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Acemannan: Wikis


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Acemannan refers to a D-isomer mucopolysaccharide that is extracted from aloe leaves. This compound has been known to have immunostimulant (1), antiviral, antineoplastic and gastrointestinal properties (5).

Chemical structure and properties

As noted from its structure, Acemannan is a mucopolysaccharide with mannoacetate as the monomer linked by β-1,4- glycosidic linkages[1] (3,6). This polymer is hydrophilic: 50 hydrogen bond acceptors, 19 hydrogen bond donors and logP of -3.27. Therefore, it’s permeability (and hence bioavailability) has been scored to be 1 according to Lipinsky’s rule of five [2] (4).

Immunostimulant properties

Acemannan has been demonstrated to induce macrophages to secrete interferon (INF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-1) – which might help in preventing or abrogating viral infection. These three cytokines are known to cause inflammation and interferon is released in response to viral infections. In vitro studies have shown to inhibit HIV replication; however, in vivo studies have been inconclusive. Acemannan is currently being used for treatment and clinical management of fibrosarcoma in dogs and cats. Administration of acemannan has been shown to increase tumor necrosis or prolonged survival and the animals have demonstrated lymphoid infiltration and encapsulation (7).

The compound is not OSHA regulated and has been found to have LD50 of >80 mg/kg and LC50 >5,000 mg/Kg IV (2).

References

1. http://books.google.com/books?id=CMJKgfhCKzIC&pg=PA152&lpg=PA152&dq=Acemannan+Immunostimulant+mucopolysaccharide&source=bl&ots=PIVUgt8mXa&sig=1r0cXllnr9puGN7l6qY1B0xO-7A#PPA152,M1

2. http://msds.farnam.com/m000855.htm

3. http://chemdb.niaid.nih.gov/struct_search/class/class_many.asp?class=GLYCOSYLATION%20INHIBITORS

4. http://chemdb.niaid.nih.gov/struct_search/help/lipinski.htm

5. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=596005&loc=es_rss

6. http://www.drugs.com/vet/acemannan-immunostimulant.html

7. Harris C, Pierce K, King G, Yates KM, Hall J, Tizard I. Efficacy of acemannan in treatment of canine and feline spontaneous neoplasms. Mol Biother. 1991 Dec;3(4):207-13.








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