Accuracy and precision: Wikis

  

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.In the fields of engineering, industry and statistics, the accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to its actual (true) value.^ Keep in mind: Accuracy is how close something is to a "true" value.
  • Zone Precision and Accuracy - CrossFit Journal 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC journal.crossfit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How close a reading or setting is to the true value of the number is the measure of the accuracy of the scale.
  • Sphere Research's Slide Rule Universe - Accuracy vs. Precision 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.sphere.bc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One is actual measured accuracy.
  • Sam Wormley's GPS Errors & Estimating Your Receiver's Accuracy 10 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.edu-observatory.org [Source type: Academic]

.The precision of a measurement system, also called reproducibility or repeatability, is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results.^ In this example, the precision or reproducibility of the measurement is 0.0001 g.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Precision Precision refers to the repeatability of measurement.
  • B. Accuracy, Precision, and Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.scidiv.bcc.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These conditions are called repeatability conditions.
  • Accuracy, Precision, Mean and Standard Deviation: ICP and ICP-MS Operations 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ivstandards.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Although the two words can be synonymous in colloquial use, they are deliberately contrasted in the context of the scientific method.^ Although the two words can be synonymous in colloquial use, they are deliberately contrasted in the context of scientific method.
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although stand-alone ruminal pH measurement systems have been developed, they are in limited use and a thorough validation of these systems is lacking.
  • An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of a Stand-Alone Submersible Continuous Ruminal pH Measurement System -- Penner et al. 89 (6): 2132 -- Journal of Dairy Science 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC jds.fass.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I think the biggest thing that bothers me is how useful metrics can be used correctly and in context with the purpose for which they are being used.
  • The Perils of Arbitrary and False Precision - Small Wars Council 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: General]

Accuracy indicates proximity of measurement results to the true value, precision to the repeatability or reproducibility of the measurement
.A measurement system can be accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, neither, or both.^ The measurements are precise, though not necessarily accurate.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A measurement system or computational method is called valid if it is both accurate and precise .
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of calculations or a measurement can be accurate but not precise; precise but not accurate; neither; or both.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, if an experiment contains a systematic error, then increasing the sample size generally increases precision but does not improve accuracy.^ Can we improve accuracy without improving precision?
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Efforts were then focused on the factors that could improve the three-mix cycle protocol to produce accuracy and precision results consistent with the 20-mix cycle protocol.
  • Tutorial : Assay: Accuracy and Precision with Serial Dilution Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotechnology from Bench to Business 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore important that in order to determine the accuracy and precision of sperm counts, novel methodologies need to be explored that reduce human error and that are time effective.
  • The Precision and Accuracy of Six Different Methods to Determine Sperm Concentration -- Prathalingam et al. 27 (2): 257 -- Journal of Andrology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

.Eliminating the systematic error improves accuracy but does not change precision.^ Can we improve accuracy without improving precision?
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, if an experiment contains a systematic error , then increasing the sample size will generally produce more precise results, but they will not necessarily be more accurate.
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore important that in order to determine the accuracy and precision of sperm counts, novel methodologies need to be explored that reduce human error and that are time effective.
  • The Precision and Accuracy of Six Different Methods to Determine Sperm Concentration -- Prathalingam et al. 27 (2): 257 -- Journal of Andrology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

.A measurement system is called valid if it is both accurate and precise.^ The measurements are precise, though not necessarily accurate.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A measurement system or computational method is called valid if it is both accurate and precise .
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of calculations or a measurement can be accurate but not precise; precise but not accurate; neither; or both.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Related terms are bias (non-random or directed effects caused by a factor or factors unrelated by the independent variable) and error (random variability), respectively.^ The related terms are bias (non- random or directed effects caused by a factor or factors unrelated by the independent variable ) and error (random variability), respectively.
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The related terms are bias (non- random or directed effects caused by a factor or factors unrelated by the independent variable ) and error (random variability), respectively .
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In psychometrics and psychophysics, the term accuracy is interchangeably used with validity and 'constant error', whereas 'precision' is a synonym for reliability and 'variable error' respectively.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The terminology is also applied to indirect measurements, that is, values obtained by a computational procedure from observed data.^ The recorded Osiris+ measurements of known static positions were within ±1 mm of the value from the computer controlled platform moving the test object.
  • Accuracy and precision of an external-marker tracking-system for radiotherapy treatments -- Donovan et al. 79 (946): 808 -- The British Journal of Radiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC bjr.birjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Computing Uncertainties in Laboratory Data and Result This section considers the error and uncertainty in experimental measurements and calculated results.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The absolute value of the difference between each individual thermodilution and Fick measurement was computed, with the average of these reported as mean error.
  • Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter system -- Lehmann and Platt 33 (3): 883 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

.In addition to accuracy and precision, measurements may have also a measurement resolution, which is the smallest change in the underlying physical quantity that produces a response in the measurement.^ Efforts were then focused on the factors that could improve the three-mix cycle protocol to produce accuracy and precision results consistent with the 20-mix cycle protocol.
  • Tutorial : Assay: Accuracy and Precision with Serial Dilution Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotechnology from Bench to Business 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tutorial : Assay: Accuracy and Precision with Serial Dilution Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotechnology from Bench to Business 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Before closing, let me cite an example from the real world -- my bathroom -- that illustrates perfectly the difference between resolution, precision, and accuracy.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, if an instrument is well calibrated, the precision or reproducibility of the result is a good measure of its accuracy.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Its precision, however, may be low.^ If a result differs widely from the results of other experiments you have performed, or has low precision, a blunder may also be to blame.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the 2-cm depth increment used between measurements may not have been small enough to obtain good precision with this probe, which had the smallest height.
  • Soil Profile Water Content Determination: Sensor Accuracy, Axial Response, Calibration, Temperature Dependence, and Precision -- Evett et al. 5 (3): 894 -- Vadose Zone Journal 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC vzj.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Accuracy versus precision; the target analogy

High accuracy, but low precision
High precision, but low accuracy
.Accuracy is the degree of veracity while precision is the degree of reproducibility.^ In this study we provide such a comparison and we show that updated probe set definitions have significantly better precision (reproducibility) and accuracy than the original probe set definitions.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Improved precision and accuracy for microarrays using updated probe set definitions 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.December 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The analogy used here to explain the difference between accuracy and precision is the target comparison.^ Accuracy without precision can still be useful.
  • The Perils of Arbitrary and False Precision - Small Wars Council 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ What's the difference between Accuracy and Precision ?
  • Sphere Research's Slide Rule Universe - Accuracy vs. Precision 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.sphere.bc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Precision and accuracy are completely different concepts.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this analogy, repeated measurements are compared to arrows that are shot at a target.^ Returning to our target analogy, error is how far away a given shot is from the bull's eye.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Accuracy describes the closeness of arrows to the bullseye at the target center.^ Accuracy is how close to a desired target value a test result is.
  • EASYCAL� 4.0 Calibration Software FAQ - BrandTech Scientific, Inc - Vacuum Pumps, Dispensers, Pipettes, PCR Plastics, and More 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.brandtech.com [Source type: General]

.Arrows that strike closer to the bullseye are considered more accurate.^ Arrows that strike closer to the bullseye are considered more accurate.
  • Accuracy vs Precision - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The closer the dart hits to the bullseye, the more accurate the tosses are.
  • Engineering - Accuracy vs. Precision 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.butlercc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OTBPMaps.com - GPS Accuracy vs. Precision 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.otbpmaps.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The closer a system's measurements to the accepted value, the more accurate the system is considered to be so to be it.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The closer a system's measurements to the accepted value, the more accurate the system is considered to be.^ For the years 1620 to 1998, Guide relies on actual measured values of Delta_T, which can be assumed to be accurate.
  • Guide CD-ROM Star Chart accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.projectpluto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since truly random error is just as likely to be negative as positive, we can reason that a measurement that has only random error is accurate to within the precision of measurement and the more precise the measurement, the better idea we have of the true value , i.e., there is no bias in the data.
  • Accuracy, Precision, Mean and Standard Deviation: ICP and ICP-MS Operations 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ivstandards.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In most cases, then, it is fair to consider the departure of these trial values from their average value a measure of our confidence in the "trueness" of our final result.
  • Statistics & Uncertainty - Quantum Measurement - Union College 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www1.union.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To continue the analogy, if a large number of arrows are shot, precision would be the size of the arrow cluster.^ This means that the precision is constant relative to the size of the number.
  • Floating-Point in C# Part I: Concepts and Formats « C# Help – C# Resources and Community 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.csharphelp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This benchmark has a large number of single precision square root function calls, many of which are in the denominator, such as 1.0/sqrt(rsq11).
  • HPCwire: Compilers and More: Precision and Accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.hpcwire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although this approach would not allow us to determine the accurate numbers of spermatozoa, it would allow comparisons between each of the different methodologies and a determination of the repeatability (precision) of each of them.
  • The Precision and Accuracy of Six Different Methods to Determine Sperm Concentration -- Prathalingam et al. 27 (2): 257 -- Journal of Andrology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

.(When only one arrow is shot, precision is the size of the cluster one would expect if this were repeated many times under the same conditions.^ Selective availability is expected to be zero mean, but only when averaged over many hours or perhaps days.
  • Sam Wormley's GPS Errors & Estimating Your Receiver's Accuracy 10 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.edu-observatory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reproducibility (of results of measurement) - the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.
  • Accuracy, Precision, Mean and Standard Deviation: ICP and ICP-MS Operations 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ivstandards.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Repeatability (of results of measurements) - the closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same measurand carried out under the same conditions of measurement.
  • Accuracy, Precision, Mean and Standard Deviation: ICP and ICP-MS Operations 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ivstandards.com [Source type: Academic]

) .When all arrows are grouped tightly together, the cluster is considered precise since they all struck close to the same spot, even if not necessarily near the bullseye.^ Two are close together, but nowhere near the center of the group.
  • Accuracy Diagnostics 10 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.charm.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While the precision and accuracy with 20 mix cycles is close to a perfect serial dilution, the length of time required might be considered impractical.
  • Tutorial : Assay: Accuracy and Precision with Serial Dilution Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotechnology from Bench to Business 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tutorial : Assay: Accuracy and Precision with Serial Dilution Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News - Biotechnology from Bench to Business 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The range of standard deviations for predicting M across all metrics was only 1/8 D (0.29-0.42 D), indicating that the precision of all metrics was much the same.
  • Journal of Vision - Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations, by Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Applegate 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.journalofvision.org [Source type: Academic]

.The measurements are precise, though not necessarily accurate.^ The measurements are precise, though not necessarily accurate.
  • Accuracy vs Precision - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ear measurements were least accurate and precise.
  • Accuracy and Precision of Noninvasive Temperature Measurement in Adult Intensive Care Patients -- Lawson et al. 16 (5): 485 -- American Journal of Critical Care 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC ajcc.aacnjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A measurement can be precise but not accurate.
  • WikiAnswers - What does accuracy and precision mean 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]
  • Accuracy Vs Precision - Ask.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.However, it is not possible to reliably achieve accuracy in individual measurements without precision—if the arrows are not grouped close to one another, they cannot all be close to the bullseye.^ Accuracy without precision can still be useful.
  • The Perils of Arbitrary and False Precision - Small Wars Council 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Precision is reliable , repeatable measurement.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Can we improve accuracy without improving precision?
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

.(Their average position might be an accurate estimation of the bullseye, but the individual arrows are inaccurate.^ (Their average position might be an accurate estimation of the bullseye, but the individual arrows are inaccurate.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But a tight grouping far from the bullseye is far preferable to a loose grouping centered around the bulleye--because the precise data can be corrected whereas the inaccurate data cannot be (although it can be averaged).
  • WikiAnswers - What is the difference between accuracy and precision 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ A promise to implement a new feature next year can be a very accurate estimation while promise to complete it on May 12 is likely to be inaccurate, though very precise.

) See also circular error probable for application of precision to the science of ballistics.

Quantifying accuracy and precision

.Ideally a measurement device is both accurate and precise, with measurements all close to and tightly clustered around the known value.^ Precision is how close the measurements are to each other.
  • Difference between Accuracy and Precision - Ask.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The precision with which the accepted value has been measured is not important.
  • Precision and Accuracy ......... 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.worsleyschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you make measurements in science you want them to be both precise and accurate.
  • Grandinetti-Chem221-Precision And Accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.grandinetti.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Grandinetti-General-Chemistry-Measurement-Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.grandinetti.org [Source type: Reference]

.The accuracy and precision of a measurement process is usually established by repeatedly measuring some traceable reference standard.^ The anticipated net result would be a degradation of precision and accuracy, particularly with the standard technique, which would further increase the differences found with the dual thermistor and the standard approaches.
  • Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter system -- Lehmann and Platt 33 (3): 883 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, if an instrument is well calibrated, the precision or reproducibility of the result is a good measure of its accuracy.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Standard Deviation [ Back ] A useful and commonly used measure of precision is the experimental standard deviation defined by the VIM as...
  • Accuracy, Precision, Mean and Standard Deviation: ICP and ICP-MS Operations 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ivstandards.com [Source type: Academic]

.Such standards are defined in the International System of Units and maintained by national standards organizations such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology.^ For a complete description of uncertainty estimation see the Uncertainty of Measurement pages of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
  • Statistics & Uncertainty - Quantum Measurement - Union College 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www1.union.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to National Institute of Standard's web site on Physical Constants this value is known to be: 299 792 458 m/s -1 .
  • Statistics & Uncertainty - Quantum Measurement - Union College 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www1.union.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For an electronic chart to be considered an ECDIS, it must comply with the performance standards for ECDIS established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

.This also applies when measurements are repeated and averaged.^ This also applies when measurements are repeated and averaged.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In that case, the term standard error is properly applied: the precision of the average is equal to the known standard deviation of the process divided by the square root of the number of measurements averaged.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The LRCpH (1-and 5-min averages) correlation coefficients that accounted for repeated measures (0.98 and 0.97, respectively) were numerically higher than that calculated for the CIpH (0.88; Table 1 ).
  • An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of a Stand-Alone Submersible Continuous Ruminal pH Measurement System -- Penner et al. 89 (6): 2132 -- Journal of Dairy Science 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC jds.fass.org [Source type: Academic]

.In that case, the term standard error is properly applied: the precision of the average is equal to the known standard deviation of the process divided by the square root of the number of measurements averaged.^ The precision has to do with the width of a standard deviation after many repeated measurements.
  • Precision and Accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC bettyjeanharmsen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will use the term precision to measure the spread of errors relative to each other.
  • 1.1 Precision and Accuracy | Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering | University of Waterloo 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC ece.uwaterloo.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard error of the mean is a measure of the uncertainty of the mean and depends on the number of results.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Further, the central limit theorem shows that the probability distribution of the averaged measurements will be closer to a normal distribution than that of individual measurements.^ Further, the central limit theorem shows that the probability distribution of the averaged measurements will be closer to a normal distribution than that of individual measurements.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As would be expected from the Central Limit Theorem, the acquired data are normally distributed.
  • Precision and Accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dspguide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unit 19 explains data and information, descriptive and inferential statistics, measures of central tendency, variability, frequency distributions, actual data, and standard deviation.
  • Films On Demand - Precision, Accuracy, and Tolerance; Working with Statistics; and Working with Probability 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.fmgondemand.com [Source type: Reference]

With regard to accuracy we can distinguish:
.
  • the difference between the mean of the measurements and the reference value, the bias.^ The difference between a value of 299 792 458 m/s and 299 700 000 (roughly 1 part in 300) translates to a distance measurement difference of 60 meters!
    • Statistics & Uncertainty - Quantum Measurement - Union College 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www1.union.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This implies that inter-subject variability of metric values (relative to the mean) is about the same for each metric yet each metric emphasizes a different aspect of optical quality.
    • Journal of Vision - Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations, by Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Applegate 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.journalofvision.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In applied mathematics, the difference between a true value and an estimate, or approximation, of that value.
    • Statistics & Uncertainty - Quantum Measurement - Union College 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www1.union.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Establishing and correcting for bias is necessary for calibration.
  • the combined effect of that and precision.
.A common convention in science and engineering is to express accuracy and/or precision implicitly by means of significant figures.^ As an instrumentation engineer going back many years, I am very aware of the distinction among resolution, precision, and accuracy.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Values read from the measuring instrument are expressed with numbers known as significant figures .
  • Science 1222 Lab Measurement 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC honolulu.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accuracy and precision are terms that are often confused, even though they have significantly different meanings.
  • Floating-Point in C# Part I: Concepts and Formats « C# Help – C# Resources and Community 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.csharphelp.com [Source type: Reference]

.Here, when not explicitly stated, the margin of error is understood to be one-half the value of the last significant place.^ Here, when not explicitly stated, the margin of error is understood to be one-half the value of the last significant place.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, a recording of 843.6 m, or 843.0 m, or 800.0 m would imply a margin of 0.05 m (the last significant place is the tenths place), while a recording of 8,436 m would imply a margin of error of 0.5 m (the last significant digits are the units).
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, a recording of 843.6 m, or 843.0 m, or 800.0 m would imply a margin of 0.05 m (the last significant place is the tenths place), while a recording of 8436 m would imply a margin of error of 0.5 m (the last significant digits are the units).
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, a recording of 843.6 m, or 843.0 m, or 800.0 m would imply a margin of 0.05 m (the last significant place is the tenths place), while a recording of 8,436 m would imply a margin of error of 0.5 m (the last significant digits are the units).^ The balance allows direct reading to four decimal places, and since the precision is roughly 0.0001 g, or an uncertainty of 1 in the last digit, the balance has the necessary sensitivity for this measurement.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Addition and subtraction : The result will have a last significant digit in the same place as the left-most of the last significant digits of all the numbers used in the calculation.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When significant figures are used as an implicit way of indicating uncertainty, the last digit is considered uncertain .
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A reading of 8,000 m, with trailing zeroes and no decimal point, is ambiguous; the trailing zeroes may or may not be intended as significant figures.^ It could also have p < 0, when the digits after the decimal point are zero.
  • Math::BigInt - search.cpan.org 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A precision of 2 means two digits to the left of the decimal point are zero, so 123 with P = 1 becomes 120.
  • Math::BigInt - search.cpan.org 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any decimal number of no more than 28 digits before and/or after the decimal point can be represented exactly.
  • Floating-Point in C# Part I: Concepts and Formats « C# Help – C# Resources and Community 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.csharphelp.com [Source type: Reference]

.To avoid this ambiguity, the number could be represented in scientific notation: 8.0 × 103 m indicates that the first zero is significant (hence a margin of 50 m) while 8.000 × 103 m indicates that all three zeroes are significant, giving a margin of 0.5 m.^ All three mini gearhead types are available in sizes 5, 8, 11 and 14mm, and gear ratios of 30, 50 and 100:1.
  • Harmonic Drive LLC. - HD SYSTEMS Harmonic Planetary High Precision Planetary Gearheads for Semiconductor, Machine Tool and Automation Equipment Applications 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.motioncontrol.com [Source type: General]

^ The biased exponent 0 is used to represent the number zero as well as subnormal or denormalized numbers.
  • Floating-Point in C# Part I: Concepts and Formats « C# Help – C# Resources and Community 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.csharphelp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The NMM was accurate to within 0.016 m 3 m –3 in all three saturated soils (data not shown) when using field calibrations for the soil horizons represented by Soils A, B, and C, including the separate calibration for the 10-cm depth (e.g., Evett and Steiner, 1995 ).
  • Soil Profile Water Content Determination: Sensor Accuracy, Axial Response, Calibration, Temperature Dependence, and Precision -- Evett et al. 5 (3): 894 -- Vadose Zone Journal 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC vzj.scijournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Similarly, it is possible to use a multiple of the basic measurement unit: 8.0 km is equivalent to 8.0 × 103 m.^ The calibration curve on the fluorescence plate reader indicating the relative fluorescent units (RFUs) for 5 separate sperm concentrations using 10 different ejaculates.
  • The Precision and Accuracy of Six Different Methods to Determine Sperm Concentration -- Prathalingam et al. 27 (2): 257 -- Journal of Andrology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

In fact, it indicates a margin of 0.05 km (50 m). .However, reliance on this convention can lead to false precision errors when accepting data from sources that do not obey it.^ If objective refractions are more precise than subjective refractions, then wavefront methods may become the new gold standard for specifying conventional and/or optimal corrections of refractive errors.
  • Journal of Vision - Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations, by Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Applegate 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.journalofvision.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The root mean square error of a large data sample may be considered its "precision", with respect to time.
  • Chapter-2 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ofcm.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The manual application of survey data of varying scales to the fixed chart scale was a source of error that often introduced biases.

.Looking at this in another way, a value of 8 would mean that the measurement has been made with a precision of 1 (the measuring instrument was able to measure only down to 1s place) whereas a value of 8.0 (though mathematically equal to 8) would mean that the value at the first decimal place was measured and was found to be zero.^ That either means the precision is 0.5 pounds or there is a "cheater circuit" that makes my test look good.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The overall average score was then normalized to a range of –1 to +1, so that a mean score of 0 would be expected if the two measurement techniques showed no concordance and a mean score of 1.0 expected if complete concordance were present.
  • Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter system -- Lehmann and Platt 33 (3): 883 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These linear actuators are designed for applications which require micron-level precision, such as inspection/measuring/optical instruments, semiconduc...
  • Harmonic Drive LLC. - HD SYSTEMS Harmonic Planetary High Precision Planetary Gearheads for Semiconductor, Machine Tool and Automation Equipment Applications 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.motioncontrol.com [Source type: General]

.(The measuring instrument was able to measure the first decimal place.^ (The measuring instrument was able to measure the first decimal place.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ False precision is a refinement of a measurement to a point that is known to be impossible with the instrumentation available, and often creeps in when computers are not limited in the number of decimal places they show.
  • Accuracy and precision - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Looking at this in another way, a value of 8 would mean that the measurement has been made with a precision of '1' (the measuring instrument was able to measure only up to 1's place) whereas a value of 8.0 (though mathematically equal to 8) would mean that the value at the first decimal place was measured and was found to be zero.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

) .The second value is more precise.^ The second value is more precise.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Precision was determined by calculating the absolute mean percent differences in glucose values between the first and second fingers and forearm test results.
  • Precision and Accuracy of Two Blood Glucose Meters: Abstract and Introduction 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Precision and accuracy of two blood glucose meters: FreeStyle Flash versus One Touch Ultra -- Rivers et al. 63 (15): 1411 -- American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.ajhp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If these were your data and you wanted to reduce the uncertainty, you would need to do more titrations, both to increase N and to (hopefully) increase your precision and reduce the spread in the values, given by s.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Neither of the measured values may be accurate (the actual value could be 9.5 but measured inaccurately as 8 in both instances).^ One can say that a measurement is accurate but not precise; precise but not accurate; neither or both.
  • Accuracy vs Precision - Difference and Comparison | Diffen 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of calculations or a measurement can be accurate but not precise; precise but not accurate; neither; or both.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neither of the measured values may be accurate (the actual value could be 9.5 but measured inaccurately as 8 in both instances).
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, accuracy can be said to be the 'correctness' of a measurement, while precision could be identified as the ability to resolve smaller differences.^ Thus, accuracy can be said to be the 'correctness' of a measurement, while precision could be identified as the ability to resolve smaller differences.
  • Accuracy and precision - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Accuracy and precision - Wiki.gis.com 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC wiki.gis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Percent Difference is a measure of precision .
  • Science 1222 Lab Measurement 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC honolulu.hawaii.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a large number of measurements are made where the ideal motion is, for example, 1 mm, the accuracy can be defined as the difference between the mean actual motion and the ideal motion.
  • Newport Corporation | On Axis Performance Measures -- Accuracy, Precision, & Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.newport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Precision is sometimes stratified into:
  • Repeatability — the variation arising when all efforts are made to keep conditions constant by using the same instrument and operator, and repeating during a short time period; and
  • Reproducibility — the variation arising using the same measurement process among different instruments and operators, and over longer time periods.

Accuracy and precision in binary classification

.Accuracy is also used as a statistical measure of how well a binary classification test correctly identifies or excludes a condition.^ That is how I use accuracy and reliability.
  • The Perils of Arbitrary and False Precision - Small Wars Council 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC council.smallwarsjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ How to measure weapon accuracy.
  • Accuracy | Business solutions from AllBusiness.com - Page 4 10 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ However, if an instrument is well calibrated, the precision or reproducibility of the result is a good measure of its accuracy.
  • ChemLab - Resources - Uncertainty 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: Academic]

Condition (e.g., disease)
As determined by Gold standard
True False
Test
outcome
Positive True positive False positive → Positive predictive value
Negative False negative True negative → Negative predictive value

Sensitivity

Specificity
Accuracy
.That is, the accuracy is the proportion of true results (both true positives and true negatives) in the population.^ If you divide -1 by positive infinity, the result is negative zero.
  • Floating-Point in C# Part I: Concepts and Formats « C# Help – C# Resources and Community 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.csharphelp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With both ambient temp and cooled injections, use of the dual thermistor technique resulted in a limited but clinically and statistically significant improvement in overall precision and accuracy.
  • Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter system -- Lehmann and Platt 33 (3): 883 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The methods return true if the argument is positive or negative, respectively.
  • Math::BigInt - search.cpan.org 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a parameter of the test.
	ext{accuracy}=\frac{	ext{number of true positives}+	ext{number of true negatives}}{	ext{numbers of true positives}+	ext{false positives} + 	ext{false negatives} + 	ext{true negatives}}
On the other hand, precision is defined as the proportion of the true positives against all the positive results (both true positives and false positives)
	ext{precision}=\frac{	ext{number of true positives}}{	ext{number of true positives}+	ext{false positives}}
.An accuracy of 100% means that the measured values are exactly the same as the given values.^ This implies that inter-subject variability of metric values (relative to the mean) is about the same for each metric yet each metric emphasizes a different aspect of optical quality.
  • Journal of Vision - Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations, by Thibos, Hong, Bradley, & Applegate 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.journalofvision.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The absolute value of the difference between each individual thermodilution and Fick measurement was computed, with the average of these reported as mean error.
  • Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter system -- Lehmann and Platt 33 (3): 883 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mean accuracy differences between the updated probe set definitions and the standard probe set definition, as well as the p-values calculated using the paired t-test are shown in Table 3 .
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Improved precision and accuracy for microarrays using updated probe set definitions 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

Accuracy may be determined from Sensitivity and Specificity, provided Prevalence is known, using the equation:
accuracy = (sensitivity)(prevalence) + (specificity)(1 − prevalence)
.The accuracy paradox for predictive analytics states that predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy.^ Containers with small diameters may cause the loop to pick up a smaller volume since plastic-liquid (adhesive) forces are greater than liquid-liquid (cohesive) forces ( 1 ).
  • Accuracy and Precision of Quantitative Calibrated Loops in Transfer of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid -- Jacobs et al. 38 (6): 2117 -- Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC jcm.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The accuracy of the high-precision modes in Guide is presumably at the level of a few milliarcseconds; but at present, I have no "higher standard" to compare the results to.
  • Guide CD-ROM Star Chart accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.projectpluto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A measurement approach that yields Consistent, Repeatable results rather than “Absolute Accuracy” may be in your best interest.
  • eMetrics DC ‘07 Reflections: Accuracy, Precision & Predictive Analytics | Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.kaushik.net [Source type: General]

.It may be better to avoid the accuracy metric in favor of other metrics such as precision and recall.^ The GetSystemTimeAsFileTime function looks even more impressive with its 100-nanosecond precision, but its accuracy is not necessarily any better than that of GetTickCount .
  • The Old New Thing : Precision is not the same as accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although rectal temperature was greater in accuracy and precision compared with other methods, rectal was the only method that appeared to overestimate T c .
  • The Accuracy and Precision of Body Temperature Monitoring Methods During Regional and General Anesthesia -- Cattaneo et al. 90 (4): 938 -- Anesthesia & Analgesia 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.anesthesia-analgesia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While Avinash Kaushik explains the difference between precision and accuracy better than I can, I’ll summarize with my favorite quote about this topic: Apples are apples.
  • eMetrics DC ‘07 Reflections: Accuracy, Precision & Predictive Analytics | Occam's Razor by Avinash Kaushik 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.kaushik.net [Source type: General]

Accuracy and precision in psychometrics and psychophysics

.In psychometrics and psychophysics, the term accuracy is interchangeably used with validity and constant error.^ This section describes the accuracy/precision handling in Math::Big* as it used to be and as it is now, complete with an explanation of all terms and abbreviations.
  • Math::BigInt - search.cpan.org 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Summary of Results In order to get the best estimate of the Overall Error, the recoveries and CV 1 Pooled results for the two different APDs used in the validation were averaged.
  • VANADIUM PENTOXIDE (ID-185) BACK-UP REPORT 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Dave Tutelman -- December 23, 2007 Too many people use the terms " precision " and " accuracy " interchangeably.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

Precision is a synonym for reliability and variable error. .The validity of a measurement instrument or psychological test is established through experiment or correlation with behavior.^ There are too many issues for me: sampling representativeness (thus reliability and validity, both), jitter measure specification used, reading strategy optimization and jitter correlation (i.e.
  • Precision, accuracy, and reliability of disc quality (PI/PO/jitter) tests - Page 6 - Club MyCE 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC club.myce.com [Source type: General]

.Reliability is established with a variety of statistical techniques, classically through an internal consistency test like Cronbach's alpha to ensure sets of related questions have related responses, and then comparison of those related question between reference and target population.^ Comparisons between methods were initially carried out using a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and direct comparisons between treatments were compared with reference to the least significant difference.
  • The Precision and Accuracy of Six Different Methods to Determine Sperm Concentration -- Prathalingam et al. 27 (2): 257 -- Journal of Andrology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Use ONLY method calls like $x-> sign(); instead relying on the internal representation.
  • Math::BigInt - search.cpan.org 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data plotted between the average of the 2 means and the difference between the 2 means (eg, Figures 2 and 3 ) illustrated that the differences were not related to the size of the measurements (ie, all the plots fall around the mean) and comparisons did not consistently over- or underestimate sperm concentrations; this was consistent for all of the methods compared.
  • The Precision and Accuracy of Six Different Methods to Determine Sperm Concentration -- Prathalingam et al. 27 (2): 257 -- Journal of Andrology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Accuracy and precision in logic simulation

.In logic simulation, a common mistake in evaluation of accurate models is to compare a logic simulation model to a transistor circuit simulation model.^ These systems will focus on strengthening the foundations of predictive simulation through running large suites of complex simulations and then comparing model predictions with experimental data.
  • HPCwire: Compilers and More: Precision and Accuracy 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.hpcwire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Knechel, W.R. A simulation model for evaluating accounting systems reliability.
  • Beyond accuracy: What data quality means to data consumers 10 September 2009 16:016 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is a comparison of differences in precision, not accuracy.^ Precision and accuracy are completely different concepts.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before closing, let me cite an example from the real world -- my bathroom -- that illustrates perfectly the difference between resolution, precision, and accuracy.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The anticipated net result would be a degradation of precision and accuracy, particularly with the standard technique, which would further increase the differences found with the dual thermistor and the standard approaches.
  • Improved accuracy and precision of thermodilution cardiac output measurement using a dual thermistor catheter system -- Lehmann and Platt 33 (3): 883 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Precision is measured with respect to detail and accuracy is measured with respect to reality [2][3].^ Before closing, let me cite an example from the real world -- my bathroom -- that illustrates perfectly the difference between resolution, precision, and accuracy.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please see the section about "ACCURACY AND PRECISION" for further details.
  • Math::BigInt - search.cpan.org 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC search.cpan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The repeated measures correlation is used to evaluate precision because it determines the deviation of the data set from the best-fit linear line whereas the concordance correlation is used to evaluate accuracy by determining the deviation of the best-fit linear line to the line y = x.
  • An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of a Stand-Alone Submersible Continuous Ruminal pH Measurement System -- Penner et al. 89 (6): 2132 -- Journal of Dairy Science 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC jds.fass.org [Source type: Academic]

Accuracy and precision in information systems

.The concepts of accuracy and precision have also been studied in the context of data bases, information systems and their sociotechnical context.^ Precision and Accuracy of tools in Recruitment Studies .
  • Project Web -- Home 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.efan.no [Source type: Academic]

^ Precision and accuracy are completely different concepts.
  • Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.tutelman.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tracking of patient movement during a fraction of a radical radiotherapy treatment requires a monitoring system with sufficient accuracy and precision.
  • Accuracy and precision of an external-marker tracking-system for radiotherapy treatments -- Donovan et al. 79 (946): 808 -- The British Journal of Radiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC bjr.birjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The necessary extension of these two concepts on the basis of theory of science suggests that they (as well as data quality and information quality) should be centered on accuracy defined as the closeness to the true value seen as the degree of agreement of readings or of calculated values of one same conceived entity, measured or calculated by different methods, in the context of maximum possible disagreement.^ Keep in mind: Accuracy is how close something is to a "true" value.
  • Zone Precision and Accuracy - CrossFit Journal 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC journal.crossfit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the same points can be seen by camera 1 and camera 2, then for each point selected from camera 1 it is necessary to correlate that point with one of the points selected from camera 2.
  • Accuracy and precision of an external-marker tracking-system for radiotherapy treatments -- Donovan et al. 79 (946): 808 -- The British Journal of Radiology 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC bjr.birjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It indicates how close a number is to its true value in that context.
  • Floating-Point in C# Part I: Concepts and Formats « C# Help – C# Resources and Community 2 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.csharphelp.com [Source type: Reference]

[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ John Robert Taylor (1999). An Introduction to Error Analysis: The Study of Uncertainties in Physical Measurements. University Science Books. pp. 128–129. ISBN 093570275X. http://books.google.com/books?id=giFQcZub80oC&pg=PA128. 
  2. ^ John M. Acken, Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol 36, 1997, page 281-306
  3. ^ 1990 Workshop on Logic-Level Modelling for ASICS, Mark Glasser, Rob Mathews, and John M. Acken, SIGDA Newsletter, Vol 20. Number 1, June 1990
  4. ^ Ivanov, K. (1972). "Quality-control of information: On the concept of accuracy of information in data banks and in management information systems". The University of Stockholm and The Royal Institute of Technology. Doctoral dissertation. Further details are found in Ivanov, K. (1995). A subsystem in the design of informatics: Recalling an archetypal engineer. In B. Dahlbom (Ed.), The infological equation: Essays in honor of Börje Langefors, (pp. 287-301). Gothenburg: Gothenburg University, Dept. of Informatics (ISSN 1101-7422).

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