financial accounting and provides information to present and potential shareholders, creditors such as banks or vendors, financial analysts, economists, and government agencies. Because these users have different needs, the presentation of financial accounts is very structured and subject to many more rules than management accounting. The body of rules that governs financial accounting is called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, or GAAP.[8]

Contents

Etymology

The word "Accountant" is derived from the French word Compter, which took its origin from the Latin word Computare. The word was formerly written in English as "Accomptant", but in process of time the word, which was always pronounced by dropping the "p", became gradually changed both in pronunciation and in orthography to its present form.[9]

History

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Token accounting in ancient Mesopotamia

Map of the Middle East showing the Fertile Cresent circa. 3rd millennium BC

The earliest accounting records were found amongst the ruins of ancient Babylon, Assyria and Sumeria, which date back more than 7,000 years. The people of that time relied on primitive accounting methods to record the growth of crops and herds. Because there is a natural season to farming and herding, it is easy to count and determine if a surplus had been gained after the crops had been harvested or the young animals weaned.[5]

Complex accounting tokens made of clay, from Susa, Uruk period, cira 3500 BCE. Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.

During the period 80003700 BCE, the Fertile Crescent witnessed the spread of small settlements supported by agricultural surplus. Tokens, shaped into simple geometric forms such as cones or spheres, were used for stewardship purposes in relation to identifying and securing this surplus, and are examples of accounts that referred to lists of personal property.[10] Some of them bore markings in the form of incised lines and impressed dots. Neolithic community leaders collected the surplus at regular intervals in the form of a share of the farmers’ flocks and harvests. In turn, the accumulated communal goods were redistributed to those who could not support themselves, but the greatest part was earmarked for the performance of religious rituals and festivals. In 7000 BCE, there were only some 10 token shapes because the system exclusively recorded agricultural goods, each representing one of the farm products levied at the time, such as grain, oil and domesticated animals.The number of token shapes increased to about 350 around 3500 BCE, when urban workshops started contributing to the redistribution economy. Some of the new tokens stood for raw materials such as wool and metal and others for finished products among which textiles, garments, jewelry, bread, beer and honey.[11]

The invention of a form of bookkeeping using clay tokens represented a huge cognitive leap for mankind.[12] The cognitive significance of the token system was to foster the manipulation of data. Compared to oral information passed on from one individual to the other, tokens were extra-somatic, that is outside the human mind. As a result, the Neolithic accountants were no longer the passive recipients of someone else's knowledge, but they took an active part in encoding and decoding data. The token system substituted miniature counters for the real goods, which eliminated their bulk and weight and allowed dealing with them in abstraction by patterning, the presentation of data in particular configurations. As a result, heavy baskets of grains and animals difficult to control could be easily counted and recounted. The accountants could add, subtract, multiply and divide by manually moving and removing counters.[13]

Globular token envelope with a cluster of accounting tokens. Clay, Susa, Uruk period (4000 to 3100 BCE). Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.
Economic tablet with numeric signs. Proto-Elamite script in clay, Susa, Uruk period (3200 BC to 2700 BCE). Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.

The Mesopotamian civilization emerged during the period 37002900 BCE amid the development of technological innovations such as the plough, sailing boats and copper metal working. Clay tablets with pictographic characters appeared in this period to record commercial transactions performed by the temples.[10] Clay receptacles known as bullae (Latin: 'Bubble'), were used in Elamite city of Susa which contained tokens. These receptacles were spherical in shape and acted as envelopes, on which the seal of the individuals taking part in a transaction were engraved. The symbols of the tokens they contained were represented graphically on their surface, and the recipient of the goods could check whether they matched with the amount and characteristics expressed on the bulla once they had received and inspected them. The fact that the content of bulla was marked on its surface produced a simple way of checking without destroying the receptacle, which constituted in itself an exercise in writing that, despite being born spontaneously as a support for the existing system for controlling merchant goods, ultimately became the definitive practice for non-oral communication. Eventually, bullae were replaced by clay tablets, which used symbols to represent the tokens.[14]

During the Sumerian period, token envelop accounting was replaced by flat clay tablets impressed by tokens that merely transferred symbols. Such documents were kept by scribes, who were carefully trained to acquire the necessary literary and arithmetic skills and were held responsible for documenting financial transactions.[15] Such records preceded the earliest found examples of cuneiform writing in the form of abstract signs incised in clay tablets, which were written in Sumerian by 2900 BCE in Jemdet Nasr. Therefore "token envelop accounting" not only preceded the written word but constituted the major impetus in the creation of writing and abstract counting.[10]

Accounting in the Roman Empire

Part of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti from the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) at Ancyra, built between 25 BCE - 20 BCE.

The Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Latin: "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus") is a remarkable account to the Roman people of the Emperor Augustus' stewardship. It listed and quantified his public expenditure, which encompassed distributions to the people, grants of land or money to army veterans, subsidies to the aerarium (treasury), building of temples, religious offerings, and expenditures on theatrical shows and gladiatorial games. It was not an account of state revenue and expenditure, but was designed to demonstrate Augustus' munificence. The significance of the Res Gestae Divi Augusti from an accounting perspective lies in the fact that it illustrates that the executive authority had access to detailed financial information, covering a period of some forty years, which was still retrievable after the event. The scope of the accounting information at the emperor's disposal suggests that its purpose encompassed planning and decision-making.[16]

The Roman historians Suetonius and Cassius Dio record that in 23 BC, Augustus prepared a rationarium (account) which listed public revenues, the amounts of cash in the aerarium (treasury), in the provincial fisci (tax officials), and in the hands of the publicani (public contractors); and that it included the names of the freedmen and slaves from whom a detailed account could be obtained. The closeness of this information to the executive authority of the emperor is attested by Tacitus' statement that it was written out by Augustus himself.[17]

Roman writing tablet from the Vindolanda Roman fort of Hadrian's Wall, in Northumberland (1st-2nd century AD) requesting money to buy 5,000 measures of cereal used for brewing beer. Department of Prehistory and Europe, British Museum.

Records of cash, commodities, and transactions were kept scrupulously by military personnel of the Roman army. An account of small cash sums received over a few days at the fort of Vindolanda cira 110 CE shows that the fort could compute revenues in cash on a daily basis, perhaps from sales of surplus supplies or goods manufactured in the camp, items dispensed to slaves such as cervesa (beer) and clavi caligares (nails for boots), as well as commodities bought by individual soldiers. The basic needs of the fort were met by a mixture of direct production, purchase and requisition; in one letter, a request for money to buy 5,000 modii (measures) of braces (a cereal used in brewing) shows that the fort bought provisions for a considerable number of people.[18]

The Heroninos Archive is name given to a huge collection of papyrus documents, mostly letters, but also including a fair number of accounts, which comes from Roman Egypt in 3rd century CE. The bulk of the documents relate to the running of a large, private estate[19] is named after Heroninos because he was phrontistes (Koine Greek: manager) of the estate which had a complex and standarised system of accounting which was followed by all its local farm managers.[20] Each administrator on each sub-division of the estate drew up his own little accounts, for day to day running of the estate, payment of the workforce, production of crops, the sale produce, the use of animals, and general expetidirure on the staff. This information was then summarized as pieces of papyrus scroll into one big yearly account for each particular sub—division of the estate. Entries were arranged by sector, with cash expenses and gains extrapolated from all the different sectors. Accounts of this kind gave the owner the opportunity to take better economic decisions because the information was purposefully selected and arranged.[21]

Simple accounting is mentioned in the Christian Bible (New Testament) in the Book of Matthew, in the Parable of the Talents.[22]

Islamic accounting & algebra

In the Holy Qur’an, the word hesab (Arabic: account) is used in its generic sense, relating to one's obligation to account to God on all matters pertaining to human endeavour. According to the Holy Qur’an, followers are required to keep records of their indebtedness (Sura 2, ayah 282), thus Islam thus provides general approval and guidelines for the recording and reporting of transactions.[23]

The Islamic law of inheritance (Sura 4, ayah 11) defines exactly how the estate is calculated after death of an individual. The power of testamentary disposition is basically limited to one-third of the net estate (i.e. the assets remaining after the payment of funeral expenses and debts), providing for every member of the family by allotting fixed shares not only to wives and children, but also to father and mothers.[24] The complexity of this law served as an impetus behind the development of algebra (Arabic: al-jabr) by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī and other medieval Islamic mathematicians. Al-Khwārizmī's Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala (Arabic: "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing", Baghdad, c. 825) devoted a chapter on the solution to the Islamic law of inheritance using linear equations.[25] In the twelfth century, Latin translations of al-Khwārizmī's Kitāb al-Jamʿ wa-l-tafrīq bi-ḥisāb al-Hind (Arabic: Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation) on the use of Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.[26]

The development of mathematics and accounting was intertwined during the Renaissance. Mathematics was in the midst of a period of significant development in the late 15th century. Hindu-Arabic numerals and algebra were introduced to Europe from Arab mathematics at the end of the 10th century by the Benedictine monk Gerbert of Aurillac, but it was only after Leonardo Pisano (also known as Fibonacci) put commercial arithmetic, Hindu-Arabic numerals, and the rules of algebra together in his Liber Abaci in 1202 that Hindu-Arabic numerals became widely used in Italy.[27]

While there is no direct relationship between algebra and bookkeeping, the teaching of the subjects and the books published addressed the same group, namely the children of merchants who were sent to reckoning schools (in Flanders and Germany) or abacus schools (known as abbaco in Italy), where they learned the skills useful for trade and commerce. There is probably no need for algebra in performing bookkeeping operations, but for complex bartering operations or the calculation of compound interest, a basic knowledge of arithmetic was mandatory and knowledge of algebra was very useful.[28]

Luca Pacioli and double-entry bookkeeping

Bartering was the dominant practice for traveling merchants during the Middle Ages. When medieval Europe moved to a monetary economy in the 13th century, sedentary merchants depended on bookkeeping to oversee multiple simultaneous transactions financed by bank loans. One important breakthrough took place around that time: the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping[29], which is defined as any bookkeeping system in which there was a debit and credit entry for each transaction, or for which the majority of transactions were intended to be of this form.[30] The historical origin of the use of the words ‘debit’ and ‘credit’ in accounting goes back to the days of single-entry bookkeeping in which the chief objective was to keep track of amounts owed by customers (debtors) and amounts owed to creditors. ‘Debit,’ is Latin for ‘he owes’ and ‘credit’ Latin for ‘he trusts’.[31]

The earliest extant evidence of full double-entry bookkeeping is the Farolfi ledger of 1299-1300.[29] Giovanno Farolfi & Company were a firm of Florentine merchants whose head office was in Nîmes who also acted as moneylenders to Archbishop of Arles, their most important customer.[32] The oldest discovered record of a complete double-entry system is the Messari (Italian: Treasurer's) accounts of the city of Genoa in 1340. The Messari accounts contain debits and credits journalised in a bilateral form, and contains balances carried forward from the preceding year, and therefore enjoy general recognition as a double-entry system.[33]

Pacioli's portrait, a painting by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).The open book to which he is pointing may be his Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalità.[34]

Luca Pacioli's "Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalità" (Italian: "Review of Arithmetic, Geometry, Ratio and Proportion") was first printed and published in Venice in 1494. It included a 27-page treatise on bookkeeping, "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis" (Italian: "Details of Calculation and Recording"). It was written primarily for, and sold mainly to, merchants who used the book as a reference text, as a source of pleasure from the mathematical puzzles it contained, and to aid the education of their sons. It represents the first known printed treatise on bookkeeping; and it is widely believed to be the forerunner of modern bookkeeping practice. In Summa Arithmetica, Pacioli introduced symbols for plus and minus for the first time in a printed book, symbols that became standard notation in Italian Renaissance mathematics. Summa Arithmetica was also the first known book printed in Italy to contain algebra.[35]

Although Luca Pacioli did not invent double-entry bookkeeping,[36], his 27-page treatise on bookkeeping contained the first known published work on that topic, and is said to have laid the foundation for double-entry bookkeeping as it is practiced today.[37] Even though Pacioli's treatise exhibits almost no originality, it is generally considered as an important work, mainly because of its wide circulation, it was written in vernacular Italian language, and it was a printed book.[38]

According to Pacioli, accounting is an ad hoc ordering system devised by the merchant. Its regular use provides the merchant with continued information about his business, and allows him to evaluate how things are going and to act accordingly. Pacioli recommends the Venetian method of double-entry bookkeeping above all others. Three major books of account are at the direct basis of this system: the memoriale (Italian: memorandum), the giornale (journal), and the quaderno (ledger). The ledger is considered as the central one and is accompanied by an alphabetical index.[39]

Pacioli's treatise gave instructions in how to record barter transactions and transactions in a variety of currencies – both being far more commonplace than they are today. It also enabled merchants to audit their own books and to ensure that the entries in the accounting records made by their bookkeepers complied with the method he described. Without such a system, all merchants who did not maintain their own records were at greater risk of theft by their employees and agents: it is not by accident that the first and last items described in his treatise concern maintenance of an accurate inventory.[40]

The nature of double-entry can be grasped by recognizing that this system of bookkeeping did not simply record the things merchants traded so that they could keep track of assets or calculate profits and losses; instead as a system of writing, double-entry produced effects that exceeded transcription and calculation. One of its social effects was to proclaim the honesty of merchants as a group; one of its epistemological effects was to make its formal precision based on a rule bound system of arithmetic seem to guarantee the accuracy of the details it recorded. Even though the information recorded in the books of account was not necessarily accurate, the combination of the double entry system's precision and the normalizing effect that precision tended to create the impression that books of account were not only precise, but accurate as well. Instead of gaining prestige from numbers, double entry bookkeeping helped confer cultural authority on numbers.[41]

Post-Pacioli

The spread of the Italian accounting rules over the rest of Europe and thence further afield, was the result of treatises, some of them strongly based on Pacioli's work, describing and explaining the system and its practice. The "Quaderno doppio" (trans. Double-entry Ledger, Venice, 1534) of Domenico Manzoni da Oderzo was one of the first reproductions of Pacioli's "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis". This work, important because of elaborate examples, was very popular and widespread among merchants: it enjoyed no less than seven editions between 1534 and 1574. Other books that are directly or indirectly based on Pacioli's work are Hugh Oldcastle's "A Profitable Treatyce called the Instrument or Boke to learne to knowe the good order of the kepyng of the famous reconynge called in Latyn, Dare and Habere, and in Englyshe, Debitor and Creditor" (London, 1543), a translation of Pacioli's treatise, and Wolfgang Schweicker's "Zwifach Buchhalten" (trans. Double-entry bookkeeping, Neurenberg, 1549), a translation of the "Quaderno doppio".[42]

It was the Dutch mathematician Simon Stevin who persuaded merchants to make it a rule to summarize accounts at the end of every year in a chapter entitled Coopmansbouckhouding op de Italiaensche wyse (Dutch: "Commercial Book-keeping in the Italian Way") of his Wisconstigheg hedachtenissen (Dutch: "Mathematical memoirs", Leiden, 1605–08). Although the balance sheet he required every enterprise to prepare every year was based on entries of the ledger, it was prepared separately from the major books of account. The oldest semi-public balance sheet recorded was that of the East India Company dated 30 April 1671, which was submitted to the company's General Meeting on in 30 August 1671. The publication and audit of the balance sheet was still a rarity in England until the passing of the Bank Charter Act 1844.[43]

In 1863, the Dowlais Iron Company had receovered from a business slump, but had no cash to invest for a new blast furnace, despite having made a profit. To explain why there were no funds to invest, the manager made a new financial statement that was called a comparison balance sheet, which showed that the company was holding too much inventory. This new financial statement was the genesis of Cash Flow Statement that is used today[44].

Between the publication of Pacioli's "Particularis de Computis et Scripturis" and the 19th century, there were few other changes in accounting theory. There was a general theoretical consensus that the double-entry method was superior because it could solve so many accounting problems simultaneously, but despite this consensus, accounting practices were remarkably varied, and merchants in the 16th and 17th centuries seldom maintained the high standards of the double-entry method. The application of double entry bookkeeping varied across countries, industries, and individual firms, depending in part on its audience. This audience shifted in general from sole proprietorship alone to a larger more dispersed group of partnership, coinvestors, shareholders, and even eventually the state, as capitalism became more sophisticated.[45]

In the Ottoman Empire, which at its peak ruled over Anatolia, Middle East, North Africa, the Balkans and parts of Eastern Europe, the merdiban (Persian: ladder or stairs) accounting system that had been adopted from the Ilkhanate in the 14th century was used for 500 years until the end of the 19th century.[46] Both the Ilkhanians and the Ottomans used siyakat script (from the Arabic siyak, to lead or herd), which was stenographic writing style of Arabic used only in official documents which prevented ordinary people from reading important state correspondence.[47] The title for each entry is given by extending the last letter of the first word in a straight line, so that the lines between successive entries would be laid out in the style of steps of a ladder.[48] Permission to replace the merdiban accounting system with double-entry accounting was given by Sultan Abdülhamid II to the Ministry of Finance in 1880.[49]

Accounting scandals

The year 2001 witnessed a series of financial information frauds involving Enron Corporation, auditing firm Arthur Andersen, the telecommunications company WorldCom, Qwest and Sunbeam, among other well-known corporations. These problems highlighted the need to review the effectiveness of accounting standards, auditing regulations and corporate governance principles. In some cases, management manipulated the figures shown in financial reports to indicate a better economic performance. In others, tax and regulatory incentives encouraged over-leveraging of companies and decisions to bear extraordinary and unjustified risk.[50]

The Enron scandal deeply influenced the development of new regulations to improve the reliability of financial reporting, and increased public awareness about the importance of having accounting standards that show the financial reality of companies and the objectivity and independence of auditing firms.[50]

In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history, the Enron scandal undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure.[51] The scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world. It involved a financial scandal of Enron Corporation and their auditors Arthur Andersen, which was revealed in late 2001. After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures conducted throughout the 1990s, Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December 2001.[52]

One consequence of these events was the passage of Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, as a result of the first admissions of fraudulent behavior made by Enron. The act significantly raises criminal penalties for securities fraud, for destroying, altering or fabricating records in federal investigations or any scheme or attempt to defraud shareholders.[53]

Notes and references

  1. ^ Elliot, Barry & Elliot, Jamie: Financial accounting and reporting, Prentice Hall, London 2004, ISBN 0273703641, p. 3[1]
  2. ^ Elliot, Barry & Elliot, Jamie: Financial accounting and reporting, Prentice Hall, London 2004, ISBN 0273703641, p. 3
  3. ^ Goodyear, Lloyd Earnest: Principles of Accountancy, Goodyear-Marshall Publishing Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1913, p.7 [2]
  4. ^ Singh Wahla, Ramnik. AICPA committee on Terminology. Accounting Terminology Bulletin No. 1 Review and Résumé. 
  5. ^ a b Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, John Wiley & Sons, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0471130753, p.1
  6. ^ Carruthers, Bruce G., & Espeland, Wendy Nelson, Accounting for Rationality: Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 1, July 1991, pp. 40-41,44 46,
  7. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.302)[3]
  8. ^ Friedlob, G. Thomas & Plewa, Franklin James, Understanding balance sheets, Wiley, NYC, 1996, ISBN 0471130753, p. 4
  9. ^ Pixley, Francis William: Accountancy — constructive and recording accountancy (Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd, London, 1900), p4 [4]
  10. ^ a b c Salvador Carmona & Mahmoud Ezzamel:Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt, IE Business School, IE Working Paper WP05-21, 2005), p.6 [5]
  11. ^ Denise Schmandt-Besserat: From Tokens to Writing: the Pursuit of Abstraction, Bulletin Of The Georgian National Academy Of Sciences, 2007, vol. 175, no. 3, p.162–3 [6]
  12. ^ Oldroyd, David & Dobie, Alisdair: Themes in the history of bookkeeping, The Routledge Companion to Accounting History, London, July 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-41094-6, Chapter 5, p.96
  13. ^ Denise Schmandt-Besserat: From Tokens to Writing: the Pursuit of Abstraction Bulletin Of The Georgian National Academy Of Sciences, 2007, vol. 175, no. 3, p.165 [7]
  14. ^ Panosa, M. Isabel: The beginnings of the written culture in Antiquity, Digithum, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, May 2004, p.4 [8]
  15. ^ Salvador Carmona & Mahmoud Ezzamel:Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt, IE Business School, IE Working Paper WP05-21, 2005), p.7 [9]
  16. ^ Oldroyd, David: The role of accounting in public expenditure and monetary policy in the first century AD Roman Empire, Accounting Historians Journal, Volume 22, Number 2,, Birmingham, Alabama, December 1995, p.124 [10]
  17. ^ Oldroyd, David: The role of accounting in public expenditure and monetary policy in the first century AD Roman Empire, Accounting Historians Journal, Volume 22, Number 2,, Birmingham, Alabama, December 1995, p.123 [11]
  18. ^ Bowman, Alan K., Life and letters on the Roman frontier: Vindolanda and its people Routledge, London, January 1998, ISBN 978-0-415-92024-7, p. 40-41,45
  19. ^ Farag, Shawki M., The accounting profession in Egypt: Its origin and development, University of Illinois, 2009, p.7 [12]
  20. ^ Rathbone, Dominic: Economic Rationalism and Rural Society in Third-Century AD Egypt: The Heroninos Archive and the Appianus Estate, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521037638, 1991, p.4
  21. ^ Cuomo,Serafina: Ancient mathematics, Routledge, London, ISBN 9780415164955, July 2001, p.231
  22. ^ Matt. 25:19
  23. ^ Lewis, Mervyn K.: Islam and accounting, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2001, p. 113 [13]
  24. ^ Lewis, Mervyn K.: Islam and accounting, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2001, p. 109 [14]
  25. ^ Gandz, Solomon (1938), "The Algebra of Inheritance: A Rehabilitation of Al-Khuwarizmi", Osiris (University of Chicago Press) 5: 319–91, doi:10.1086/368492 
  26. ^ Struik, Dirk Jan (1987), A Concise History of Mathematics (4th ed.), Dover Publications, ISBN 0486602559
  27. ^ Alan Sangster, Greg Stoner & Patricia McCarthy: "The market for Luca Pacioli's Summa Arithmetica" (Accounting, Business & Financial History Conference, Cardiff, September 2007) p. 1–2
  28. ^ Heeffer, Albrecht: On the curious historical coincidence of algebra and double-entry bookkeeping, Foundations of the Formal Sciences, Ghent University, November 2009, p.7 [15]
  29. ^ a b Heeffer, Albrecht: On the curious historical coincidence of algebra and double-entry bookkeeping, Foundations of the Formal Sciences, Ghent University, November 2009, p.11 [16]
  30. ^ Mills, Geofrey T. "Early accounting in Northern Italy: The role of commercial development and the printing press in the expansion of double-entry from Genoa, Florence and Venice" (The Accounting Historians Journal, June 1994)
  31. ^ Thiéry, Michel: Did you say Debit?, Assumption University (Thailand), AU-GSB e-Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1, June 2009, p.35 [17]
  32. ^ Lee, Geoffrey A., The Coming of Age of Double Entry: The Giovanni Farolfi Ledger of 1299-1300, Accounting Historians Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1977 p.80 [18]
  33. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.300)[19]
  34. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue:3 pages:289–304)[20]
  35. ^ Alan Sangster, Greg Stoner & Patricia McCarthy: "The market for Luca Pacioli's Summa Arithmetica" (Accounting, Business & Financial History Conference, Cardiff, September 2007) p.1–2 [21]
  36. ^ Carruthers, Bruce G., & Espeland, Wendy Nelson, Accounting for Rationality: Double-Entry Bookkeeping and the Rhetoric of Economic Rationality, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 97, No. 1, July 1991, pp. 37
  37. ^ vSangster, Alan: "The printing of Pacioli's Summa in 1494: how many copies were printed?" (Accounting Historians Journal, John Carroll University, Cleveland, Ohio, June 2007)
  38. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.292)[22]
  39. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.296)[23]
  40. ^ Alan Sangster, Using accounting history and Luca Pacioli to teach double entry, Middlesex University Business School, September 2009, p.9 [24]
  41. ^ Poovey, Mary "A history of the modern fact" (University of Chicago Press, 1998) Ch.2 p.30, 58 & 54
  42. ^ Lauwers, Luc & Willekens, Marleen: "Five Hundred Years of Bookkeeping: A Portrait of Luca Pacioli" (Tijdschrift voor Economie en Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1994, vol:XXXIX issue 3, p.301)[25]
  43. ^ Takatera, Sadao: Early experiences of the British balance sheet, Kyoto University Economic Review, Vol. 83, October 1962, p.37-38, 41, 44-45 [26]
  44. ^ Watanabe, Izumi: The evolution of Income Accounting in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Britain, Osaka University of Economics, Vol.57, No. 5, January 2007, p.27-30[27]
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Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Accountancy article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Infobox/Accountancy

Accounting is the process by which financial information about a business is recorded, classified, summarized, interpreted, and communicated. Accounting is the language of business.

Catagories

  1. Financial accounting is "a major accounting branch describing the collection, recording and extraction of financial information, in order to summarize in a form of periodic profit and loss account, a balance sheet and a cash flow statement in accordance with legal, professional, and capital market requirements". The main task is prepare regular financial report.
  2. Managerial accounting is the branch of accounting for internal use, to which an organization prove information only accessible to its insiders to assist decision-makers. The mission of Managerial accounting utilize inform, control functions of management for future use.

Contents

  1. Principles of accounting
  2. Introduction to accountancy
  3. The Accounting Equation
  4. Double entry
  5. Debtors
  6. Creditors
  7. Prepayments
  8. Accruals
  9. Depreciation

Proposed additional sections

Glossary and Appendices

Other pages

Resources

BOOKS:
SOFTWARE:

Comparsion of Famous Accounting Software


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