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Acetone[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 67-64-1 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 180
ChemSpider 175
EC-number 200-662-2
RTECS number AL31500000
SMILES
InChI
InChI key CSCPPACGZOOCGX-UHFFFAOYAF
Properties
Molecular formula C3H6O
Molar mass 58.08 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid (white snow-like form when solid)
Density 0.7925 g/cm3
Melting point
−94.9 °C, 178 K, -139 °F
Boiling point
56.53 °C, 330 K, 134 °F
Solubility in water miscible
Acidity (pKa) 24.2
Refractive index (nD) 1.35900 (20 °C)
Viscosity 0.3075 cP
Structure
Molecular shape trigonal planar at C=O
Dipole moment 2.91 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Flammable F
Irritant Xi
R-phrases R11, R36, R66, R67
S-phrases (S2), S9, S16, S26
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
3
1
0
Flash point −17 °C
Autoignition
temperature
465 °C
Explosive limits 4.0–57.0
Threshold Limit Value 500 ppm (TWA), 750 ppm (STEL)
LD50 >2000 mg/kg, oral (rat)
Related compounds
Related solvents Water
Ethanol
Isopropanol
Toluene
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. This colorless, mobile, flammable liquid is the simplest example of the ketones.^ Acetone is a colorless and highly flammable manufactured liquid.
  • Tox Town - Acetone - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC toxtown.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acetone is a highly flammable liquid.
  • Acetone as a Fuel Additive 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.smartgas.net [Source type: Original source]
  • intersting read acetone in fuel - DodgeForum.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC dodgeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Oil and Energy: Acetone In Fuel Said to Increase Mileage 15-35% 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.industrialnewsupdate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acetone is a colorless, highly volatile, flammable liquid with an aromatic odor.
  • Toxicologic Review of Selected Chemicals - 358 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Owing to the fact that acetone is miscible with water it serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically as the solvent of choice for cleaning purposes in the laboratory.^ It is miscible with water and organic solvents.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically acetone is used with other solvents.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ You do know that acetone is a solvent , right?
  • Ghetto Dry ice / acetone chiller on x1800xt... - [H]ard|Forum 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC hardforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than 3 million tonnes are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to polymers.^ More than 3 billion kilograms are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to polymers.
  • Wines Tagged with Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.snooth.com [Source type: General]

^ Multiple-cavity Mold: A mold with two or more mold impressions; that is, a mold which produces more than one molding per molding cycle.
  • Glossary of Terms 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kreysler.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On the buying side, a major party involved in the acetone MMA contract said that it expected the contract price to increase, but not by more than 48/tonne .
  • Acetone (Europe) Price Report - Chemical pricing information - ICIS Pricing 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.icispricing.com [Source type: News]

[2] .Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner and sanitary cleaner/nail polish remover base.^ Acetone is also used as a superglue remover.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner.
  • Wines Tagged with Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.snooth.com [Source type: General]

^ The most familiar household use of acetone is as the active ingredient in nail polish remover.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.It is a common building block in organic chemistry.^ It is a common building block in organic chemistry.
  • Wines Tagged with Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.snooth.com [Source type: General]

.Acetone is naturally produced and disposed of in the human body as a result of normal metabolic processes.^ When animals and humans catabolize body fat, acetone is exhaled and metabolized.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone enters the air , water, and soil as a result of natural processes and human activities.
  • Public Health Statement for Acetone - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acetone is a product of normal metabolism in humans and animals.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Reproductive toxicity tests show that it has low potential to cause reproductive problems.^ Acetone also potentiates the neurotoxieity and reproductive toxicity of 2,5-hexanedione (Ladefoged et al., 1989; Lam et al., 1991; Larsen et al., 1991).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CHRONIC (LONG-TERM) ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS Chronic toxic effects may include shortened lifespan, reproductive problems, lower fertility, and changes in appearance or behavior.
  • NDCRT Home Page 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ndcrt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These EC 50 values are very high compared to other compounds, indicating that acetone toxicity as reported by this test is low.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In fact, the body naturally increases the level of acetone in pregnant women, nursing mothers and children because their higher energy requirements lead to higher levels of acetone production.^ Acetone levels in athletes and pregnant women (among many groups) may be elevated because these groups of people have greater energy requirements.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So, the stains cannot be simply wiped away with water and hence, would require some special products like acetone, rubbing alcohol or paint thinner.
  • Stain Removal 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: General]

^ Altogether, the 4 ketogenic meals furnished the participants with 75% of their total energy requirements because epileptic children consuming a KD are usually fed 75% of their total energy requirements ( 23 ).
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

.The medical community is now using ketogenic diets that increase acetone in the body to reduce epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.^ I've been using acetone for quite a while now.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

^ I have been using the acetone for about 2 months now.
  • Does Acetone Addition to Fuel Lower Consumption? - TDIClub Forums 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC forums.tdiclub.com [Source type: General]

^ Now it is a month after using acetone.
  • Nobrainer’s Think Tank » Acetone in Gasoline - BUSTED! 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC neubranderinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Production

.Acetone is produced directly or indirectly from propene.^ Acetone is produced in the liver and is carried to the lungs directly via the portal blood ( 12 ).
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

Most commonly, in the cumene process, benzene is alkylated with propene and the resulting cumene (isopropylbenzene) is oxidized to give phenol and acetone:
C6H5CH(CH3)2 + O2 → C6H5OH + (CH3)2CO
This conversion entails the intermediacy of cumene hydroperoxide, C6H5C(OOH)(CH3)2.
.Acetone is also produced by the direct oxidation of propene with a Pd(II)/Cu(II) catalyst, akin to the Wacker process.^ Acetone is produced primarily in the cumene process .
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Although acetone is more costly to produce by the IPA process, this process has no benzene contamination.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is produced, as an intermediate or final product, by process units covered under this subpart.

Older production methods

.Previously, acetone was produced by the dry distillation of acetates, for example calcium acetate.^ Previously, acetone was produced by the dry distillation of acetates , for example calcium acetate.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Workers in a Japanese acetate fiber producing plant had detectable levels of acetone in urine samples between 1 and 160 mg/l(3).

^ As previously mentioned, acetone is one of three ketone bodies produced by acetyl coenzyme A within the liver.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.During World War I acetone was produced via bacterial fermentation, as developed by Chaim Weizmann (later the first president of Israel) in order to help the British war effort.^ During World War I a new process of producing acetone through bacterial fermentation was developed by Chaim Weizmann , later the first president of Israel, in order to help the British war effort.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Part of the explanation was that the upper airway linings give off the acetone during the initial breaths, and the deeper portions of the respiratory tract give off the acetone in the later breaths.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is produced mainly from the spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate and, to a lesser degree, by the enzymatic conversion of acetoacetate to acetone via the enzyme acetoacetate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.4) ( 17 ).
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .This Acetone Butanol Ethanol process was abandoned due to the small yields.^ In the peroxidation process, cumene is oxidized to hydroperoxide, which is cleaved to yield acetone and phenol.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most acetone is manufactured by one of two processes, cumene peroxidation (94% yield) or isopropyl alcohol dehydrogenation (IPA) (95% yield) (SRI, 1996).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rain and snow also remove small amounts of acetone from the atmosphere and, in the process, deposit it on land and water.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statements: Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Acetone - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]

Biosynthesis

.Small amounts of acetone are produced in the body by the decarboxylation of ketone bodies.^ See also: ketosis Small amounts of acetone are produced in the body by the decarboxylation of ketone bodies .
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Small amounts of acetone are metabolically produced in the body, mainly from fat.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Your body makes small amounts of acetone.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statements: Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Acetone - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Uses

.About half of the world's production of acetone is consumed as a precursor to methyl methacrylate.^ Its primary uses are as an industrial solvent and as an intermediate in the production of methyl methacrylate, methylisobutyl ketone, and methylisobutyl carbinol.
  • Sunoco Chemicals Technical Guidance Manuals: Acetone Handling 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sunocochemicals.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dermal exposure to acetone may result from skin contact with consumer products (e.g., certain nail polish removers, paint removers, and household cleaning and waxing products).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A brake cleaner composition comprising: about 5% to about 10% by weight of methyl acetate; about 30% to about 45% by weight n-heptane; and about 45% to about 50% acetone.
  • Brake cleaner compositions comprising methyl acetate and acetone and method of using same - Patent 6448209 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

This application begins with the initial conversion of acetone to its cyanohydrin:
(CH3)2CO + HCN → (CH3)2C(OH)CN
In a subsequent step, the nitrile is hydrolyzed to the unsaturated amide, which is esterified:
(CH3)2C(OH)CN + CH3OH → CH2=(CH3)CCO2CH3 + NH3
The second major use of acetone entails its condensation with phenol to give bisphenol A:
(CH3)2CO + 2 C6H5OH → (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 + H2O
.Bisphenol-A is a component of many polymers such as polycarbonates, polyurethanes, and epoxy resins.^ Epoxy Resin: A polymer resin characterized by epoxide molecule groups.
  • Glossary of Terms 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kreysler.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of its uses is to clean up epoxy resins , polyester resins , contact cement , fiberglass , along with many inks and adhesives .
  • ArtLex's A-Ac page 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.artlex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bisphenol A is produced from acetone and used in polycarbonate resins.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Combustion

(CH3)2CO + 4 O2 → 3 CO2 + 3 H2O

As a solvent

.Acetone is a good solvent for most plastics and synthetic fibres including those used in laboratory bottles made of polystyrene, polycarbonate and some types of polypropylene.^ Acetone can also dissolve many plastics, including those used in Nalgene bottles made of polystyrene, polycarbonate and some types of polypropylene.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The plastic isopropyl bottles we use to hold acetone are great.
  • Acetone as a Fuel Additive 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.smartgas.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a strong solvent for most plastics and synthetic fibres.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[3] .It is ideal for thinning fiberglass resin, cleaning fiberglass tools and dissolving two-part epoxies and superglue before hardening.^ One of its uses is to clean up epoxy resins , polyester resins , contact cement , fiberglass , along with many inks and adhesives .
  • ArtLex's A-Ac page 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.artlex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Layers of catalyzed resin and fiberglass or other reinforcements are applied to a mold in order to make a part.
  • Glossary of Terms 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kreysler.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Used to a large extent for clean up of tools in fiberglass operations.
  • Glossary of Terms 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kreysler.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is used as a volatile component of some paints and varnishes.^ Another 15% is used as a solvent for vinyl or acrylic resins, alkyd paints, varnishes and lacquers, oils, waxes, plastics, and rubber cements.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is widely used in industry as a solvent for many organic substances and is a component of most paint and varnish removers.

^ Acetone is used as a solvent to dissolve other substances, such as paints, varnishes, lacquers, fats, oils, waxes, resins, printing inks, plastics, and glues.
  • Tox Town - Acetone - Toxic chemicals and environmental health risks where you live and work - Text Version 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC toxtown.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a heavy-duty degreaser, it is useful in the preparation of metal prior to painting; it also thins polyester resins, vinyl and adhesives.^ For long term display, self-adhesive vinyl placards may be used.
  • Dot Labels, Hazmat Labels, Hazmat Placards and Hazardous Waste Labels 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.shippinglabels.com [Source type: Reference]

^ One of its uses is to clean up epoxy resins , polyester resins , contact cement , fiberglass , along with many inks and adhesives .
  • ArtLex's A-Ac page 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.artlex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acetone: A ketone group solvent that is used to dissolve polyester resins.
  • Glossary of Terms 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kreysler.com [Source type: Reference]

.Many millions of kilograms of acetone are consumed in the production of the solvents methyl isobutyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone.^ NOTE: Acetone is a solvent for many elastomers.
  • Sunoco Chemicals Technical Guidance Manuals: Acetone Handling 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sunocochemicals.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diacetone alcohol, methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl n-butyl ketone).
  • Emergency and Continuous Exposure Limits for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Its primary uses are as an industrial solvent and as an intermediate in the production of methyl methacrylate, methylisobutyl ketone, and methylisobutyl carbinol.
  • Sunoco Chemicals Technical Guidance Manuals: Acetone Handling 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sunocochemicals.com [Source type: Reference]

.These products arise via an initial aldol condensation to give diacetone alcohol.^ These reactions include addition, oxidation-reduction and condensation, and yield alcohols, ketals, acids and amines (Papa & Sherman, 1981).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]
2 (CH3)2CO → (CH3)2C(OH)CH2C(O)CH3
.Acetone is used as a solvent by the pharmaceutical industry and as a denaturation agent in denatured alcohol.^ Typically acetone is used with other solvents.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Seeber A, Kiesswetter E, Vangala RR, Blaszkewicz M, & Golka K (1992) Combined exposure to organic solvents: An experimental approach using acetone and ethyl acetate.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is widely used in industry as a solvent for many organic substances and is a component of most paint and varnish removers.

[4] .Acetone is also present as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products.^ Acetone is also used as a chemical intermediate in the production of Bisphenol A, as a solvent and chemical intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry, and as a solvent in the processing of cellulose acetate.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some companies recover acetone as a by-product (SRI, 1996).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Storage of acetylene

.Although flammable itself, acetone is also used extensively as a solvent for the safe transporting and storing of acetylene, which cannot be safely pressurized as a pure compound.^ Acetone is also used extensively for the safe transporting and storing of acetylene .
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically acetone is used with other solvents.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pure Acetone has been used for years in the construction of crack cocaine.
  • Emptywheel » Yes, They Are Tracking Hydrogen Peroxide and Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC emptywheel.firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vessels containing a porous material are first filled with acetone followed by acetylene, which dissolves into the acetone.^ Vessels containing a porous material are first filled with acetone followed by acetylene, which dissolves into the acetone.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ C is first dissolved in A. A (containing C) and B are then brought into contact, and the container is shaken.
  • Chapter 10: Phase Equilibrium 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ C is first dissolved in B. A and B (containing C) are then brought into contact, and the container is shaken.
  • Chapter 10: Phase Equilibrium 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One liter of acetone can dissolve around 250 liters of acetylene.^ One liter of acetone can dissolve around 250 liters of acetylene.
  • Acetone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the sources of acetone in seawater is the sensitized photoreaction of dissolved organic matter (Mopper & Stahovec, 1986).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus according to our calculation, 7 * 10 -5 moles (0.007 g) of CaCO 3 will dissolve in one liter of water.
  • Chapter 10: Phase Equilibrium 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

[6][7]

Medical and cosmetic uses

.Acetone is used in a variety of general medical and cosmetic applications and is also listed as a component in food additives and food packaging.^ Acetone is widely used in industry as a solvent for many organic substances and is a component of most paint and varnish removers.

^ Acetone is also used in food processing as an extraction solvent for oils and fats and as a precipitation agent in the purification of starches and sugars.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It includes 1) an electrolysis unit for on-board hydrogen injection; 2) a vaporizer/ionizer using magnets; and 3) additives that include acetone and xylene.
  • Directory:Acetone as a Fuel Additive - PESWiki 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acetone is commonly used in the skin rejuvenation process in medical offices and medical spas.^ I have heard use acetone, but also I heard that can be damaging to your skin and potentially burn you.
  • Removing Acrylic Nails 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.thriftyfun.com [Source type: General]

^ Acetone is also used in food processing as an extraction solvent for oils and fats and as a precipitation agent in the purification of starches and sugars.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is also used as a chemical intermediate in the production of Bisphenol A, as a solvent and chemical intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry, and as a solvent in the processing of cellulose acetate.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Since the days of ancient Egypt, people have been using chemexfoliation methods, also known as chemical peeling, to rejuvenate skin.^ We can approach this problem using a general method for treating chemical equilibria that will be extensively used in Chapter 12 .
  • Chapter 10: Phase Equilibrium 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methods of Preparing Compounds of Formula I Compounds of Formula I are either commercially available or may be prepared using standard procedures known to a person skilled in the art.
  • METHOD FOR TREATING NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS USING ACETONE DERIVATIVES - Patent application 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

Common agents used today for chemical peels are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, 30% salicylic acid in ethanol, and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). .Prior to chemexfoliation, the skin should be cleaned properly and excess fat removed.^ Dermal exposure to acetone may result from skin contact with consumer products (e.g., certain nail polish removers, paint removers, and household cleaning and waxing products).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone should never be used as a cleaning agent for the skin.

This process is known as defatting. .Acetone, Septisol, or a combination of these agents is commonly used in this process.^ Half-life estimates from these combined processes are 79 and 13 days in January and June, respectively, for an overall annual average of 22 days.
  • http://avogadro.chem.iastate.edu/MSDS/acetone.htm 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC avogadro.chem.iastate.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Acetone MSDS 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nvcc.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://services.georgiasouthern.edu/ess/msds/Acetone.htm 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC services.georgiasouthern.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Seeber A, Kiesswetter E, Vangala RR, Blaszkewicz M, & Golka K (1992) Combined exposure to organic solvents: An experimental approach using acetone and ethyl acetate.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is also used in food processing as an extraction solvent for oils and fats and as a precipitation agent in the purification of starches and sugars.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Laboratory uses

.In the laboratory, acetone is used as a polar aprotic solvent in a variety of organic reactions, such as SN2 reactions.^ Seeber A, Kiesswetter E, Vangala RR, Blaszkewicz M, & Golka K (1992) Combined exposure to organic solvents: An experimental approach using acetone and ethyl acetate.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is widely used in industry as a solvent for many organic substances and is a component of most paint and varnish removers.

^ Acetone is also used in food processing as an extraction solvent for oils and fats and as a precipitation agent in the purification of starches and sugars.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The use of acetone solvent is also critical for the Jones oxidation.^ Typically acetone is used with other solvents.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Seeber A, Kiesswetter E, Vangala RR, Blaszkewicz M, & Golka K (1992) Combined exposure to organic solvents: An experimental approach using acetone and ethyl acetate.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ofcourse you should use some kind of anti freeze into your cooling solvent, but aceton is normally used to put into your dry ice.
  • Ghetto Dry ice / acetone chiller on x1800xt... - [H]ard|Forum 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC hardforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a common solvent for rinsing laboratory glassware because of its low cost, volatility, and ability to form a low boiling temperature azeotrope with water[citation needed].^ Because of its high water solubility and low sediment adsorption coefficient, acetone in an aquatic system is predominantly found in water, rather than in sediment.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At temperatures where the vapor pressure of liquid is less than the pressure above the liquid, pockets cannot form because they are immediately collapsed by the greater outside pressure.
  • Chapter 10: Phase Equilibrium 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wpi.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is a common chemical, it is the active ingredient in nail polish remover because it is an excellent solvent.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Acetone Does Not Increase Gas Mileage 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: General]

.For similar reasons, acetone is also used as a drying agent.^ Acetone is also used in food processing as an extraction solvent for oils and fats and as a precipitation agent in the purification of starches and sugars.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone (145 octane) will evaporate quickly so is not used in quantity because of this reason.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

^ The author has never found any valid reason for not using acetone in gasoline or diesel fuel.
  • Acetone In Fuel Said to Increase Mileage 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.pureenergysystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • intersting read acetone in fuel - DodgeForum.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC dodgeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acetone can be cooled with dry ice to −78 °C without freezing; acetone/dry ice baths are commonly used to conduct reactions at low temperatures.^ I used the acetone from Lowe's (1 qt.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

^ Uses: Solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, rubber, plastics, lacquers, varnishes, rubber cements; as a brine for low temperature heat transfer in indirect refrigeration; for cleaning and drying precision parts.

^ Ofcourse you should use some kind of anti freeze into your cooling solvent, but aceton is normally used to put into your dry ice.
  • Ghetto Dry ice / acetone chiller on x1800xt... - [H]ard|Forum 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC hardforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Acetone is fluorescent under ultraviolet light, and its vapor may be used as a fluorescent tracer in fluid flow experiments.^ A vapor suppressing foam may be used to reduce vapors.

^ I think that there may actually be an INCREASE in fuel milage attributable to using acetone .
  • Does Acetone Addition to Fuel Lower Consumption? - TDIClub Forums 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC forums.tdiclub.com [Source type: General]

^ But in the larger picture it may cost more to make acetone (as the commercial manufature uses heat to convert isopropanol to acetone...and how much does it take to make isopropanol?
  • Double Your Gas Mileage! 2X - Video 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Domestic and other niche uses

.Acetone is often the primary component in cleaning agents such as nail polish remover.^ Acetone is the primary ingredient in nail-polish remover.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Acetone Does Not Increase Gas Mileage 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: General]

^ Acetone is used in nail polish remover.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

^ Acetone is the active ingredient in nail polish remover.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

.Ethyl acetate, another organic solvent, is sometimes used as well.^ Seeber A, Kiesswetter E, Vangala RR, Blaszkewicz M, & Golka K (1992) Combined exposure to organic solvents: An experimental approach using acetone and ethyl acetate.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone is widely used in industry as a solvent for many organic substances and is a component of most paint and varnish removers.

^ The compound is used as a solvent for flavouring material in baking and candy production, as well as a humectant and preserver to keep packaged foods fresh.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acetone is a component of superglue remover and it easily removes residues from glass and porcelain.^ On the subject of acetone damaging plastic components: Nail polish remover has a high percentage of acetone in it and GUESS WHAT IT COMES IN??????
  • » How to Boost Your Gas Mileage with Acetone » Blog Archive  Alice Hill’s Real Tech News - Independent Tech 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.realtechnews.com [Source type: General]

^ One must buy pure acetone, which is easily available from any store that sells regular nail polish remover.
  • Removing Acrylic Nails 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.thriftyfun.com [Source type: General]

^ Acetone is widely used in industry as a solvent for many organic substances and is a component of most paint and varnish removers.

.It can be used as an artistic agent; when rubbed on the back of a laser print or photocopy placed face-down on another surface and burnished firmly, the toner of the image transfers to the destination surface.^ An abrasive is any substance which wears down a surface by rubbing against it.
  • ArtLex's A-Ac page 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.artlex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sandpapers and grinding disks and wheels, for instance, have abrasive surfaces used to wear down surfaces, or to smooth out rough ones.
  • ArtLex's A-Ac page 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.artlex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Release Agent: A compound used to reduce surface tension or adhesion between a mold and a part.
  • Glossary of Terms 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.kreysler.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some automotive enthusiasts add acetone at around 1 part in 500 to their fuel, following claims of improvement in fuel economy and engine life.^ Q. When do I add acetone: before or after adding fuel?
  • Directory:Acetone Additive:FAQ - PESWiki 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THEN we add a little acetone to the fuel.
  • Acetone as a Fuel Additive 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.smartgas.net [Source type: Original source]
  • intersting read acetone in fuel - DodgeForum.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC dodgeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The author suggests not to continuously add acetone to each and every tank of fuel, rather only to every other tankful.
  • intersting read acetone in fuel - DodgeForum.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC dodgeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Systematic testing has determined that acetone has no measurable effect on fuel economy or may in fact reduce engine life by adversely affecting fuel system parts.^ It may have no effect.
  • Acetone in Gas tank? [Archive] - The macosxhints Forums 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC forums.macosxhints.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No effects in my testing.
  • Nobrainer’s Think Tank » Acetone in Gasoline - BUSTED! 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC neubranderinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acetone had no effect on high pressure fuel line and fuel fittings.
  • Directory:Acetone as a Fuel Additive - PESWiki 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] .The effect of acetone on fuel economy was addressed on the popular American TV show MythBusters in 2006, in which they observed a decrease on fuel economy.^ Q. Does ethanol in fuel effect acetone?
  • Directory:Acetone Additive:FAQ - PESWiki 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the components in a car’s fuel system should be of high quality, and thus immune to any deleterious effects from exposure to acetone, be aware that “ideal” is not always the case in practice.
  • » How to Boost Your Gas Mileage with Acetone » Blog Archive  Alice Hill’s Real Tech News - Independent Tech 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.realtechnews.com [Source type: General]

^ They claimed that acetone damaged rubber parts in motorcycles fuel system.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

[12]

Safety

Flammability

.The most common hazard associated with acetone is its extreme flammability.^ PM Acetone (CH3COCH3) is a product that can be purchased inexpensively in most locations around the world, such as in the common hardware, auto parts, or drug store.
  • Pure acetone increases gasmilage - SciForums.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sciforums.com [Source type: General]

^ Remember that acetone, alcohol, gasoline and all fuels in general are extremely flammable.
  • Acetone as a Fuel Additive 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.smartgas.net [Source type: Original source]
  • intersting read acetone in fuel - DodgeForum.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC dodgeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TOXICITY SUMMARY Human exposure to acetone at atmospheric concentrations lower than 500 ppm is not commonly associated with any health hazards (Krasavage et al.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

It auto-ignites at a temperature of 465 °C (869 °F). .At temperatures greater than acetone's flash point of −20 °C (−4 °F), air mixtures of between 2.5% and 12.8% acetone, by volume, may explode or cause a flash fire.^ I tried a few different mixture other than the acetone.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

^ The acetone/fuel mixture was less effecient than gas alone in a carburettor-based car and had the same results with a fuel injected-based car.
  • » How to Boost Your Gas Mileage with Acetone » Blog Archive  Alice Hill’s Real Tech News - Independent Tech 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.realtechnews.com [Source type: General]

^ This new tanks mixture is 2.7 oz of acetone with a 12.4 gal of Chevron 87 regular.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

.Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back.^ MATERIAL IS HIGHLY VOLATILE, READILY GIVES OFF VAPORS WHICH CAN TRAVEL TO DISTANT IGNITION SOURCE, IGNITE & FLASH BACK. .
  • MSDS Acetone 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.dnse.com [Source type: Academic]

.Static discharge may also ignite acetone vapors.^ The Acetone may reduce droplet size, lower vapor pressure and clean out deposits and sludge.
  • » How to Boost Your Gas Mileage with Acetone » Blog Archive  Alice Hill’s Real Tech News - Independent Tech 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.realtechnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, people should be aware the Acetone self ignites at 450 °C, which will probably lead to a large explosion with all that Acetone vapor.
  • Acetone Recycler (Industrial waste management) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manufacturing and processing facilities may also release acetone to air and water through discharges, and through other wastes transported to landfills.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Health Informaton

.Acetone has been studied extensively and is generally recognized to have low acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and/or breathed.^ PEER REVIEWED** Acetone can be placed among solvents of comparatively low acute and chronic toxicities.

^ By the end of the study, breath acetone increased 3.5-fold (from 33 ± 13 nmol/L at 0 h to 116 ± 19 nmol/L at 12 h).
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline] Jones AW. Breath acetone concentrations in fasting male volunteers: further studies and effect of alcohol administration.
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Breathing high concentrations (around 9200 ppm) in the air caused irritation of the throat in humans in as little as 5 minutes.^ At high concentrations causes narcosis.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes narcosis at high concentrations.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High concentrations can cause pulmonary edema.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

.Breathing concentrations of 1000 ppm caused irritation of the eye and throat in less than 1 hour; however, breathing 500 ppm of acetone in the air caused no symptoms of irritation in humans even after 2 hours of exposure.^ An air concentration of 10ppm is quickly irritating to eyes.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute exposures of humans to atmospheric concentrations ...

^ Eye irritation was transient and generally occurred at atmospheric concentrations greater than 1000 ppm.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Acetone is not currently regarded as a carcinogen, a mutagenic chemical or a concern for chronic neurotoxicity effects.^ McCann J, Choi E, Yamasaki E, & Ames BN (1975) Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: Assay of 300 chemicals.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other publications have been concerned with epidemiological guidelines, evaluation of short-term tests for carcinogens, biomarkers, effects on the elderly and so forth.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects on flora Pertinent data regarding the effects of exposure of terrestrial flora to acetone have not been found.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acetone can be found as an ingredient in a variety of consumer products ranging from cosmetics to processed and unprocessed foods.^ Commercial acetone is obtained by a variety of manufacturing processes, such as fermentation (by-product of butyl alcohol manufacture) and chemical synthesis from isopropanol, cumene (by-product in phenol manufacture), and propane (by-product of oxidation cracking).
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ensure that the amount of acetone found in the samples is within the range of the standards.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Production levels and processes In 1994, world acetone capacity amounted to almost 3.83 million tonnes (SRI, 1996).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acetone has been rated as a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) substance when present in beverages, baked goods, desserts, and preserves at concentrations ranging from 5 to 8 mg/L. Additionally, a joint U.S-European study found that acetone’s "health hazards are slight."^ For example, the concentrations of acetone in the breathing zone air in a paint factory, a plastics factory, and an artificial fibre factory in Italy were > 3.48 mg/m 3 (Pezzagno et al., 1986).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a group of nine volunteer subjects, the mean blood concentration before entering a van designed for clinical examinations for a health survey was 1.9 mg/litre and after 3 h in the van the mean blood concentration was virtually unchanged at 2 mg/litre, although the range before entry was 1 3.6 mg/litre and after 3 h was 0.9-5 mg/litre, i.e.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline] Jones AW. Breath acetone concentrations in fasting male volunteers: further studies and effect of alcohol administration.
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

.An extensive study was also conducted on "reasonably anticipated children’s exposures to acetone" from commonly found items such as the solvent in nail tip remover, nail polish remover, spray paint and spot remover.^ Acetone is the primary ingredient in nail-polish remover.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Acetone Does Not Increase Gas Mileage 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: General]

^ The only thing that will remove them is Nail Polish Remover (Acetone).
  • Removing Acrylic Nails 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.thriftyfun.com [Source type: General]

^ Acetone is used in nail polish remover.
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

.The conclusion was that acetone exposure from a child’s environment and from consumer products is unlikely to pose significant health risks.^ Dermal exposure to acetone may result from skin contact with consumer products (e.g., certain nail polish removers, paint removers, and household cleaning and waxing products).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Uses and sources of exposure 1.2.1 Production Acetone is manufactured mainly by the cumene peroxidation or isopropyl alcohol dehydrogenation processes.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A slight but significant accumulation of acetone occurred in the body following exposure at 1000 ppm, but that small amount did not affect the breath-decay curves.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was determined that 90 percent of acetone found in children was naturally produced in their bodies.^ However, with non-sterile natural sediment, 100% of the acetone was lost in 500 h following a lag period of 90 h.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The reliable and noninvasive nature of breath acetone analysis makes this method potentially useful for monitoring ketosis in patients with intractable epilepsy, especially children.
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both research groups found that ketones are weak producers of ozone, with acetone having one of the lowest ozone formation potentials.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The rest came primarily from natural food sources, such as onions, grapes, cauliflower, tomatoes, milk, cheese, beans and peas, as well as from mother’s milk.^ Acetone has been detected in a variety of plants and foods including onions, grapes, cauliflower, tomatoes, morning glory, wild mustard, milk, beans, peas, cheese and chicken breast.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone has been detected in a variety of plants and foods, including onions, grapes, cauliflower, tomatoes, morning glories, wild mustard, milk, beans, peas, cheese and chicken breast (Day & Anderson, 1965; Grey & Shrimpton, 1967; Palo & Ilkova, 1970; Lovegren et al., 1979).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetone has also been detected in onions, grapes, cauliflower, tomatoes and wild mustard (NLM, 1992).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Toxicology

.Acetone is believed to exhibit only slight toxicity in normal use, and there is no strong evidence of chronic health effects if basic precautions are followed.^ When I used it there was no problem.

^ There was no indication of CNS effects.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 4 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After 24 h there was no evidence of irritation.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.At very high vapor concentrations, acetone is irritating and, like many other solvents, may depress the central nervous system.^ Typically acetone is used with other solvents.
  • Sampling and Analytical Methods: Acetone, 69 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.osha.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Safety Profile: A central nervous system depressant and hepatotoxin.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Produces narcosis at very high concentrations.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is also a severe irritant on contact with eyes, and a potential pulmonary aspiration risk.^ An experimental skin and severe eye irritant.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A severe eye and human skin irritant.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An eye and severe skin irritant.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

.In one documented case, ingestion of a substantial amount of acetone led to systemic toxicity, although the patient eventually fully recovered.^ While the components in a car’s fuel system should be of high quality, and thus immune to any deleterious effects from exposure to acetone, be aware that “ideal” is not always the case in practice.
  • » How to Boost Your Gas Mileage with Acetone » Blog Archive  Alice Hill’s Real Tech News - Independent Tech 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.realtechnews.com [Source type: General]

^ This correlation was true up to a point because only a tiny amount of acetone (a fraction of one-percent) proved helpful.
  • Acetone as a Fuel Additive 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.smartgas.net [Source type: Original source]
  • intersting read acetone in fuel - DodgeForum.com 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC dodgeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Systemically, acetone is moderately toxic to the liver and produces haematological effects.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Some sources estimate LD50 for human ingestion at 1.159 g/kg; LD50 inhalation by mice is given as 44 g/m3, over 4 hours.^ Studies of rats indicate that orally administered acetone is extensively absorbed, whereas during inhalation exposures humans absorb approximately 50% of the amount of inhaled acetone.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The ED 50 and TD 50 values in the Table 1 are given as mmol/kg of body weight.
  • METHOD FOR TREATING NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS USING ACETONE DERIVATIVES - Patent application 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Human systemic effects by ingestion or inhalation: flushing.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.Acetone has been shown to have anticonvulsant effects in animal models of epilepsy, in the absence of toxicity, when administered in millimolar concentrations.^ [Medline] Jones AW. Breath acetone concentrations in fasting male volunteers: further studies and effect of alcohol administration.
  • Breath acetone is a reliable indicator of ketosis in adults consuming ketogenic meals -- Musa-Veloso et al. 76 (1): 65 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are many secondary factors, such as an imbalance of hormones, e.g., insulin, that can effect the body burden and hence the toxicity of acetone (Ramu et al., 1978).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Five animals/sex of each species were administered drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 g/litre (NTP, 1991; Dietz et al., 1991).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .It has been hypothesized that the high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet used clinically to control drug-resistant epilepsy in children works by elevating acetone in the brain.^ The spectra suggest significant elevation of brain acetone due to the ketogenic diet.
  • METHOD FOR TREATING NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS USING ACETONE DERIVATIVES - Patent application 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If acetone works for you then use it.
  • Nobrainer’s Think Tank » Acetone in Gasoline - BUSTED! 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC neubranderinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The variables must be controlled, but Acetone WORKS! .
  • Can acetone dramatically increase your gas mileage? | Wise Bread 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.wisebread.com [Source type: General]

[17]
• EPA EPCRA Delisting (1995). .EPA removed acetone from the list of “toxic chemicals” maintained under Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA).^ Acetone is a common Household Toxic Chemical .

^ You do know that acetone is a solvent , right?
  • Ghetto Dry ice / acetone chiller on x1800xt... - [H]ard|Forum 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC hardforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Table 1 lists the sections of the DOT and EPA codes applicable to labeling and marking.
  • Dot Labels, Hazmat Labels, Hazmat Placards and Hazardous Waste Labels 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.shippinglabels.com [Source type: Reference]

In making that decision, EPA conducted an extensive review of the available toxicity data on acetone and found that acetone “exhibits acute toxicity only at levels that greatly exceed releases and resultant exposures,” and further that acetone “exhibits low toxicity in chronic studies.”
• Genotoxicity. .Acetone has been tested in more than two dozen in vitro and in vivo assays.^ Isopropanol was more potent than acetone.

^ Industrial processes contribute more acetone to the environment than natural processes.

^ You can make cheaper gas with more butane (heavier than acetone) but can’t add more and still make the vapor pressure requirements.
  • Nobrainer’s Think Tank » Acetone in Gasoline - BUSTED! 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC neubranderinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These studies indicate that acetone is not genotoxic.^ Thus, in evaluating oral studies of the effects of acetone, the data indicated that changes occurred in the liver.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of rats indicate that orally administered acetone is extensively absorbed, whereas during inhalation exposures humans absorb approximately 50% of the amount of inhaled acetone.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no indications that acetone interacts with other chemicals to alter their genotoxic potential (ATSDR, 1994).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

• Carcinogenicity. .EPA in 1995 concluded, “There is currently no evidence to suggest a concern for carcinogenicity.”(EPCRA Review, described in Section 3.3).^ After 24 h there was no evidence of irritation.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In cultured Syrian hamster embryonic cells, there was no evidence of cellular transformation when the cells were cultured in the presence of 0.02% acetone (DiPaolo et al., 1969).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carcinogenicity There are no studies available on the carcinogenicity of acetone by either inhalation or oral dosing.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

NTP scientists have recommended against chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity testing of acetone because “the prechronic studies only demonstrated a very mild toxic response at very high doses in rodents.”
• Neurotoxicity and Developmental Neurotoxicity. .The neurotoxic potential of both acetone and isopropanol, the metabolic precursor of acetone, have been extensively studied.^ In spite of this chronic admin, there was no enhancement of acetone metabolism to isopropanol.

^ Studies of rats indicate that orally administered acetone is extensively absorbed, whereas during inhalation exposures humans absorb approximately 50% of the amount of inhaled acetone.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both research groups found that ketones are weak producers of ozone, with acetone having one of the lowest ozone formation potentials.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.These studies demonstrate that although exposure to high doses of acetone may cause transient central nervous system effects, acetone is not a neurotoxicant.A guideline developmental neurotoxicity study has been conducted with isopropanol, and no developmental neurotoxic effects were identified, even at the highest dose tested.^ It may have no effect.
  • Acetone in Gas tank? [Archive] - The macosxhints Forums 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC forums.macosxhints.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No effects in my testing.
  • Nobrainer’s Think Tank » Acetone in Gasoline - BUSTED! 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC neubranderinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specific developmental abnormalities in central nervous system and musculoskeletal system.
  • http://www.sensorschemical.com/html_content/vapors.html 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.sensorschemical.com [Source type: Academic]

(SIAR, pp. 1, 25, 31).
• Environmental. .When the EPA exempted acetone from regulation as a volatile organic compound (VOC) in 1995, EPA stated that this exemption would “contribute to the achievement of several important environmental goals and would support EPA’s pollution prevention efforts.” 60 Fed.^ Hodgson AT, Wooley JD, & Daisey JM (1993) Emissions of volatile organic compounds from new carpets measured in a large-scale environmental chamber.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Benkelberg H-J, Hamm S, & Warneck P (1995) Henry's law coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetone, aldehyde and acetonitrile and equilibrium constants for the additional compounds and acetaldehyde with bisulfite.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jungclaus GA, Lopez-Avila V, & Hites RA (1976) Organic compounds in an industrial waste water: A case study of their environmental impact.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Reg. 31,634 (June 16, 1995). 60 Fed. Reg. 31,634 (June 16, 1995). .EPA noted that acetone could be used “as a substitute for several compounds that are listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAP) under section 112 of the [Clean Air] Act.^ As Table 1 indicates, most of the compounds tested are as potent or more potent than acetone, which has an ED 50 of 16 mmol/kg using the methods described herein.
  • METHOD FOR TREATING NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS USING ACETONE DERIVATIVES - Patent application 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These standards implement Section 111 of the Clean Air Act and are based on the Administrator's determination that emissions from the SOCMI cause, or contribute significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.

^ Have you tested different air filters while using acetone in your gasoline?
  • Nobrainer’s Think Tank » Acetone in Gasoline - BUSTED! 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC neubranderinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Environmental effects

.Acetone evaporates rapidly, even from water and soil.^ Since acetone is miscible in water, it can leach readily in most types of soil.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Exposure to acetone results mostly from breathing air, drinking water, or coming in contact with products or soil that contain acetone.

^ Note: Acetone evaporates more rapidly than gasoline.
  • Directory:Acetone Additive:FAQ - PESWiki 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once in the atmosphere, it is degraded by UV light with a 22-day half-life.^ The average half-life for acetone degradation in the atmosphere is approximately 30 days.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vapor-phase acetone is degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemically-produced hydroxyl radicals with an estimated atmospheric half-life of 71 days.

^ This corresponds to a half-life of about 80 days(2).

.Acetone dissipates slowly in soil, animals, or waterways since it is sometimes consumed by microorganisms,[18] but it is a significant groundwater contaminant due to its high solubility in water.^ Since acetone is weakly sorbed to soil, the volatility depends primarily on fire moisture content of the soil.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since acetone is miscible in water, it can leach readily in most types of soil.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The high water solubility and low K oc value for acetone suggest that bioavailability from ingested soil (e.g., children playing at or near contaminated sites) will be high, but, again, quantitative absorption data are lacking.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The LD50 of acetone for fish is 8.3 g/l of water (or about 0.8%) over 96 hours, and its environmental half-life is about 1 to 10 days.^ Q. What about acetone emulsifying water?
  • Directory:Acetone Additive:FAQ - PESWiki 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC peswiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been using acetone (2oz/10 US Gal)in my 97 Ford Escort for about a year and it works well in my car.
  • » How to Boost Your Gas Mileage with Acetone » Blog Archive  Alice Hill’s Real Tech News - Independent Tech 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.realtechnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Assuming the hydroxyl radical concentration in brightly sunlit natural water is 1.0 10 -17 mol/litre, the half-life for the reaction is almost 20 years.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acetone may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic systems due to the microbial activity consuming it.^ Because of its high water solubility and low sediment adsorption coefficient, acetone in an aquatic system is predominantly found in water, rather than in sediment.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dermal exposure to acetone may result from skin contact with consumer products (e.g., certain nail polish removers, paint removers, and household cleaning and waxing products).
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The spectra suggest significant elevation of brain acetone due to the ketogenic diet.
  • METHOD FOR TREATING NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS USING ACETONE DERIVATIVES - Patent application 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Acetone peroxide

.When oxidized, acetone forms acetone peroxide as a byproduct, which is a highly unstable compound.^ In the peroxidation process, cumene is oxidized to hydroperoxide, which is cleaved to yield acetone and phenol.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

It may be formed accidentally, e.g. when waste .hydrogen peroxide is poured into waste solvent containing acetone.^ Because of the low POCP, acetone has been suggested as a potential substitute for high POCP aromatic hydrocarbons or the chlorine-containing solvents.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Uses and emissions into the environment Acetone is used mainly as a solvent and intermediate in chemical production.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources of acetone release into soil include disposal of agricultural and food waste, animal wastes, and atmospheric wet deposition.
  • Acetone (EHC 207, 1998) 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acetone peroxide is more than ten times as sensitive to friction and shock as nitroglycerin.^ Isopropanol was more potent than acetone.

^ This mechanism is more important than residence time for the six generations nearest the alveoli.
  • Measuring airway exchange of endogenous acetone using a single-exhalation breathing maneuver -- Anderson et al. 100 (3): 880 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 10 February 2010 10:46 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Industrial processes contribute more acetone to the environment than natural processes.

Due to its instability, it is rarely used, despite its easy chemical synthesis.

References

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 58.
  2. ^ a b c d Stylianos Sifniades, Alan B. Levy, “Acetone” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.
  3. ^ NALGENE Labware - Technical Data
  4. ^ Weiner, Myra L.; Lois A. Kotkoskie (1999). Excipient Toxicity and Safety. pp. 32. ISBN 0824782100, 9780824782108. 
  5. ^ Inactive Ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products, FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
  6. ^ Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) - Safety Hazard Information - Special Hazards of Acetylene
  7. ^ History - Acetylene dissolved in acetone
  8. ^ A. Lozano, B. Yip and R. K. Hanson (1992). "Acetone: a tracer for concentration measurements in gaseous flows by planar laser-induced fluorescence". Exp. Fluids 13: 369–376. doi:10.1007/BF00223244. 
  9. ^ Louis LaPonte (2007-02-13). "Acetone in Fuels (A Study of Dimethylketone or Propanone)". Smartgas.net. http://www.brightgreen.us/lubedev/smartgas/additive.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  10. ^ Tom and Ray Magliozzi (2006-01-21). "Click and Clack Talk Cars". Independent Record. http://www.helenair.com/articles/2006/01/21/automotive/c01012106_03.txt. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  11. ^ "Can adding Acetone to fuel increase mpg by 15 to 35%?". Snopes.com Message Board. http://msgboard.snopes.com/message/ultimatebb.php?/ubb/get_topic/f/20/t/000594/p/1.html. Retrieved 2007-06-06. 
  12. ^ MythBusters (Season 4, Episode 53)
  13. ^ Acetone MSDS
  14. ^ Basic Information on Acetone
  15. ^ Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. "Health Effects of Acetone". http://ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/chem_profiles/acetone/health_ace.html. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  16. ^ Safety (MSDS) data for propanone
  17. ^ a b Likhodii SS, Serbanescu I, Cortez MA, Murphy P, Snead OC 3rd, Burnham WM (2003). "Anticonvulsant properties of acetone, a brain ketone elevated by the ketogenic diet". Ann Neurol. 54 (2): 219–226. doi:10.1002/ana.10634. 
  18. ^ Acetone, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ToxFAQs, 1995
  19. ^ Safety Data Sheet Acetone

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