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هخامنشیان
Hakhâmaneshiyân
Achaemenid Empire

 

ca. 550 BC–330 BC
 

.Standard of Cyrus the Great.^ ({{Information |Description={{en|1=Standard of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
  • File:Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg - Wikimedia Commons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ File:Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg .
  • File:Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg - Wikimedia Commons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg English: Standard of Cyrus the Great , founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
  • File:Standard of Cyrus the Great (Achaemenid Empire).svg - Wikimedia Commons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

Achaemenid Empire around 500 BC shortly before its greatest extent under Emperor Darius the Great (without the conquest of Punjab).
Capital Pasargadae, Ecbatana, Persepolis, Susa, Babylon
Language(s) Old Persian, Imperial Aramaic, Elamite, Akkadian
Religion Zoroastrianism
Government Monarchy
King
 - 559 BCE–529 BC Cyrus II the Great
Darius I the Great
 - 336 BCE–330 BC Darius III
Historical era Ancient history
 - Established ca. 550 BC
 - Construction starts at Persepolis 515 BC
 - Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses II 525 BC
 - Greco-Persian Wars 498–448 BC
 - Conquered during Wars of Alexander the Great 330 BC
 - Darius III is killed by Bessus 330 BC
Currency Daric and Siglos
Faravahar background
History of Greater Iran
| until the rise of modern nation-states |
See also
Kings of Persia
Pre-modern
.The Achaemenid Empire (ca.^ B.C. ; The area that is present-day Afghanistan comprised several ;   satrapies (provinces) of the Achaemenid Empire at its most ; extensive under Darius the Great (ca.
  • Afghanistan country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC galvin.iit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The area that is present-day Afghanistan comprised several satrapies (provinces) of the Achaemenid Empire when it was at its most extensive, under Darius the Great (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.550–330 BC), also known as the Persian Empire, was the successor state of the Median Empire, ruling over significant portions of what would become Greater Iran.^ BC) and the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire .
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 BC) was the largest empire of the ancient world.
  • Naomi - New CultureSurfer videos for November 17, 2008 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran, and followed the Median Empire as the second great empire of the Iranian Peoples.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Persian and the Median Empire taken together are also known as the Medo-Persian Empire, which encompassed the combined territories of several earlier empires.^ Also that territories have always been parts of persian empire.
  • Iran Politics Club Forum :: View topic - A Vision for Iran of tomorrow: Nationalism 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What institutions held the Persian Empire together?
  • History 601c: Syllabus 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If so, then what was the connection between the Median Empire and the Persian Empire.
  • Astarjian: Our Friends, Our Foes: The Kurds | Armenian Weekly 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the height of its power, the empire encompassed approximately 8 million km2.^ At the height of its power, the Achaemenid Empire encompassed approximately 7.5 million square kilometers and was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of its power, the Achaemenid Empire encompassed approximately 6.5 million square kilometers and territorially exceeded Rome as the largest empire of classical antiquity .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main articles: Turkic migration , History of the Turkish people , Seljuk Empire , and Ottoman Empire File:OttomanEmpireIn1683.png The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca.
  • Ottoman Empire - Kosova Wiki 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC kosova.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .The empire was forged by Cyrus the Great, and spanned three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.^ [Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Persian Empire.
  • Ask A Word 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His empire spanned across three continents.
  • Top 10 Most Successful Military Commanders - Listverse 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aryans yielded in turn to the armies of Cyrus the Great, and the Indus region became a part of his Achaemenid Persian empire.
  • Pakistan Cultural Tours, Harappa, Kalash, Lahore, Karachi, Historical Places 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.karakorumadventure.com [Source type: General]

.At its greatest extent, the empire included the territories of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya.^ The conquered lands included ; Asia Minor, Assyria, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Media, Persia, and parts of ; modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the steppes of central Asia.
  • WHistory Units1 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Established by the Cyrus the great, the writer of the first human right declaration, Persians ruled over significant portions of Greater Iran, the east modern Afghanistan and beyond into central Asia; in the north and west all of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), the upper Balkans peninsula (Thrace), and most of the Black Sea coastal regions; in the west and southwest the territories of modern Iraq, northern Saudi-Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, all significant population centers of ancient Egypt and as far west as portions of Libya.
  • 300 Review 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.forevergeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 300 Review 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.forevergeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 300 | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had moved close to Iran, Pakistan and Egypt (after Sadat had reconciled with Israel).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states during the Greco-Persian Wars, for emancipation of slaves including the Jews from their Babylonian captivity, and for instituting the usage of official languages throughout its territories.^ Then he advanced on the Greek city-states, including Athens.

^ Shi'a Islam is the official state religion and Persian the official language.
  • Ask A Word 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-Persian Wars, for freeing the Israelites from their Babylonian captivity, and for instituting Aramaic as the empire's official language.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Achaemenid Persian empire was invaded by Alexander III of Macedon, after which it collapsed and disintegrated in 330 BC into what later became the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence after its collapse.^ Egypt again became the province of an empire, as it had been under the Persians and briefly under Alexander.
  • Egypt.... :: Egypt from Egyptians Point of View :: Care2 Groups 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of her territory became independent kingdoms.
  • Great rulers of the ancient world? [Archive] - RPGnet Forums 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC forum.rpg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Minor after the destruction of the Persian i empire by Alexander.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.In universal history the role of the Persian empire founded by Cyrus the Great lies in their very successful model for centralized administration and a government working to the advantage and profit of all.^ Cyrus the Persian was the greatest conqueror in the history of the .
  • The Persians 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus was the founder of the Mede-Persian Empire.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Olmstead, History of Persian Empire , pp.
  • History 601c: Syllabus 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

History

Origins

.The Persian domination by the Achaemenid empire over the Iranian people started by an extension of the Achaemenid dynasty who expanded their earlier ruling clan over the Persians going, possibly, back to the 9th century BC. The eponym of this dynasty was Achaemenes (Old Persian: Haxāmaniš, a bahuvrihi compound translating to "having a friend's mind").^ BC) and the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire .
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The founder of this dynasty was supposedly Achaemenes : هخامنش (Old Persian Haxāmaniš "Of Friendly Mind").
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ACHAEMENID DYNASTY, ruled ca.
  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY, ruled ca. 700 to 330 B.C. 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Achaemenes even if he was a historical personage, may have built the state Parsumash.^ The other is even briefer: 'This palace of stone, with its columns, Daraya vahu the Great King built; may Ahuramazda, with the gods, protect Darayavahu the King'.
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the State that matters and that directs the acts of persons, irrespective of the fact that it may cause them to be blamed for cowardice or even worse in future centuries.
  • Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.03.10 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bmcr.brynmawr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even so, the Pallava Empire was the largest South Asian state of its age, and served as the model for future pan-Dravidian empires such as that built by the Cholas.
  • History of Iran: India's Parthian Colony 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Teispes (Cišpi) who was the first to take the title King of Anšān after seizing Anšān city from the Elamites and enlarging his kingdom to include Persis.^ Usually the king’s title is enlarged: 1.
  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY, ruled ca. 700 to 330 B.C. 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was succeeded by his son Teispes ( Cišpi ), who first took the title King of Anšān after seizing Anšān city from the Elamites .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the first Parthian king to assume the title of "King of Kings".
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] .The early Teispid rulers of Achaemenids, consistently identified themselves with the indigenous name of Elamite highlands, Anshanite.^ By identifying himself with both the legendary Macedonian general and the ancient Persian Achaemenid dynasty, Mithridates advanced his political agenda as the predestined ruler of Commagene.
  • Anatolian Fortnight: Megalomaniacs and Prophets, Part 1 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC edwebproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early modern period several English plays were written on the Achaemenid kings, namely Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes and Cambyses.
  • http://www.iranheritage.org/achaemenidconference/abstracts_full.htm 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seti I named him co-ruler early in his life.
  • Timeline 1300 to 500BCE 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, there is no mention of Achaemenes in genealogy of Teispids, in Cyrus Cylender.^ And there is no mention of american products.
  • ; Economist Debates: Brand America: Statements (Printer Version) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am no expert on the history of this story but there is an actual tomb for Esther and Mordecai as I mention above and some of our own forumers have been there...
  • Persepolis - پارسه - Parsa [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: General]

^ The evacuation and the concentration on war at sea In the first part there is no mention of'the Hellenes'.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] According to Cyrus Cylinder[6] and other inscriptions, Teispes had a son called Cyrus succeeding his father as "King of Anshan".
.There are no arguments[7] in favor of the previously held view that the kingdom of Teispes may have been divided between Cyrus and his brother Ariaramnes (Ariyāramna, 'Having the Iranians at Peace'),[8] who were succeeded by their respective sons Cambyses I of Anshan (Kambūjiya, "the Elder"), and Arsames (Aršāma "Having a Hero's Might") of Persis, thus forming two branches of the Achaemenid royal house.^ Darius was a member of the Achaemenid royal house.
  • .Old Persian (Aryan) - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)© 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC flh.tmu.ac.ir [Source type: Original source]

^ Teispes was a diplomat and avoided the imbroglios of the great powers, but when he died, he divided his kingdom between his two sons.
  • How Persia Created Judaism: The Rise of Persia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askwhy.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no hiding their racist views.
  • History News Network 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

Formation and expansion of the empire

The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire in Iran.
The Cyrus cylinder, a contemporary cuneiform script proclaiming Cyrus as legitimate king of Babylon.
.The empire took its unified virgin form with a central administration around Pasargadae erected by Cyrus the Great.^ [Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Persian Empire.
  • Ask A Word 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aryans yielded in turn to the armies of Cyrus the Great, and the Indus region became a part of his Achaemenid Persian empire.
  • Pakistan Cultural Tours, Harappa, Kalash, Lahore, Karachi, Historical Places 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.karakorumadventure.com [Source type: General]

^ The ancient Iranian Empire was founded when Cyrus the Great united the Persians with neighboring peoples and then defeated the great rival empires of Lydia and Babylon in the mid-6th century, B.C..
  • http://projects.publicintegrity.org/iranintelligence/Iran%20(D)/html/iran/Persian/Cultural%20Narratives%20and%20Symbolic%20Eras.html 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC projects.publicintegrity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The empire ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include in addition Egypt and Asia Minor.^ [NP] The empire began as a tributary state of the Medes but ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include Egypt and Asia Minor.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The empire began as a tributary state of the Medes but ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include Egypt and Asia Minor .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persian ; empire, whose kings left these inscriptions, had stretched from India and Central Asia to Greece ; and Egypt, dwarfing the ferocious Assyrian and Babylonian empires.
  • pErsEpolis FortiFicatioN archivE projEct 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC oi.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the reigns of Darius I and his son Xerxes I it engaged in military conflict with some of the major city-states of Ancient Greece, and although it came close to defeating the Greek army this war ultimately led to the empire's overthrow.^ Under Xerxes , it came very close to conquering Ancient Greece .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The city is also home to a major military academy.

^ He was focused on conquering the city states of Greece during his reign as king.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However evidences of elements of continuity including restoration of the empire almost to the exact limits given to it by Darius the Great and the maintenance of system of satrapies has made some modern scholars to reconsider Alexander as the “last of the Achaemenids“.^ Almost all modern nations have had ; some element of imperialism in their pasts.

^ The Achaemenid Empire was now in Alexander's hands.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • yawiki.org entry for Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC yawiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander the Great conquers Achaemenid Persia .
  • persian timeline 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC spartan-world.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.In 559 BC, Cambyses I the Elder was succeeded as king of Anšān by his son Cyrus II the Great, who also succeeded the still-living Arsames as King of Persia, thus reuniting the two realms.^ I am Darius, the great king, king of kings, the king of Persia, the king of countries, the son of Hystaspes, the grandson of Arsames, the Achaemenid.
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ BC Darius the Great (558-486), son of Hystaspes, succeeded Cambyses as emperor of Persia.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyrus king of Persia".
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.Cyrus is considered to be the first true king of the Persian empire, as his predecessors were subservient to Media.^ Cyrus was the founder of the Mede-Persian Empire.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Persian Empire.
  • Ask A Word 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyrus was the founder of the Persian (Achaemenid) Empire.

.Cyrus II conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon.^ Cyrus II conquered Media, Lydia , and Babylon .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus II of Persia conquers Babylon .
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ancient Iranian Empire was founded when Cyrus the Great united the Persians with neighboring peoples and then defeated the great rival empires of Lydia and Babylon in the mid-6th century, B.C..
  • http://projects.publicintegrity.org/iranintelligence/Iran%20(D)/html/iran/Persian/Cultural%20Narratives%20and%20Symbolic%20Eras.html 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC projects.publicintegrity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cyrus was politically shrewd, modeling himself as the "savior" of conquered nations.^ Cyrus was politically shrewd, modeling himself as the "savior" of conquered nations.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus entered; Babylon and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch, restoring; temples and releasing political prisoners.
  • Eurasia / Central Asia: Afghanistan: pre-history, pre-Islamic, and Islamic periods up to the 18th century 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.mythinglinks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BCE Cyrus conquers Babylon - and allows exiled leaders of the subject nations to return home .
  • Thunderation - TimeLine 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC thunderation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To reinforce this image, he instituted policies of religious freedom, and restored temples and other infrastructure in the newly acquired cities.^ The city was pillaged and trashed, but before that came to pass, the idol of Nania was preserved and restored to the temple of Erech.

^ Temples were cleaned and repaired, new images made, priests appointed, and endowments restored.
  • Egypt.... :: Egypt from Egyptians Point of View :: Care2 Groups 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greeks brought their temples, their theatres and schools to other cities, thus exporting their culture and Greek culture became a way of life.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.(Most notably the Jews of Babylon, as recorded in the Cyrus Cylinder and the Tanakh).^ (Most notably the Jews of Babylon, as recorded in the Cyrus Cylinder and the Tanakh ).
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Babylonian exile lasted until 538 BCE when the Persian king Cyrus the ; Great captured Babylon and permitted the Jews to return.
  • ASIAN-AMERICAN BASELINE ESSAY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pps.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cylinder became material evidence to the historical existence of ‘Cyrus the Persian’ and fall of Babylon that was mentioned in Hebrew Bible.
  • I am Kuruš 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pavasta.com [Source type: Original source]

.His immediate successors were less successful.^ His immediate successors were less successful.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His successors were less successful.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cyrus' son Cambyses II conquered Egypt, but died in July 522 BC as the result of either accident or suicide, during a revolt led by a sacerdotal clan that had lost its power following Cyrus' conquest of Media.^ Cyrus II conquered Media, Lydia , and Babylon .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cambyses , Son of Cyrus the Great, continued his conquests by conquering Egypt .
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the death of Cyrus the Great, the empire passed to his son, Cambyses II (reigned 529–522 bc ).
  • ancient Iran :: The Achaemenian dynasty -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These priests, whom Herodotus called Magi, usurped the throne for one of their own, Gaumata, who then pretended to be Cambyses II's younger brother Smerdis (Pers.^ During his absence, a Magian, Gaumata, who pretended to be Smerdis (Bardiya), Cambyses' murdered brother, seized the throne.
  • NETBible: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus's unstable son, Cambyses II, conquered Egypt but later committed suicide during a revolt led by a priest, Gaumata, who usurped the throne until overthrown in 522 by a member of a lateral branch of the Achaemenid family, Darius I (also known as Darayarahush or Darius the Great).
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Cambyses was in Egypt, during the last year of his reign, a certain Gaumata usurped the throne by pretending to be Bardiya, Cambyses’ brother, who had been assassinated secretly before Cambyses started out for his Egyptian campaign in 525 BCE. When Cambyses learned of this usurpation he immediately set out for Persia, but on the way, while in Syria, he died in July, 522 BCE, as the result of either an accident or suicide, leaving no heir.
  • Persia Older Than History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC persian.blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bardiya), who had been assassinated some three years earlier.^ Bardiya ), who had been assassinated some three years earlier.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MANASSEH ness was the prophet Isaiah, now bent with the I weight of years, who had in his earlier daysj protested with equal courage against the crimes!
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a meteor and transformer of history, who created the Hellenistic world through which the Gospel of Jesus Christ spread three hundred years later.” .
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Perses, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herodotus iii.^ All other people.
  • Daily Kos: How Many Here Believe He Is Risen? 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But for eight long years previously usurpers had ruled.
  • Payvand News Of Iran - Archive 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.payvand.com [Source type: News]

^ Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Perses, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herodotus iii.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

68).
.The claim that Gaumata had impersonated Smerdis, is derived from Darius.^ It is important to note that the claim that Gaumata had impersonated Smerdis, is derived from Darius.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius defended this deed and his own assumption of kingship on the grounds that the usurper was actually Gaumata, a Magian, who had impersonated Bardiya after Bardiya had been murdered secretly by Cambyses.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Timeline 1300 to 500BCE 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historians are divided over the possibility that the story of the impostor was invented by Darius as justification for his coup [2].^ Historians are divided over the possibility that the story of the impostor was invented by Darius as justification for his coup Darius made a similar claim when he later captured Babylon, announcing that the Babylonian king was not, in fact, Nebuchadnezzar III, but an impostor named Nidintu-bel.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

Dr. Ranajit Pal holds that Gaumata was the same as Gotama Buddha. In his view, Davadatta, the adversary of Gotama was Zoroaster.[10] .Darius made a similar claim when he later captured Babylon, announcing that the Babylonian king was not, in fact, Nebuchadnezzar III, but an impostor named Nidintu-bel.^ Historians are divided over the possibility that the story of the impostor was invented by Darius as justification for his coup Darius made a similar claim when he later captured Babylon, announcing that the Babylonian king was not, in fact, Nebuchadnezzar III, but an impostor named Nidintu-bel.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian; he lied; thus he said: I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander, king of the world, came into Babylon [lacuna], horses and equipment of [lacuna] and the Babylonians and the people of [lacuna] a message to [end of tablet] .
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

[3]
.According to the Behistun Inscription, pseudo-Smerdis ruled for seven months before being overthrown in 522 BCE by a member of a lateral branch of the Achaemenid family, Darius I (Old Persian Dāryavuš "Who Holds Firm the Good", also known as Darayarahush or Darius the Great).^ Pseudo Smerdis, the imposter, ruled for several months.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius was a member of the Achaemenid royal house.
  • .Old Persian (Aryan) - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)© 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC flh.tmu.ac.ir [Source type: Original source]

^ Persians, before being over-run.
  • Frank Miller's 300 Trailer! « FirstShowing.net 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.firstshowing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Magi, though persecuted, continued to exist, and a year following the death of the first pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), had a second pseudo-Smerdis (named Vahyazdāta) attempt a coup.^ The death of the leader was followed by the persecution of his disciples.
  • The Seven Great Monarchies, by George Rawlinson, The Seventh Monarchy, Part A. 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was in the first or second year of his reign.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Magi, though persecuted, continued to exist, and a year following the death of the first pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), had a second pseudo-Smerdis (named Vahyazdāta) attempt a coup.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.The coup, though initially successful, failed.^ The coup, though initially successful, failed.

^ However, Athens overextended itself in these ventures that, after initial successes, both failed miserably.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.Herodotus writes[11] that the native leadership debated the best form of government for the Empire.^ Main articles: Government of Pakistan and Politics of Pakistan The Muslim League formed Pakistan's first government under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan .
  • Notes of Pakistan Studies ---by:Fysisoft      I             NotesBank              I          Online student Mag              I             Software House                   I 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC fysisoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persia's system ; of government was a primitive and elementary form of A Democratic ; Federal Empire !
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, native entities have invaded or conquered surrounding regions in Iranian Plateau and Indian Subcontinent to form empires of their own.
  • Afghanistan - Information Overload Unit MARK 3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC overload.ath.cx [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was agreed upon that a oligarchy would divide them against one another, and democracy would bring about mob rule resulting in a charismatic leader resuming the monarchy.^ This would have one of two results.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He reports that it was decided that oligarchy would divide them against one another, and democracy would bring about mob rule resulting in a charismatic leader resuming the monarchy.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the constitutional revolution, like minded Azerbaijanis, Persians, Bakhtiyaris, and Gilanis fought alongside one another against …the absolute arbitrary power of the monarchy…their objective was not to divide this power (of Law and government) among the different ethnic groupings in the country in order to establish separate independent states based on ethnic identity .
  • Kaveh Farrokh » 2009 » August 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.kavehfarrokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, they decided a new monarch was in order, particularly since they were in a position to choose him.^ They reject Him, therefore they reject God.
  • Thinking Christian: Inherently Evil 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, they decided a new monarch was in order, particularly since they were in a position to choose him.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They impose a duty upon man, and enjoin on him a positive line of actiona definite activity in the world.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

.Darius I was chosen monarch from among the leaders.^ Darius I was chosen monarch from among the leaders.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was cousin to Cambyses II and Smerdis, claiming Ariaramnes as his ancestor.^ He was cousin to Cambyses II and Smerdis, claiming Ariaramnes as his ancestor.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus, in order to have unchallenged power, but when Cambyses was absent on a successful raid into Egypt, an imposter claiming to be Smerdis appeared, and usurped the throne.

^ Cambyses II, son of Cyrus, did away with Smerdis Smerdis (smûr`dĭs) , d.

.The Achaemenids thereafter consolidated areas firmly under their control.^ The Achaemenids thereafter consolidated areas firmly under their control.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What things develop in my anger, I hold firmly under control by my thinking power.
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ B.C. ; The area that is present-day Afghanistan comprised several ;   satrapies (provinces) of the Achaemenid Empire at its most ; extensive under Darius the Great (ca.
  • Afghanistan country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC galvin.iit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It was Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant military maneuvering, and a humanistic world view, established the greatness of the Achaemenids and, in less than thirty years, raised them from an obscure tribe to a world power.^ It was Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant military maneuvering, and a humanistic world view, established the greatness of the Achaemenids and, in less than thirty years, raised them from an obscure tribe to a world power.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was ; Cyrus and Darius who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant ; military maneuvering, and a humanistic worldview, established the greatness of ; the Achaemenids and in less than thirty years raised them from an obscure tribe ; to a world power.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius I the Great was the third Achaemenid king of kings (r.
  • DARIUS I THE GREAT - (CAIS) © 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.cais-soas.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was during the reign of Darius I that Persepolis was built (518–516 BC) and which would serve as capital for several generations of Achaemenid kings.^ It was during the reign of Darius I that Persepolis was built ( 518 – 516 BCE ) and which would serve as capital for several generations of Achaemenid kings.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius I the Great was the third Achaemenid king of kings (r.
  • DARIUS I THE GREAT - (CAIS) © 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.cais-soas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Persepolis - its ancient name was Parsa to ancient Persians, its modern name is Takht-e Jamshid, (Persian: Throne of Jamshid), to Iranians it was the capital of the Achaemenid kings of Iran (Persia).
  • Iran - Palace of Darius and part of columns of The Great Palace of Xerxes in Persepolis Reflected on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ecbatana (Hagmatāna "City of Gatherings", modern Hamadan) in Media was greatly expanded during this period and served as the summer capital.^ The Median capital was Ecbatana , the modern day Iranian city of Hamedan .
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ecbatana ( Hagmatāna "City of Gatherings", modern Hamadan ) in Media was greatly expanded during this period and served as the summer capital.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Capitals The Persian empire possessed five capital cities by the time of Darius I. Susa -- the old capital of Elam Babylon -- the administrative centre of Mesopotamia Pasargadae -- founded by Cyrus, used for coronations Ecbatana -- capital of the former Media, used as a summer retreat Persepolis -- built by Darius The Persian Empire Communications Communication was the backbone of the empire and thus roads were a necessity.

.Darius I attacked the Greek mainland, which had supported rebellious Greek colonies under his aegis; but as a result of his defeat at the Battle of Marathon, he was forced to pull the limits of his empire back to Asia Minor.^ Darius I attacked the Greek mainland, which had supported rebellious Greek colonies under his aegis; but as a result of his defeat at the Battle of Marathon in 490, he was forced to pull the limits of his empire back to Asia Minor .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is decisively defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a force of Greeks under Miltiades.
  • Kingdoms of Persia - Persia 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.historyfiles.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius attacked the Greek mainland, which had supported rebellious Greek colonies under his aegis, but as a result of his defeat at the Battle of Marathon in 490 was forced to retract the limits of the empire to Asia Minor.
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Greco-Persian Wars

.
Persian warriors, possibly Immortals, a frieze in Darius's palace at Susa.
^ The major capital of Susa surrendered to the Greeks without resisting, and the immense treasure accumulated by the Persian empire was found in the palace.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brick panel from ; Darius' palace in Susa (Louvre Museum, Sb 3324).
  • THE FORMATION OF ACHAEMENID IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ‎AVESTA 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.soudavar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Datis' defeat at Marathon Darius resolved to lead a punitive expedition in person, but another revolt in Egypt (possibly led by the Persian satrap; Bresciani, p.
  • DARIUS I THE GREAT - (CAIS) © 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.cais-soas.com [Source type: Academic]

Silicious glazed bricks, 510 BC, Louvre.
.Nonetheless, by the 5th century BC the kings of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Bulgaria, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Caucasia, many parts of Greece, parts of Central Asia, Libya and northern parts of Arabia.^ He had moved close to Iran, Pakistan and Egypt (after Sadat had reconciled with Israel).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From then on, the Mede king ruled over much of Iran , Assyria and northern Mesopotamia , Armenia and Cappadocia .
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC-970 King David, the 2nd King of Israel, ruled.
  • Timeline 1300 to 500BCE 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually by 480 BC the Achaemenids went on to hold the greatest percentage of world population for an empire,[12][13] and became the largest empire in ancient history.^ The Mongol Empire was the largest connected empire in world history.
  • What is the greatest empire to ever live? by Austen Haynes « History World 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC historyworld.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC) and the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire .
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The empire of ancient Rome is considered by some to be the greatest empire in history.
  • WebLessons: Teaching Social Studies and Science with Online Lessons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.weblessons.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Ionian Revolt in 499 BC, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras.^ Persian-Greek Wars Continues on …… ; Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC) .
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC) .
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps partly in response to these developments or perhaps for more purely internal reasons, the Ionian Greek cities on the west coast of Asia Minor revolted against Persian rule in 500 bc .
  • ancient Iran :: The Achaemenian dynasty -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 499 BC the then tyrant of Miletus, Aristagoras, launched a joint expedition with the Persian satrap Artaphernes to conquer Naxos, in an attempt to bolster his position in Miletus (both financially and in terms of prestige).^ When the Romans, in the last two centuries BC conquered the eastern part of the Mediterranean world, they made no attempt to suppress the Greek language.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Persian-Greek Wars Continues on …… ; Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC) .
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristagoras himself laid down his tyranny and proclaimed isonomia, 'equality of rights', at Miletus: there followed a general expulsion of tyrants in the area.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mission was a debacle, and sensing his imminent removal as tyrant, Aristagoras chose to incite the whole of Ionia into rebellion against the Persian king Darius the Great.^ Darius I the Great was the third Achaemenid king of kings (r.
  • DARIUS I THE GREAT - (CAIS) © 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.cais-soas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The above scripture is one of most valid written evidences of the history of the Aryan race, and as can be seen, Darius the Great , the third king of Kings of the Achaemenid dynasty , in the 5th century BC, declares himself a Persian and form the Aryan race.
  • رادیو بین المللی فرانسه: این نژاد آریائی، تعریفش چیست؟ | Iranian.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranian.com [Source type: General]

^ Xerxes I (485–465 BCE, Old Persian Xšayārša "Hero Among Kings"), son of Darius I , organised a massive expedition aiming to conquer Greece .
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Persians continued to reduce the cities along the west coast that still held out against them, before finally imposing a peace settlement in 493 BC on Ionia that was generally considered to be both just and fair.^ Continual bombing had reduced their cities to rubble.
  • WebLessons: Teaching Social Studies and Science with Online Lessons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.weblessons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Persian-Greek Wars Continues on …… ; Persian-Greek Wars (499 BC - 479 BC) .
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ GREECE BEFORE THE PERSIAN INVASION I. SPARTA AND THE PELOPONNESI AN LEAGUE In the rest of Greece some city states and their leaders may still have believed that the Persians would be no more marine-minded than the Lydians.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ionian Revolt constituted the first major conflict between Greece and the Achaemenid Empire, and as such represents the first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars.^ Sassanids were from the province of Persis , native to the first Persian Empire , the Achaemenids.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC) and the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire .
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Greece had officially defeated the Persian Empire.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Asia Minor had been brought back into the Persian fold, but Darius had vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their support for the revolt.[67] [The Athenian support was particularly troubling to Darius since he had come to their aid during their conflict with Sparta].^ Persian offensives by land in Asia Minor.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his rule he entered into an alliance with Sparta against the Persians.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 412 Darius II (423–404 BCE), at the insistence of the able Tissaphernes, gave support then to Athens, then to Sparta, but in 407, Darius' son Cyrus the Younger was appointed to replace Tissaphernes and aid was given entirely to Sparta which finally defeated Athens in 404.
  • Achaemenid_empire encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, seeing that the political situation in Greece posed a continued threat to the stability of his Empire, he decided to embark on the conquest of all Greece.^ Main articles: Greco-Persian Wars and Peloponnesian War Athens and Sparta would soon have to become allies in the face of the largest external threat ancient Greece would see until the Roman conquest.
  • Ancient Greece Information & Ancient Greece Links at HealthHaven.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC wiki.healthhaven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the pur- poses of prayer the old division of the day into four portions was continued in the temple service, as we see from Ac.2.i5,3.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Empire, the spread of Christianity as a world religion, and the thousand years of Byzantium were all in part the consequences of Alexander's conquests.
  • Alexander the Great, Synopsys,JJP p a r t t w o 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC 1stmuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Persian forces were defeated at the Battle of Marathon.^ Persians defeated at; battles of Plataea and; Mycale .
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greeks led by Miltiades defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Persians were defeated (June 334).
  • GTP 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: Original source]

.Darius would die before launching a formal invasion of Greece.^ GREECE BEFORE THE PERSIAN INVASION I. SPARTA AND THE PELOPONNESI AN LEAGUE In the rest of Greece some city states and their leaders may still have believed that the Persians would be no more marine-minded than the Lydians.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also knew he had to launch the assault before the rainy season started in November, since this would bog him down and allow Iran to reorganize.
  • The Iran-Iraq War: Strategy of Stalemate 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There followed the Persian invasion of Greece that led to Darius’s defeat at the Battle of Marathon late in the summer of 490 bc .
  • ancient Iran :: The Achaemenian dynasty -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Xerxes I (485–465 BC, Old Persian Xšayārša "Hero Among Kings"), son of Darius I, vowed to complete the job.^ Xerxes was Darius's son.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Xerxes, son of Darius llystaspix.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The above scripture is one of most valid written evidences of the history of the Aryan race, and as can be seen, Darius the Great , the third king of Kings of the Achaemenid dynasty , in the 5th century BC, declares himself a Persian and form the Aryan race.
  • رادیو بین المللی فرانسه: این نژاد آریائی، تعریفش چیست؟ | Iranian.com 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranian.com [Source type: General]

He organised a massive invasion aiming to conquer Greece. .His army entered Greece from the north, meeting little or no resistance through Macedonia and Thessaly, but was delayed by a small Greek force for three days at Thermopylae.^ The Darius whose name you have assumed wrought utter destruction upon the Greek inhabitants of the Hellespontine coast and upon the Greek colonies of Ionia, and then crossed the sea with a mighty army, bringing the war to Macedonia and Greece" - Curtius .
  • Alexander the Great (Alexander of Macedon) Biography 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.historyofmacedonia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mossadeq resigned, three days of pro-Mossadeq rioting followed, and the shah was forced to reappoint Mossadeq to head the government.
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^ In that case, the Greeks in his force would rapidly melt away, and he would find himself no longer among friends in northern Greece.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A simultaneous naval battle at Artemisium was tactically indecisive as large storms destroyed ships from both sides.^ From the Indian side, both Sanskrit and Pali literature make frequent reference of sea-voyages, while ancient Indian paintings and sculptures often depict boats or ships.
  • India and the Greek World 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.adolphus.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ The distribution of missiles through the mound reveals the tactics of both sides.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a battle, in which Greek mercenaries fought on both sides, the Egyptian forces of Psamtik III fled to Memphis, which then fell to the Persians.
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.The battle was stopped prematurely when the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated.^ The Persians won the battle of Thermopylae and the outcome of the war since Greeks stopped their agitation and did not dare to venture into Persian territories for almost 200 years.
  • Xerxes and the Persian Army: what they REALLY looked like… « A Persian’s Perspective 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC persianperspective.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first great battle of the united Greeks against Xerxes army was at Thermopylae, a narrow pass in the north of Thessaly.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Rebellious Athenians (Greeks, that is) defeat the expansion-minded Persians (of Darius I) in this particular battle…” nenike’kamen!
  • Thunderation - TimeLine 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC thunderation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The battle was a strategic victory for the Persians, giving them uncontested control of Artemisium and Aegean Sea.^ In 480 BC, Xerxes led his sea forces to the victory in defeating Sparta in the Battle of Thermopylae.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Macedonians defeated the Persians and put them to flight and although the Greeks held their ground and fiercely fought, the battle ended in Macedonian victory.
  • Alexander the Great (Alexander of Macedon) Biography 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.historyofmacedonia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The empire of the Achaemenid Persians extended far beyond these boundaries, stretching from the Indus to the Aegean Sea and the Nile.
  • Ancient Persian Art: History, Photographs: Early Iranian Architecture, Painting, Sculpture: Susa, Persepolis 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.visual-arts-cork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following his victory at the Battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes sacked the evacuated city of Athens and prepared to meet the Greeks at the strategic Isthmus of Corinth and the Saronic Gulf.^ Xerxes led his sea and land forces against Greece in 480 B.C. , defeating the Spartans at the battle of Thermopylae and sacking Athens.
  • The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.metmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 480 BC, Xerxes led his sea forces to the victory in defeating Sparta in the Battle of Thermopylae.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This event escalated into what is known as the Greco-Persian Wars, during which Persia conquered Thrace, Macedonia, then most of the Greek mainland (Battle of Thermopylae), and razed Athens in 480BC. However Greek victories on land at Marathon and Platea and at sea at Salamis and Mycale forced Persia to withdraw.
  • WikiSlice 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 480 BCE the Greeks won a decisive victory at the Battle of Salamis and forced Xerxes to retire to Sardis.^ He is decisively defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a force of Greeks under Miltiades.
  • Kingdoms of Persia - Persia 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.historyfiles.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles won a decisive military victory.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the battle that followed, Alexander won a decisive victory.
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

.The army which he left in Greece under Mardonius retook Athens but was eventually destroyed in 479 BCE at the Battle of Plataea.^ The remnant of his army in Greece commanded by General Mardonius was ultimately defeated at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. .
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The army left behind was defeated in 479 BC at the battle of Plataea.
  • Persian Empire Presentation 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Persian army he left behind was defeated by the; Greeks at the Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C. ; .
  • Eurasia / Central Asia: Afghanistan: pre-history, pre-Islamic, and Islamic periods up to the 18th century 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.mythinglinks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final defeat of the Persians at Mycale encouraged the Greek cities of Asia to revolt, and marked the end of Persian expansion into Europe.^ Defeat of Persian armies by the Greeks .
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Greeks finally defeat Persians at Plataea .
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek cities of ; Asia had shown the way after their liberation from the Persian yoke.

The cultural phase

Achaemenid golden bowl with lion imagery.
Achaemenid gold vessels from the Oxus Treasure.
Ancient bracelet, Achaemenid period, 500 BC, Iran.
.Xerxes I was followed by Artaxerxes I (465–424 BC), who moved the capital from Persepolis to Babylon.^ Artaxerxes was the son of Xerxes who continued building at Persepolis.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The three kings that followed Xerxes on the throne— Artaxerxes I (reigned 465–425 bc ), Xerxes II (425–424), and Darius II Ochus (423–404)—were all comparatively weak as individuals and as kings, and such successes as the empire enjoyed during their reigns were mainly the result of the efforts of subordinates or of the troubles faced by their adversaries.
  • ancient Iran :: The Achaemenian dynasty -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three kings that followed Xerxes on the throne-- ; Artaxerxes I (465-425 BC), Xerxes II (425-424 BC), and Darius II Ochus ; (423-404 BC)--were all comparatively weak individuals and kings, and such ; successes as the empire enjoyed during their reigns were mainly the result ; of the efforts of subordinates or of the troubles faced by their ; adversaries.
  • .Old Persian (Aryan) - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)© 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC flh.tmu.ac.ir [Source type: Original source]

.It was during this reign that Elamite ceased to be the language of government, and Aramaic gained in importance.^ During his reign, the central government was strengthened, the coinage; was reformed, and Zoroastrianism was made the state religion....
  • Eurasia / Central Asia: Afghanistan: pre-history, pre-Islamic, and Islamic periods up to the 18th century 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.mythinglinks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter 4 bibliographic notes: ; ; The most detailed examination of the government of Iran during the first four ; years following the Revolution is Shaul Bakhash's The Reign of the Ayatollahs.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In later times the Arabic town Atra in an oasis on the west of the Tigris, governed by its own kings, gained special importance.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was probably during this reign that the solar calendar was introduced as the national calendar.^ The statue was probably made during Alexander’s reign.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Saatsoglou-Paliadeli, a professor of archaeology at the university, said the find probably dates to the 4th century B.C., during which Philip and Alexander reigned.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Niketerion_Alexander.jpg) Niketerion (victory medallion) bearing the effigy of Alexander the Great, 2nd century AD, probably minted during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.Under Artaxerxes I, Zoroastrianism became the de-facto religion of state, and for this Artaxerxes I is today also known as the Constantine of that faith.^ Zoroastrianism become the state religion.
  • The Iranian Revolution - Past, Present and Future 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zoroastrianism is an ancient religion that influenced today's most popular faiths.

^ Zoroastrianism becomes the state religion.
  • The Iranian Revolution, Past, Present and Future 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranchamber.com [Source type: Original source]

.Artaxerxes I died in Susa, and his body was brought to Persepolis for internment in the tomb of his forebears.^ Artaxerxes I died in 424, and his body, according to Ctesias, was brought from Susa to Persepolis, where it was laid in a tomb at Naqsi Rustam, beside those of Darius and Xerxes.
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar tombs are to be found above the Persepolis terrace on the slopes of Kūh-e Raḥmat (attributed to Artaxerxes II and III) and southwest of the terrace in an angle of the rock (unfinished [that of Darius III?]).
  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY, ruled ca. 700 to 330 B.C. 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander sent his body for burial with due honors in the royal tombs at Persepolis.
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

.Artaxerxes I was immediately succeeded by his eldest son Xerxes II, who was however assassinated by one of his half-brothers a few weeks later.^ His son, Abbas II ., succeeded him.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Artaxerxes died in 424 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Xerxes II, who reigned but forty-five days and was murdered by his half-brother Sogdianus.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the son of Arsames, and grandson of that Ostanes who was a brother of Artaxerxes [II Mnemon], who had been king.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.Darius II rallied support for himself and marched eastwards, executing the assassin and was crowned in his stead.^ Darius II was then in Babylon, where he succeeded in rallying support for himself.
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander was marching to confront Darius III, (grandson of Artaxerxes II, against whom Cyrus and Xenophon campaigned) who was raising an army of a million men.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Darius, the oldest son of Artaxerxes II by Queen Stateira, was executed for plotting with fifty of the king's sons by concubines to kill their father.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.From 412 Darius II (423–404 BC), at the insistence of the able Tissaphernes, gave support first to Athens, then to Sparta, but in 407 BCE, Darius' son Cyrus the Younger was appointed to replace Tissaphernes and aid was given entirely to Sparta which finally defeated Athens in 404 BCE. In the same year, Darius fell ill and died in Babylon.^ BC Artaxerxes II succeeded Darius II over Persia but was challenged Cyrus the Younger.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peloponnesian Wars (431-404): Sparta defeated Athens.
  • WHistory Units1 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BCE Cyrus succeeded by his son Cambyses .
  • Thunderation - TimeLine 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC thunderation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At his deathbed, his Babylonian wife Parysatis pleaded with Darius to have her second eldest son Cyrus (the Younger) crowned, but Darius refused.^ The Arabians, and the Ethiopians who came from the region above Egypt, were commanded by Arsames, the son of Darius and of Artystone daughter of Cyrus.
  • HERODOTUS - THE HISTORY - FULL TEXT - THE SEVENTH BOOK - POLYMNIA - Athenaeum Library of Philosophy 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC evans-experientialism.freewebspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Late in that year he died and was succeeded by Xerxes, the son of Darius and Atossa, a daughter of Cyrus the Great.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BC Artaxerxes II succeeded Darius II over Persia but was challenged Cyrus the Younger.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Darius was then succeeded by his eldest son Artaxerxes II Memnon.^ His son, Abbas II ., succeeded him.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The son of Simon II., whom he succeeded c.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BC Darius the Great (558-486), son of Hystaspes, succeeded Cambyses as emperor of Persia.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Plutarch relates (probably on the authority of Ctesias) that the displaced Tissaphernes came to the new king on his coronation day to warn him that his younger brother Cyrus (the Younger) was preparing to assassinate him during the ceremony.^ The College of Cardinals, probably feeling pressure from the highhanded acts of the French king and his agents, elected a Frenchman, Clement V, as the new pope.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was then that the king, during an assault on a citadel, ; came close to losing his life.

^ The boy disgraced himself during a hunt when, although the king had marked his boar, the page leaped in before him and made the kill.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.Artaxerxes had Cyrus arrested and would have had him executed if their mother Parysatis had not intervened.^ The problem with arresting and trying him, Karoubi and Khatami (and do I ever wish they would be that stupid!
  • Iran | PlanetPOV 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC planetpov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hitler planned to do this by passing the Enabling Act, which would give him legislative and executive power for four years, plenty of time to get a stranglehold on power in Germany.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had Clitus not intervened, Spithridates would have dispatched him with the next blow of his axe.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.Cyrus was then sent back as Satrap of Lydia, where he prepared an armed rebellion.^ Cyrus II., king of Anzan, finally united the divided power, conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylonia, and carried his arms into the far East.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were captured but sent back by Xerxes, who wished the colossal scale of his preparations to be known.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In administration, the Persian satrap is often assisted by a local official with previous experience in government - it is a policy that in general works well for Cyrus (though not a first in Lydia).
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cyrus and Artaxerxes met in the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BCE, where Cyrus was killed.^ Cyrus wounded Artaxerxes but was then killed.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in ; Mesopotamia in the summer of 401.
  • .Old Persian (Aryan) - (The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - CAIS)© 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC flh.tmu.ac.ir [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus was killed in 530 BC during a battle against the Massagetae or Sakas .
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Artaxerxes II (404–358 BCE), was the longest reigning of the Achaemenid kings and it was during this 45-year period of relative peace and stability that many of the monuments of the era were constructed.^ The Sasanian period was one of relative stability, during which Zoroastrianism flourished.
  • Iranica.com - ZOROASTRIANISM i. HISTORICAL REVIEW 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the reign of king Artaxerxes (436-358 BCE) many temples were erected in her honor; in Soesa, Ecbatana, and in Babylon.
  • Templar history 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blog.gmane.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 358 BCE, Philip II became the Macedonian king.

.Artaxerxes moved the capital back to Persepolis, which he greatly extended.^ The capital moved from Tanis to Libyan, to Nubia, to Thebes, to SAIS, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.
  • Timeline 1300 to 500BCE 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even Persis had been in revolt and Darius moved his capital to Persepolis.
  • How Persia Created Judaism: The Rise of Persia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askwhy.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Soldiers, officials, and traders frequently moved back and forth between the important satrapy in Egypt and the capital at Persepolis, and the importance of this traffic would have itself necessitated a security presence in north Arabia.
  • http://www.iranheritage.org/achaemenidconference/abstracts_full.htm 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also the summer capital at Ecbatana was lavishly extended with gilded columns and roof tiles of silver and copper (Polybius, 10.27.12).^ Geckolizard on October 12, 2009 - 2:39pm Gold, Silver, Platinum, Copper, Oil and Gas are all up.
  • The Oil Drum | Drumbeat: October 12, 2009 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farzin Rezaeian’s computer graphics team has realistically depicted many such gilded and painted column capitals.
  • Archaeolog: Achaemenid Persian Griffin Capital at Persepolis 10 September 2009 16:14 UTC traumwerk.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Title: Re: Travels with Alexander the Great Post by: magicmountain on March 12, 2008, 10:13:27 PM .
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.The extraordinary innovation of the Zoroastrian shrine cults can also be dated to his reign, and it was probably during this period that Zoroastrianism was disseminated throughout Asia Minor and the Levant, and from there to Armenia.^ The statue was probably made during Alexander’s reign.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ But in the last seven years of his reign, Egypt and Asia Minor became once more independent.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact there was no Roman province of Phrygia till con- siderably after the first establishment of Christianity in the peninsula of Asia Minor.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.The temples, though serving a religious purpose, were however not a purely selfless act: they also served as an important source of income.^ BC) in England, some of which were for tombs, while others served religious or astronomical purposes.
  • Lecture Notes: Ancient Civilizations 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.uncp.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Mongols sacked the city ; and historical sources claim that they ; killed over 1.4 million people ; throughout the Merv Oasis.
  • Useful information 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However much Mousavi and cie, speak in religious terms, I do think that they do get the situation, and try to speak in terms that can reach the most religious of the county.
  • The Latest from Iran (1 March): In Like a Lion? | Enduring America 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC enduringamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.From the Babylonian kings, the Achaemenids had taken over the concept of a mandatory temple tax, a one-tenth tithe which all inhabitants paid to the temple nearest to their land or other source of income (Dandamaev & Lukonin, 1989:361–362).^ Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.

^ The Jews of the Diaspora paid a temple; tax, a kind of Peter's-pence; a didrachma being required from every male; adult.
  • DIASPORA and RACE RIOTS 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Universities, labor unions, and peasant ; organizations, among others, were all subjected to intense surveillance by SAVAK ; agents and paid informants.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A share of this income called the quppu ša šarri, "kings chest"—an ingenious institution originally introduced by Nabonidus—was then turned over to the ruler.^ Nemo has instituted a constitutional monarchy with a strong king/queen as ruler, and Emerson and Tazmaia have been charged with producing an heir to the throne.
  • Great rulers of the ancient world? [Archive] - RPGnet Forums 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC forum.rpg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the ruler who reinstated or resurrected the old Persian empire with its various institutions as well as the religion of Zoroaster which had been in eclipse under the Hellenistic kings and the Parthians.
  • Frye. Heritage of Persia 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In recent personal communication, David Stronach shared with me that "the topic calls for an examination of the date that the lion-griffin was first introduced, and where.
  • Archaeolog: Achaemenid Persian Griffin Capital at Persepolis 10 September 2009 16:14 UTC traumwerk.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In retrospect, Artaxerxes is generally regarded as an amiable man who lacked the moral fibre to be a really successful ruler.^ One of its rulers, refusing to convert to Islam, was overthrown by a man sometimes called Sylla, who expanded the empire as far Dendi and Yatenga.
  • http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~alopezlago/qbbot/acfwinter2009.txt 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.cs.hmc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Greek historian, Cyrus was at first successful in defeating the ruler of the nomads--called the Massagetai--who was a woman, and captured her son.
  • THE 4 KINGDOMS FLOWING OUT OF BABYLON  MAP OF THE BOUNDARIES OF THEANCIENT EMPIRES 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Maps of the Ancient Mideast 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.chn-net.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among his subjects is his childhood friend Datuk Seri N. S. Selvamany, 83, who feels Perak is really blessed to have a ruler like Sultan Azlan Shah Shah.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.However, six centuries later Ardeshir I, founder of the second Persian Empire, would consider himself Artaxerxes' successor, a grand testimony to the importance of Artaxerxes to the Persian psyche.^ Cyrus was the founder of the Mede-Persian Empire.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is here that we encounter the founder of the Persian Empire.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Persian Empire.
  • Ask A Word 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fall of the empire

Achaemenid Empire during the wars of Alexander.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated first century BCE - National Museum of Archaeology in Naples.
.According to Greek sources[citation needed], Artaxerxes' successor Artaxerxes III (358 BCE–338 BC) came to the throne by bloody means, ensuring his place upon the throne by the assassination of eight of his half-brothers.^ Greek cities of Asia Minor against Achaemenid control, 499-493 BCE. The main and almost the only source for the Revolt is Herodotus of Halicarnassus.

^ Pangaion.jpg) Mount Pangaion - a source of rich mineral deposits When Philip II came to the Macedonian throne in 359 BC he embarked upon an ambitious plan of conquest.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Greco-Persian Political Relations, 431‑359 B.C. How did Kings Darius II, Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III Ochus exploit Greek divisions to Persian benefit?
  • History 601c: Syllabus 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 343 BC Artaxerxes III defeated Nectanebo II, driving him from Egypt, and made Egypt once again a Persian satrapy.^ Once these offerings are made a the same time to Ahuramazda; and long afterwards, when “Mithra” had displaced Old Persian “Mica” as a standard form, Darius’ great-great-great-grandson, Artaxerxes III, invoked “Ahuramazda and Mithra Baga.” In all these instances, “Bags” has been generally understood to mean “god” as a title for Mithra; but, notably, when Artaxerxes II invoked Ahuramazda and Anahita and Mithra, or Mithra alone, there is no mention of Baga.
  • Persia Older Than History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC persian.blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philip II of Macedon managed to unify most of Greece and the balkans under his control, and decided to take advantage of Achaemenid weakness when, after the death of Artaxerxes (Artaxšaçrā) III Ochus in 338 BC, the Persian Empire had no strong leader.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Philip II of Macedon managed to unify most of Greece under his control, and decided to take advantage of Achaemenid weakness when, after the death of Artaxerxes III Ochus in 338, the Persian Empire had no strong leader.
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 338 BCE Artaxerxes III died under unclear circumstances (natural causes according to cuneiform sources but Diodorus, a Greek historian, reports that Artaxerxes was murdered by Bagoas, his minister).^ A similar instance may be found in Bagoas , after the murder of Artaxerxes III. (338 B.C.).
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Greek cities of Asia Minor against Achaemenid control, 499-493 BCE. The main and almost the only source for the Revolt is Herodotus of Halicarnassus.

^ Philip II of Macedon managed to unify most of Greece under his control, and decided to take advantage of Achaemenid weakness when, after the death of Artaxerxes III Ochus in 338, the Persian Empire had no strong leader.
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] while .Philip of Macedon united the Greek states by force and began to plan an invasion into the empire.^ The United States forced Japan to establish a democracy in place of its empire.
  • WebLessons: Teaching Social Studies and Science with Online Lessons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.weblessons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did Philip turn Macedon into a Greek state?
  • History 601c: Syllabus 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Philip II of Macedonia (359-336), who made his country into a major power, virtually controlling the mainland Greek city-states, intended to lead his and their forces against the two-centuries-old Persian (Achaemenid) empire, which ruled over huge territories extending from the Aegean to Egypt and central Asia.
  • Alexander the Great (Alexander of Macedon) Biography 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.historyofmacedonia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Artaxerxes III was succeeded by Artaxerxes IV Arses, who before he could act was also poisoned by Bagoas.^ In 1974, archaeologists have found a threelingual inscription from the time Artaxerxes IV Arses in Xanthus (in the southeast) and one of the languages was Aramaic, the language of the Persian bureaucracy.
  • Templar history 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blog.gmane.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arses tried to poison Bagoas, but was poisoned himself, and all his children were killed.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bahram III, son of Bahram II, reigned only eight months, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Narsi I, who renewed the war with Rome with Disastrous results.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bagoas is further said to have killed not only all Arses' children, but many of the other princes of the land.^ Arses tried to poison Bagoas, but was poisoned himself, and all his children were killed.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • A Brief History of Persian Empire 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.parstimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In all their years of wreaking havoc through the Medterranean, only pharaoh Rameses III ever defeated them on both land and sea.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ; authors also note that Mani intended to ; secure the tradition of his religion by ; proclaiming his faith "in all tongues ; and in all lands" and by using a fixed ; body of scripture.
  • CENTER FOR IRANIAN STUDIES 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Bagoas then placed Darius III (336–330 BCE), a nephew of Artaxerxes IV, on the throne.^ This study provides updates for the chronology of nine regnal transitions in the Achaemenid empire: Xerxes I to Artaxerxes I (465); Artaxerxes I to Darius II (424-23); Darius II to Artaxerxes II (405/4); Artaxerxes II to Artaxerxes III (359/58); Artaxerxes III to Arses (338); Arses to Darius III (336/35); Darius III to Alexander III (331); Alexander III to Philip Arridaios (323); and Arridaios to Alexander IV (317).

^ By the time his successor, Artaxerxes I, died in 424, the imperial court was beset by factionalism among the lateral family branches, a condition that persisted until the death in 330 of the last of the Achaemenids, Darius III, at the hands of his own subjects.
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^ In 330, Alexander earned his title "the Great" with the defeat of Darius III the ; last emperor of the Achaemenid dynasty.

.Darius III, previously Satrap of Armenia, personally forced Bagoas to swallow poison.^ Darius divided his realm into twenty-three satrapies (provinces) supervised by satraps , or governors, many of whom had personal ties to the Shah.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius appointed his half brother Artaphernes to be the satrap in Sardis and made Otanes, son of Sisamnes, general of the coastal forces as successor to Megabazus (v.25).
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All ; satraps were ordered to dismiss any mercenaries recruited for their personal service: ; the king reserved for himself exclusive control of the armed forces.

.In 334 BC, when Darius was just succeeding in subduing Egypt again, Alexander and his battle-hardened Macedonian troops invaded Asia Minor.^ Alexander landed in Asia Minor in 334 BC .
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 334, Alexander invaded Asia.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ In 338 he was murdered and was succeeded by his youngest son, Arses, who was in his turn put to death by the eunuch Bagoas (335), and was succeeded by Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius I, who assumed the name of Darius III. In 334 Alexander, the son of Philip of Macedon, began his career of conquest by subduing all Asia minor and Northern Syria .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.At two different times, the Achaemenids ruled Egypt although the Egyptians twice regained temporary independence from Persia.^ Mentor fled to Egypt, which was at that time independent.
  • GTP 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ BC-424BC Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes I, ruled Persia in the Achaemenis dynasty and Egypt as the 4th king of the 27th Dynasty.
  • Timeline Persia 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Egyptian priest, Manetho, wrote a history of Egypt and divided its rulers into dynasties, each dynasty representing a family whose members ruled over Egypt for a period of time."
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the practice of Manetho, Egyptian historians refer to the periods in Egypt when the Achaemenid dynasty ruled as the twenty-seventh dynasty of Egypt, 525–404 BC, until the death of Darius II, and the thirty-first dynasty of Egypt, 343–332 BC, which began after Nectanebo II was defeated by the Persian king Artaxerxes III.^ ACHAEMENID DYNASTY, ruled ca.
  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY, ruled ca. 700 to 330 B.C. 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethiopian ; Kings rule Egypt .
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EGYPT 525—404 B .
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alexander defeated the Persian armies at Granicus (334 BC), followed by Issus (332 BCE), and last at Gaugamela (331 BC).^ It pictures ; Alexander the Great at the Battle of ; Issus where he defeated the Persian ; army.
  • Useful information 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persian Army 560-330 BC .
  • Kaveh Farrokh » 2009 » August 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.kavehfarrokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their rule lasted until 331 BCE. .
  • MATHORIGINS.COM_A 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.mathorigins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Afterwards, he marched on Susa and Persepolis which surrendered in early 330 BCE. From Persepolis, Alexander headed north to Pasargadae where he treated the tomb of Cyrus II with respect.^ In 330 BC Alexander visited his tomb.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Alexander revered and respected the achievements of Cyrus.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Cyrus II established his capital at Pasargadae.
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  • Timeline 1300 to 500BCE 10 September 2009 16:15 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From there he headed to Ecbatana, where Darius III had sought refuge.^ A reconstruction by Duncan head and Richard Scollins (1992, Plate Eight) of Darius III (380-330 BC) the last Achaemenid king.
  • Kaveh Farrokh » 2009 » August 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.kavehfarrokh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Ecbatana Darius ; had sought refuge in Hyrcania, southeast of the Caspian Sea, beyond the passes ; east of Teheran which are called the Caspian Gates.

.Darius III was taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman.^ Darius III fled to Media, where he was seized and murdered by Bessus, Satrap of Bactria (330), while Alexander entered Babylon and Susa, and subdued the provinces of Elam, Persia, and Media.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Crossing the Oxus and crushing Bessus The Persian nobleman Bessus conspiring with fellow satraps, deposed Darius III after he fled the scene of his ignominious defeat at Gaugemela.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, Bessus was caught and executed for the murder of his king Darius III, and Spitamenes was killed by his own wife which was tired of running away.
  • Alexander the Great (Alexander of Macedon) Biography 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.historyofmacedonia.org [Source type: Original source]

.As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men murder Darius and then declared himself Darius' successor, as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia leaving Darius' body in the road to delay Alexander, who brought it to Persepolis for an honorable funeral.^ Alexander covers the body of Darius with his cloak.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Bessus murdered Darius, before fleeing eastwards.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ In its art and architecture, Persepolis reflected Darius's perception of himself as the leader of conglomerates of people to whom he had given a new and single identity.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Achaemenid Empire was succeeded by the Seleucid Empire, ruled by the generals of Alexander and their descendants.^ The Achaemenid Empire was now in Alexander's hands.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander, in their midst, prayed for “concord between the Macedonians and a sharing of the rule of the empire between them”.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Then the Bactrian kingdom, which was founded by one of the generals of the ; Seleucid Empire in the mid-third century B.C.E., took control of Sogdiana.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They in turn would be succeeded by the Parthian Empire.^ This would show how the national Iranian element in the Parthian Empire was continually gathering strength.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Parthian magnates, on the other hand, with the army, would have little to do with Greek culture and Greek modes of life, which they contemptuously regarded as effeminate and unmanly.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pausanias had a head start in the pursuit, and would have succeeded in mounting his horse before they could stop him, had he not entangled his sandal in a vine and fallen.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.Istakhr, one of the vassal kingdoms of the Parthian Empire, would be overthrown by Papak, a priest of the temple there.^ A Persian priest, Spitaman ; Zarathushtra (known to the ancient Greeks as Zoroaster) taught that there was but one ; god, Ahura Mazda, the "wise lord."
  • ASIAN-AMERICAN BASELINE ESSAY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pps.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then the Bactrian kingdom, which was founded by one of the generals of the ; Seleucid Empire in the mid-third century B.C.E., took control of Sogdiana.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the one hundred gates which surrounded the capital of the ; powerful Parthian empire, not one remains.
  • Parthia in the News - 2006 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.parthia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Papak's son, Ardašir I, who named himself in remembrance of Artaxerxes II, revolted against the Parthians, defeated them and established the Sassanid Empire.^ The Sasanians defeated the Parthians in 224 and established the Sasanian Empire.
  • Oriental rugs and Persian carpets Glossary, Learn about Rugs and Carpets Oldcarpet.com Everything About Persian Rugs 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.oldcarpet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their victory in the service of Cyrus the Younger in his war against Artaxerxes, gave the Greeks - and the Macedonians - confidence that the Persian Empire was ripe for conquest.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ A descendant, Cyrus ; II (also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder), led the combined forces ; of the Medes and the Persians to establish the most extensive empire known in ; the ancient world.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Government

The Behistun Inscription tells the story of Darius the Great's conquests, with the names of twenty-three satrapys subject to him.
Behistun Inscription, column 1 (DB I 1–15).
.The Achaemenids were absolutists[citation needed] who allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the a satrapy system.^ The Achaemenids were enlightened despots who allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Achaemenids were enlightened despots who allowed a certain amount of ; regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system.
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^ By 5100 BC, people in the Indus Valley were farming and harvesting einkorn, a primitive form of wheat[citation needed].
  • What is the history of India? - Yahoo! Answers India 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis.^ A satrapy was an ; administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis.
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^ A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE SATRAPIES The methodological assumption of the following survey is that the Bisitun Inscription presents an inventory of the standard units of the imperial administration of its time: the Main Satrapies.
  • Iranica.com - ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES 10 September 2009 16:14 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records.^ A satrap ; (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment ; and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius divided his realm into twenty-three satrapies (provinces) supervised by satraps , or governors, many of whom had personal ties to the Shah.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government.^ The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government.
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^ The general and ; the state secretary reported directly to the central government.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Accomplishments of Darius' reign included codification of the data, a universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law would be based, and construction of a new capital at Persepolis, where vassal states would offer their yearly tribute at the festival celebrating the spring equinox.^ Other accomplishments of Darius's reign included codification of the data, a universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law would be based, and construction of a new capital at Persepolis, where vassal states would offer their yearly tribute at the festival celebrating the spring equinox.
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^ The most important was the spring festival celebrating the new year (Phl.
  • Iranica.com - ZOROASTRIANISM i. HISTORICAL REVIEW 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other accomplishments of Darius's reign included codification of the data, a ; universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law would be based, and ; construction of a new capital at Persepolis, where vassal states would offer ; their yearly tribute at the festival celebrating the spring equinox.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The practice of slavery in Achaemenid Persia was generally banned, although there is evidence that conquered and/or rebellious armies were sold into captivity.^ There was no slavery practiced at the ; time.
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Achaemenid Dynasty generally banned slavery over the breadth of its span.
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^ For general histories there is little evidence.
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[15] .Zoroastrianism, the de facto religion of the empire, explicitly forbids slavery,[16] and the kings of Achaemenid Persia, especially the founder Cyrus the Great, followed this ban to varying degrees, as evidenced by the freeing of the Jews at Babylon, and the construction of Persepolis by paid workers.^ Cyrus king of Persia".
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The spiritual father of the Iranian Army is Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
  • The Iran-Iraq War: Strategy of Stalemate 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyrus was the founder of the Mede-Persian Empire.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

.The twenty three satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius I. Relays of mounted couriers could reach the remotest of areas in fifteen days.^ Relays of mounted couriers could reach the most remote areas in fifteen days.
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^ Relays of ; mounted couriers could reach the most remote areas in fifteen days.
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^ Darius created a network of roads including a royal highway from Susa to Sardis in Lydia.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king", toured the empire and reported on local conditions.^ Despite the ; relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system however, royal ; inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on ; local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, ; called the Immortals.
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^ In ; addition, there was a separate system of inspectors known as the King's Eyes or the Kings Ears.

^ Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system however, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals.
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.The king also maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals.^ Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system however, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the ; relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system however, royal ; inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on ; local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, ; called the Immortals.
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^ Whereas before, a Greek army of 10,000 hoplites was considered large, Hellenistic armies often totaled 60-70,000 men.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.Darius revolutionized the economy[citation needed] by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system.^ Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system.
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^ Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage ; system.
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^ Coinage , in the form of the daric (gold coin) and the shekel (silver coin) was introduced to the world and administrative efficiency was increased.
  • Ask A Word 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askaword.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities in the far reaches of the empire.^ Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient ; infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities among the far ; reaches of the empire.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities among the far reaches of the empire.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The empire then reached its greatest extent under Darius I (Dāryavuš).
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tariffs on trade were one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute.^ Trade was one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade was ; one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It started with the empire needing the fleet as its main source of power and control.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.The vexilloid of the Achaemenid Empire was a gold falcon on a field of crimson.^ A gold tablet found at Egbatana (Hamadan) in 1920, where it must have been taken with Achaemenid archives during the empire, says: .
  • How Persia Created Judaism: The Rise of Persia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askwhy.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[17][18]

Culture

The ruins of Persepolis.
Golden Rhyton excavated at Ecbatana; kept at National Museum of Iran.
.Herodotus, in his mid-5th century BCE account[citation needed] of Persian residents of the Pontus, reports that Persian youths, from their fifth year to their twentieth year, were instructed in three things - to ride a horse, to draw a bow, and to speak the Truth.^ According to Herodotus, the nomadic Persians had only three simple goals in educating their sons: "to ride a horse, to draw a bow, and to speak the truth."
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Owing to the despotic rule of Cambyses and his long absence in Egypt, "the whole people, Persians, Medes and all the other nations," acknowledged the usurper, especially as he granted a remission of taxes for three years (Herodotus iii.

^ The scanty reports are mostly by Herodotus, who wrote Histories , an account of the Greco-Persian Wars of the 5 th century BCE , some 100+ years after Great Kuruš.
  • I am Kuruš 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pavasta.com [Source type: Original source]

He further notes[citation needed] that:
the most disgraceful thing in the world [the Perses] think, is to tell a lie; the next worst, to owe a debt: because, among other reasons, the debtor is obliged to tell lies.
.In Achaemenid Persia, the lie, druj, is considered to be a cardinal sin, and it was punishable by death in some extreme cases.^ In Persia, as is often the case, a series of nonentities followed the death of a great king.
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aramaicpeshitta.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the death penalty or heavy fines are the punishment upon conviction in all these cases.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases though, they are falsely forced into confessions of drug trafficking since drug trafficking in punishable by death.
  • Advocacy Project Blogs - Farzin Farzad 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC advocacynet.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tablets discovered by archaeologists in the 1930s[19] at the site of Persepolis give us adequate evidence about the love and veneration for the culture of truth during the Achaemenian period.^ Altogether, there were 27 independent Kshatrapa rulers during a period of about 350 years.
  • What is the history of India? - Yahoo! Answers India 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the period 1980 to 1981, the government of Iraq expelled into Iran about ; 200,000 persons whom it claimed were Iranians.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE ; Documents from the past can help us ; find out more about Ancient Merv.
  • Useful information 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These tablets contain the names of ordinary Iranians, mainly traders and warehouse-keepers.^ Despite these names borrowed from Buddhism and Christianity, the texts mostly ; contain clear Manichean messages of dualism and the cosmic battles.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an interesting fact that the colum- baria of " Caesar's household " contain both these names.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the name of Iranians is understood to comprehend all these people of Aryan nationality.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

[20] .According to Professor Stanley Insler of Yale University, as many as 72 names of officials and petty clerks found on these tablets contain the word truth.^ These words are found in Gen.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides these separate publica- tions, the various volumes of his Monumenta Sacra Inedita contain many N.T. fragments, such as the improved edition of the palimpsests Q in vol.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite these names borrowed from Buddhism and Christianity, the texts mostly ; contain clear Manichean messages of dualism and the cosmic battles.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Thus, says Insler, we have Artapana, protector of truth, Artakama, lover of truth, Artamanah, truth-minded, Artafarnah, possessing splendour of truth, Artazusta, delighting in truth, Artastuna, pillar of truth, Artafrida, prospering the truth and Artahunara, having nobility of truth.^ Diogenes thus having angered Alexander, then says, 'Well, you can kill me; but if you do so, nobody else will tell you the truth.'
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus to the spiritual mind typology supplies one of the most remarkable evidences of the truth of revelation.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was Darius the Great, who laid down the ordinance of good regulations during his reign.^ The Persian Boy , narrated by Bagoas set during Alexander the Great's reign of Persia.
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And this is all good for the soul, said Noel White, who has been overseeing a church project to cut down trees dangerously overhanging the neighboring school playground.
  • http://www.grahamkendall.net/Main_Files/B3-BibleC.txt 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.grahamkendall.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, his tax policies weighed heavily on the peasants and the ; lower classes, the great landowners' control over land and the peasantry ; increased, and the condition of the peasants worsened during his reign.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.King Darius' testimony about his constant battle against the lie is found in cuneiform inscriptions.^ "This, it seems, is royalty" After defeating Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela Alexander pursued the Persian king who had taken flight.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ After the battle at Issus, Alexander’s army captured the train carrying everything of value to their enemy, Persia’s King Darius III, including his wife and mother.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ As he won battles and found himself King of Asia, he then dreamed of an Empire.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

Carved high up in the Behistun mountain on the road to Kermanshah, Darius testifies[citation needed]:
.I was not a lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong ...^ Darius the King says: You who shall be king hereafter,; the man who shall be a Lie-follower or who shall be a doer of; wrong -- to them do not be a friend, (but) punish them well.; ; 65.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius the King says: For this reason Ahuramazda; bore aid, and the other gods who are, because I was not hostile,; I was not a Lie-follower, I was not a doer of wrong -- neither; I nor my family.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to righteousness I conducted myself.^ The right conduct is to do one's duties in life and to ; live according to the dictates of one's station.
  • ASIAN-AMERICAN BASELINE ESSAY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pps.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to righteousness I conducted myself.; Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neither to the weak or to the powerful did I do wrong.^ He wronged neither the weak nor the powerful.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither to the weak nor to the powerful did I do wrong.
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Each side was convinced that they were right, and the other wrong; and neither wanted to hear that the ; other's doctrine did not deserve all the abuse they poured on it.
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aramaicpeshitta.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

The man who cooperated with my house, him I rewarded well; who so did injury, him I punished well.
.Darius had his hands full dealing with large-scale rebellion which broke out throughout the empire.^ Dissension and civil wars broke out at once in every quarter of the vast empire, from India to the Nile, and lasted for nearly forty-two years.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not really a new thing for the Greeks; but it was carried out now on a large scale.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ The Sasanian Empire seems to ; have been much more hierarchical than the Sogdian society, largely due to the scale of ; the Sasanian state structure and its ancient history.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After fighting successfully with nine traitors in a year, Darius records his battles against them for posterity and tells us how it was the lie that made them rebel against the empire.^ Darius the King says: If this record you shall conceal,; (and) not tell it to the people, may Ahuramazda be a smiter to; you, and may family not be to you!; ; 62.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Mazarin and his allies crushed the rebels after five hard years of fighting (1648-53), Louis never forgot the fear and humiliation of having to run from the Parisian mob and fight for his life and throne against the nobles.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his twenty-nine year reign, he had built the largest empire in history up to that time.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

At Behistun, Darius says:
.I smote them and took prisoner nine kings.^ I fought; by the favor of Ahuramazda I smote; them and took prisoner 9 kings.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 702 B.C. Sennacherib took the city, and sent its king Zidka with his family prisoners to Assyria, establishing Sar- ludari, son of Rukibti, in his stead.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius the King says: These 9 kings I took prisoner; within these battles.; ; 54.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One was Gaumata by name, a Magian; he lied; thus he said: I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus...One, Acina by name, an Elamite; he lied; thus he said: I am king in Elam...^ One was named Gaumâta, the Magian; he lied, saying 'I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus.'
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One was named Gaumata, a Magian;; lied and said, "I am Smerdis, the son of Cyrus;"; he made Persia rebellious.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the sons of Elam, and 5.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.One, Nidintu-Bel by name, a Babylonian; he lied; thus he said: I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus.^ One, named Nidintu-Bel, a Babylonian; lied; and said, "I am Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabonidus;; he made Babylon rebellious.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And one; man, a Babylonian, named Nidintu-Bel, son of Ainaira -- he rose; up in Babylon; thus he deceived the people: "I am Nebuchadrezzar; the son of Nabonidus."
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darius the King says: One man, named Martiya,; son of Cincikhri -- a town named Kuganaka, in Persia -- there; he abode.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

King Darius then tells us, The Lie made them rebellious, so that these men deceived the people.
[22]
Then an advice to his son Xerxes, who is to succeed him as the great king:
.Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from the Lie; the man who shall be a lie-follower, him do thou punish well, if thus thou shall think.^ King Darius says: You who shall be king hereafter, protect yourself vigorously from lies; punish the liars well, if thus you shall think, 'May my country be secure!'
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To the man who is a follower of the lie I am no friend.
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thou who shalt be king hereafter, protect well the family of these men'.
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

May my country be secure!

Languages

The Persian queen Atossa, Darius the Great's wife and mother of Xerxes I.
Silver rhyta such as this were ubiquitous and used as a drinking vessels in Persia, underscoring the eclectic taste of the Achaemenids; the fanciful beast that forms its base is both mammal and bird.
.During the reign of Cyrus and Darius, and as long as the seat of government was still at Susa in Elam, the language of the chancellory was Elamite.^ In Egypt he still used as his agent Udja-Hor-resenet, who was, it seems, at Susa when Darius attained the throne.
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign, and, still more, that of his brother Alexius III, saw the collapse of what remained of the centralized machinery of Byzantine government and defense.
  • The Byzantine Empire 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.reu.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ancestors of Darius had remained in Persia, whilst the branch of the family of which Cyrus was a member had settled in Elam.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is primarily attested in the Persepolis fortification and treasury tablets that reveal details of the day-to-day functioning of the empire.^ About 500 a certain Bagapāna, who may have been satrap, is named in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets (e.g., PF 1238-40; 1297; 1546-47: cf.
  • Iranica.com - ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES 10 September 2009 16:14 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, a certain Artavazda was satrap around 505, and a predecessor or successor was named Jamāspa (PF 679-80: Hallock, p.
  • Iranica.com - ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES 10 September 2009 16:14 UTC www.iranica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tablets at Persepolis speak of workers from all over the empire.
  • How Persia Created Judaism: The Rise of Persia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askwhy.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[20] .In the grand rock-face inscriptions of the kings, the Elamite texts are always accompanied by Akkadian and Old Persian inscriptions, and it appears that in these cases, the Elamite texts are translations of the Old Persian ones.^ ACHAEMENIAN : (Old Persian cuneiform) inscriptions .
  • MATHORIGINS.COM_A 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.mathorigins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same story is told in Elamite , in Old Persian language; and again in Akkadian .
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In relation to his Persians, he is always the peoples king.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is then likely that although Elamite was used by the capital government in Susa, it was not a standardized language of government everywhere in the empire.^ The language in greatest use in the empire was Aramaic.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major capital of Susa surrendered to the Greeks without resisting, and the immense treasure accumulated by the Persian empire was found in the palace.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Shilkhak-Inshushinak invaded Assyria as far as Ashur and besieged Babylon, establishing a brief Elamite empire, which used the proto-Elamite script in its inscriptions.
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

The use of Elamite is not attested after 458 BCE.
.Following the conquest of Mesopotamia, the Aramaic language (as used in that territory) was adopted as a "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast empire with its different peoples and languages.^ The language in greatest use in the empire was Aramaic.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds of languages and ; thousands of dialects are used for communication among its peoples.
  • ASIAN-AMERICAN BASELINE ESSAY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pps.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, during the late Assyrian empire, and subsequently during the Babylonian and Persian empires, Aramaic became an international language, written and spoken in Anatolia, the Levantine coast, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia where it was adopted by many local groups.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The use of a single official language, which modern scholarship has dubbed Official Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic, can be assumed to have greatly contributed to the astonishing success of the Achaemenids in holding their far-flung empire together for as long as they did."[23] In 1955, Richard Frye questioned the classification of Imperial Aramaic as an "official language", noting that no surviving edict expressly and unambiguously accorded that status to any particular language.[24] .Frye reclassifies Imperial Aramaic as the "lingua franca" of the Achaemenid territories, suggesting then that the Achaemenid-era use of Aramaic was more pervasive than generally thought.^ As the subtitle suggests, it largely consists of letters from various eminences of the day on their own experiences of using drugs, and thoughts on whether and how drugs are of use to intellectuals.

^ If everyone gets all of the last dollar produced, the team will have to pay out more in incentives than it generates.

^ Heterogeneity can also be a challenge: It has a positive effect on generating diverse viewpoints within a team, but requires more organizational structure than does a homogeneous team.

.Many centuries after the fall of the empire, Aramaic script and - as ideograms - Aramaic vocabulary would survive as the essential characteristics of the Pahlavi writing system.^ Aramaic had already in Neo-Assyrian times become the diplomats ; international language; and its triumph over cuneiform as a writing system followed ; from that of papyrus as a writing material.
  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY The Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC m-hosseini.ir [Source type: Original source]

^ Still Persian ; Empire was a Democratic Empire internally and in comparison to ; many totalitarian slavery systems of Empires and Kingdoms of that ; era in 6th, 5th, and 4th centuries BC, Persia was a role model.
  • Iran Politics Club: Grand Admiral Artemisia I of Halicarnassius, the Persian Imperial Navy - Ahreeman X 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC iranpoliticsclub.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a large empire would, of course, include many peoples of many ethnicities...mainly Middle Easterners, Africans, and Asian peoples.
  • 300 | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
.Although Old Persian also appears on some seals and art objects, that language is attested primarily in the Achaemenid inscriptions of Western Iran, suggesting then that Old Persian was the common language of that region.^ ACHAEMENIAN : (Old Persian cuneiform) inscriptions .
  • MATHORIGINS.COM_A 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC www.mathorigins.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Old Persian, which appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets, seals of the Achaemenid era (c.
  • WikiSlice 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it 'avestan' language or some other Persian language ?
  • Persepolis - پارسه - Parsa [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: General]

.However, by the reign of Artaxerxes II, the grammar and orthography of the inscriptions was so "far from perfect"[26] that it has been suggested that the scribes who composed those texts had already largely forgotten the language, and had to rely on older inscriptions, which they to a great extent reproduced verbatim.^ They are those who lead the attack.
  • http://www.grahamkendall.net/Main_Files/B3-BibleC.txt 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.grahamkendall.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All this I have included because it is said that those who wear the likeness of Alexander carved in either gold or silver are aided in all that they do."
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, when the Athenians were debating what to do about Harpalus, those who had accepted his money became his loudest enemies, hoping thereby to conceal the bribes they had accepted from him.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

[27]

Customs

.Herodotus mentions[citation needed] that the Persians were given to great birthday feasts, which would be followed by many desserts, a treat which they reproached the Greeks for omitting from their meals.^ There are many people calling themselves Persian whom they are changed the Iranian histories for their own interest.
  • Astarjian: Our Friends, Our Foes: The Kurds | Armenian Weekly 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they rebelled, massacres or mass; deportations would result, followed by direct Assyrian rule.; .
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander historians mention a Persian elite regiment which they call the Apple Bearers (see pictured).
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.He also observed that the Persians drank wine in large quantities and used it even for counsel, deliberating on important affairs when drunk, and deciding the next day, when sober, whether to act on the decision or set it aside.^ As the subtitle suggests, it largely consists of letters from various eminences of the day on their own experiences of using drugs, and thoughts on whether and how drugs are of use to intellectuals.

^ This ; quarrel is an important factor in the ecclesiastical history of the next seventy years; for it was destined to y have ; considerable influence in embittering the Christological controversy, and to have a "repercussion," of which ; the effects are felt to-day, on the history of the Persian Church.
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aramaicpeshitta.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Persians have ; been involved in world affairs and ; have contributed to world culture at ; several important periods.
  • CENTER FOR IRANIAN STUDIES 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On their methods of greeting, he asserts that equals kissed on the lips, persons of some difference in rank kissed on the cheek, and the lowest ranks would prostrate on the ground to the upper ranks.^ Two men of equal rank would kiss on the lips when they met, according to Herodotus I think.
  • Persepolis - پارسه - Parsa [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: General]

^ In the modern west, you would expect a hug and maybe a kiss on the cheek.
  • Persepolis - پارسه - Parsa [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: General]

^ The other alternative would be a slap with the open hand as a challenge or to punch the person, but this was seen as a statement of equality.
  • Thinking Christian: Inherently Evil 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is known that men of high rank practiced polygamy, and were reputed to have a number of wives and a greater number of concubines.^ Ambassadors appear frequently in the days of the monarchy, and were usually men of high rank or office.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The seeds contain the oil known as " castor-oil," which has for ages been in high repute as a medicine.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Travelers in Germany a few years after the war noted a marked absence of men of military age, but an unusually high number of children.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.On their same-sex relations, high ranked men kept favorites, such as Bagoas who was one of Darius III's favorites and who later became Alexander's eromenos.^ Some of the nobles and princes became converts to a system which robbed them of their rank and wealth, and ; this fact makes one suspect the existence of some such wave of republican enthusiasm as that which swept ; over the French ; in the early days of the revolution.
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aramaicpeshitta.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The necessity of the case was that One should be born Who could become the new Head of the human race, Who should become related, not to one human personality, but to Human -kind in general.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "We tolerate no one in our ranks who attacks the ideas of Christianity...
  • http://www.grahamkendall.net/Main_Files/B3-BibleC.txt 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.grahamkendall.net [Source type: Original source]

.Persian pederasty and its origins were debated even in ancient times.^ The Persian Empire of ancient and medieval times.
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I in David's time (iChr.24) shows how, even in i their wasted numbers, they struggled to preserve ' i their ancient institutions.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even in ancient times there are not a few indi- cations that J ewish scholars were by no means unanimous on that subject.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Herodotus claimed they had learned it from the Greeks,[28] however, Plutarch asserts that the Persians used eunuch boys to that end long before contact between the cultures.^ Herodotus' fanciful numbers are used to populate the Persian army, and Plutarch's discussion of Greek women, specifically Spartan women, is inserted wrongly in the dialogue between the "misogynist" Persian ambassador and the Spartan king.

^ Herodotus’ fanciful numbers are used to populate the Persian army, and Plutarch’s discussion of Greek women, specifically Spartan women, is inserted wrongly in the dialogue between the “misogynist” Persian ambassador and the Spartan king.
  • Frank Miller’s “300″ and the Persistence of Accepted Racism | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not long before civil war broke out between the two, and in the end Mithridates was taken and put to death in the presence of his brother.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.Also from Herodotus we learn that the Persians had a very high regard for truth, teaching the respect of truth to their children and despising nothing so much as a lie.^ The Ori- ental respect for the covenant of bread and salt, <> r salt alone, certainly sprang from the high regard in which hospitality was held.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (E.g., he argues that pretty much any way of teaching children to read will always lead to some who aren't "up to level", and so create an audience for some new way of teaching them to read.

^ This boundary has remained unsettled, and disputes have frequently arisen between the Turkish and Persian governments with regard to their respective claims to land (Hertslet, Persian Treaties ).
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the education of the children, we learn that from the age of five until twenty they were taught to ride, shoot the bow, and speak the truth.^ When Muhammad was twenty-five they; were married.
  • In Shiraz, Persian, the evening of May 23rd, 1844, a new religion was;born out of Islam 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bahaifaith-islam-worldpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not as many women get married, and if they do marry, they do so at a later age, so that there is less time to have children.
  • History News Network 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ Not needing to ride close to the enemy, and as able to shoot uphill as down, they above all carried far more ammunition than a lancer.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until the age of five children spent all their time among the women and never met the father, so that, should they die in infancy, he would not sorrow over their loss.^ Not as many women get married, and if they do marry, they do so at a later age, so that there is less time to have children.
  • History News Network 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ But this time they would not be met by impossible demands.

^ Until that time came they would have to follow other strategies.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

(Herodotus, The History, passim)

Religion

Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis, Iran.
The image of a lioness used as a pendant, late sixth–fourth centuries BCE, from Susa - Department of Oriental Antiquities, Louvre.
.It was during the Achaemenid period that Zoroastrianism reached South-Western Iran, where it came to be accepted by the rulers and through them became a defining element of Persian culture.^ It was Persian in language and culture and Zoroastrian in religion."
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may have been during the Achaemenid period that Zoroastrianism reached South-Western Iran, where it came to be accepted by the rulers and through them became a defining element of Persian culture.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What seems certain is that the Zurvanite trend in Zoroastrianism developed during the middle or late Achaemenid era in western Iran and was particularly influential throughout the Persian domains in Asia Minor .
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

.The religion was not only accompanied by a formalization of the concepts and divinities of the traditional (Indo-)Iranian pantheon but also introduced several novel ideas, including that of free will.^ The religion was not only accompanied by a formalization of the concepts and divinities of the traditional (Indo-)Iranian pantheon, but also introduced several novel ideas, including that of free will , which is arguably Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy.
  • Persian Empire 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is the only animal that has the True Religion - several of them.
  • http://www.grahamkendall.net/Main_Files/B3-BibleC.txt 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.grahamkendall.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The second part of the book elaborates the concepts of corporeality present in the several ceramic figurative forms, including burials.

.Under the patronage of the Achaemenid kings, and by the fifth century BCE as the de-facto religion of the state, Zoroastrianism would reach all corners of the empire.^ In what ways did the Zoroastrian religion strengthen the Achaemenid kings?
  • History 601c: Syllabus 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Empire of the Achaemenids was his in all its old extent.
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aramaicpeshitta.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Zoroastrianism under the Achaemenids .
  • Persia Older Than History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC persian.blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the reign of Artaxerxes I and Darius II, Herodotus wrote "[the Perses] have no images of the gods, no temples nor altars, and consider the use of them a sign of folly.^ God's altar (18.22 ; there was no maffebhd in the temple at Jerusalem).
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Greco-Persian Political Relations, 431‑359 B.C. How did Kings Darius II, Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III Ochus exploit Greek divisions to Persian benefit?
  • History 601c: Syllabus 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decline of the ulama began during the reign of Muhammad Ali who considered the ulama an intolerable alternative power center.
  • Egypt.... :: Egypt from Egyptians Point of View :: Care2 Groups 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This comes, I think, from their not believing the gods to have the same nature with men, as the Greeks imagine."^ Over all, I believe what we consider the modern mode of thinking comes from the Greeks.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Nature, the Universe, and God are ; the same thing.
  • WHistory Units1 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the Greeks the cables themselves were spectacularly long and large, and it was natural that they took them as spoils of war a year later (ix.121) and dedicated parts of them to the gods.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He claims the Persians offer sacrifice to: "the sun and moon, to the earth, to fire, to water, and to the winds.^ The Persians worship the sun and fire.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Ahuramazda], and to him they offer sacrifice on the highest peaks of the mountains; they sacrifice also to the sun and moon and earth and fire and water and winds.
  • First Persian Empire 549-330 BC 16 September 2009 21:021 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Persian ambassadors had preceded the army to demand earth and water as signs of submission from all the; Greeks.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.These are the only gods whose worship has come down to them from ancient times.^ From ancient times to the present these included: .
  • Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece - OrthodoxWiki 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC orthodoxwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worship, Allah the only true God."
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of these gods come from stars.
  • http://www.grahamkendall.net/Main_Files/B3-BibleC.txt 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.grahamkendall.net [Source type: Original source]

.At a later period they began the worship of Urania, which they borrowed from the Arabians and Assyrians.^ Five days later, the retreat began, and as they struggled through the snowbound passes, the British were attacked by Ghilzai warriors.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Abruptly, soon after 11,000; years ago, they began to cultivate rye and chickpeas, then einkorn and emmer,; two ancestors of wheat, and later barley.
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, Roman nobles during this period would send their sons to be educated in Etruscan schools much as they would later send their sons to Greece for an education.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

Mylitta is the name by which the Assyrians know this goddess, whom the Arabians call Alitta, and the Persians Anahita." (The original name here is Mithra, which has since been explained to be a confusion of Anahita with Mithra, understandable since they were commonly worshipped together in one temple).
.From the Babylonian scholar-priest Berosus, who—although writing over seventy years after the reign of Artaxerxes II Mnemon—records that the emperor had been the first to make cult statues of divinities and have them placed in temples in many of the major cities of the empire (Berosus, III.65).^ This probably was the reason why Xerxes in 484 BC took away from Babylon the golden statue of Bel ( Marduk , Merodach), the hands of which the legitimate king of Babylon had to seize on the first day of each year, and killed the priest who tried to hinder him.
  • 300 The Movie :: 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Philip II of Macedon managed to unify most of Greece under his control, and decided to take advantage of Achaemenid weakness when, after the death of Artaxerxes III Ochus in 338, the Persian Empire had no strong leader.
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was not until a few months later after receiving the broken clay cylinder that the British Museum scholars, armed with newly acquired key to the Babylonian language, realized that the humble broken piece of clay - probably a foundation deposit - had recorded the deeds of no other than Great Kuruš II, the Great King who had founded the first Empire of the Persians.
  • I am Kuruš 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pavasta.com [Source type: Original source]

.Berosus also substantiates Herodotus when he says the Persians knew of no images of gods until Artaxerxes II erected those images.^ As the book says we are created by God, in his image.
  • Thinking Christian: Inherently Evil 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
  • Thinking Christian: Inherently Evil 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians like to say Cyrus had “no thought of” moulding conquered countries in a Persian mould.
  • How Persia Created Judaism: The Rise of Persia 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.askwhy.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.On the means of sacrifice, Herodotus adds "they raise no altar, light no fire, pour no libations."^ Better still, their nocturnal nature means they face no competition for food from other birds, so their main rivals are hedgehogs and badgers.

^ They regard fire as a symbol of their God, and they cherish the light that it produces.
  • Middle East Information - MEIC Issues and analysis of the Middle East: Conflicts, News, History, Religions and Discussions 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.middleeastinfo.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So far as India is concerned, the Fortification Tablets attest an active and substantial traffic, though they shed no light on the geography of that province.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This sentence has been interpreted to identify a critical (but later) accretion to Zoroastrianism. .An altar with a wood-burning fire and the Yasna service at which libations are poured are all clearly identifiable with modern Zoroastrianism, but apparently, were practices that had not yet developed in the mid-fifth century.^ Juniper was held in the highest repute amongst woods for burning to purify the air of all corruptions and infections.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Buddhist ; meditation at around the third century was not as fully developed as later Ch'an practice ; of several hundreds years later.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise in the mid-4th century an anonymous Roman official from Thebes in Egypt apparently fled to India - for reasons now unascertainable.
  • India and the Greek World 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.adolphus.nl [Source type: Original source]

.Boyce also assigns that development to the reign of Artaxerxes II (fourth century BCE), as an orthodox response to the innovation of the shrine cults.^ Hippocrates II., and ; must therefore have lived in the fourth century B. C. He is blamed by Erasistratus ; (ap.
  • GTP 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.gtp.gr [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that the continued development of Strumica was not interrupted is confirmed by the findings dating to the fourth century and the unique light with the likely image of Alexander the Great.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ BCE : HASMONEAN: Hyrcanus II reigns as king from 67 BCE - 63 BCE .
  • Thunderation - TimeLine 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC thunderation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Herodotus also observed that "no prayer or offering can be made without a magus present" but this should not be confused with what is today understood by the term magus, that is a magupat (modern Persian: mobed), a Zoroastrian priest.^ Herodotus recounted that the Persians could not offer a sacrifice without a Magus (1: 132).
  • Zoroastrian Origins of Religious Fundamentalism 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mailstar.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Iran (word) See also: Iran naming convention The term Iran (ایران) in modern Persian derives from the Proto-Iranian term Aryānā, first attested in Zoroastrianism 's Avesta tradition.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At least, we hear of no offer of surrender or submission on Sapor's part; and we can scarcely suppose that, had such offers been made, the Roman writers would have passed them over in silence.
  • The Seven Great Monarchies, by George Rawlinson, The Seventh Monarchy, Part A. 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nor does Herodotus' description of the term as one of the tribes or castes of the Medes necessarily imply that these magi were Medians.^ Herodotus does not deny it and almost implies it (vi.123.2), but Thucydides held with some violence that it originated from 'an erotic occurrence', though it developed a political character.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still it is important to notice that Babai, in his treatise, expressly and repeatedly admits the lawfulness of the ; term if it be properly guarded, and we transcribe one of these, passages.
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aramaicpeshitta.com [Source type: Original source]
  • AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE ASSYRIAN CHURCH 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.aina.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a world where religious exclusivity was not an ideal, this is not surprising, and it does not necessarily mean that these aliens abandoned their own gods.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They simply were a hereditary priesthood to be found all over Western Iran and although (originally) not associated with any one specific religion, they were traditionally responsible for all ritual and religious services.^ They were originally from Iran.
  • Useful information 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ucl.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What we found is the one true religion- for us.
  • Thinking Christian: Inherently Evil 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC blogs.chron.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The core of most; religions centers around ritual services, the display of icons, a priesthood,; religious law (such as Cannon Law, Sharia, the Talmud ), dogmatic; theology, and worship of a specific divine figure or group of figures.
  • In Shiraz, Persian, the evening of May 23rd, 1844, a new religion was;born out of Islam 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bahaifaith-islam-worldpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the unequivocal identification of the magus with Zoroastrianism came later (Sassanid era, third–seventh century CE), it is from Herodotus' magus of the mid-fifth century that Zoroastrianism was subject to doctrinal modifications that are today considered to be revocations of the original teachings of the prophet.^ It is estimated to be from the early third century CE. .
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ During the third century CE another Persian prophet, Mani ; (c.
  • In Shiraz, Persian, the evening of May 23rd, 1844, a new religion was;born out of Islam 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bahaifaith-islam-worldpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kushans were defeated by the Sassanids in the third century.
  • Afghanistan - Information Overload Unit MARK 3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC overload.ath.cx [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, many of the ritual practices described in the Avesta's Vendidad (such as exposure of the dead) were already practiced by the magu of Herodotus ' time.^ There is some evidence to support the ; spread of Zoroastrianism in Tu shih T'ung-tien 杜氏通典 ; 105 ; regarding the funeral ; practice of exposure of the dead.
  • Sino-Platonic Papers No. 174 (Nov. 2006) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC sino-platonic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Herodotus described these riders: "Nothing stops these couriers from covering their allotted stops in the quickest possible time--neither snow, rain, heat, nor darkness."
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While he is blaming the “west” on all evil, he is at the same time promoting “post-humanism” as if it is already an accepted practice.
  • The Ugly Truth Podcast Jan 4, 2010 « The Ugly Truth 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC theuglytruth.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

Art and architecture

Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace.
.Art, like religion, was a blend of many elements.^ In religions like Islam and Judaism where idolatry; and representative religious art are suppressed, words and especially names; acquire special spiritual resonance.
  • In Shiraz, Persian, the evening of May 23rd, 1844, a new religion was;born out of Islam 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bahaifaith-islam-worldpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Notice that many things which are socially acceptable to admit influence such choices, like age or religion or intellectuality, just aren't on the list.

^ Classical (Greece/Rome) art/architecture - humanistic focus - ; patrons - families like Medici and the Catholic Church - blended natural ; world w/ religion - transition away from religion .
  • 1200 AP World History Terms 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mrburnett.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just as the Achaemenids were tolerant in matters of local government and custom, as long as Persians controlled the general policy and administration of the empire, so also were they tolerant in art so long as the finished and total effect was Persian.^ See, this is an over-generalization of the Persian Empire.
  • Frank Miller’s “300″ and the Persistence of Accepted Racism | Racialicious - the intersection of race and pop culture 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.racialicious.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, they perpetuate the traditions of the Achaemenid Empire.
  • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Philip II of Macedon managed to unify most of Greece under his control, and decided to take advantage of Achaemenid weakness when, after the death of Artaxerxes III Ochus in 338, the Persian Empire had no strong leader.
  • What is Persian Empire? 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Pasargadae (Pāsargad), the capital of Cyrus II and Cambyses II, and at Persepolis, the neighboring city founded by Darius the Great and used by all of his successors, one can trace to a foreign origin almost all of the several details in the construction and embellishment of the architecture and the sculptured reliefs; but the conception, planning, and overall finished product are distinctly Persian.^ The cities founded by Alexander the Great are an essential part of his overall achievements.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Chosroes was a great ; builder, embellishing his capital, founding new towns, and constructing new ; buildings.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Darius the Great has mentioned in his inscription, Persepolis was constructed by his order.
  • Persepolis - پارسه - Parsa [Archive] - SkyscraperCity 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.skyscrapercity.com [Source type: General]

.Moreover, when Cyrus chose to build Pasargadae, he had a long artistic tradition behind him that probably was distinctly Iranian already and that was in many ways the equal of any.^ In many ways, the Baha’is provide ; a case study of how Islam and the Christian West have already become peacefully; reconciled, and a paradigm for reconciliation on a broader scale.
  • In Shiraz, Persian, the evening of May 23rd, 1844, a new religion was;born out of Islam 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bahaifaith-islam-worldpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was famously generous and he loved to reward the same show of spirit which he asked of himself; he enjoyed the friendship of Iranian nobles and he had a courteous way, if he chose, with women.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ We already saw that in a distorted ; way after 1979, when the Iranian revolution-unfortunately hijacked and distorted by ; clerical reaction-gave a powerful impulse to so-called Islamic fundamentalism ; everywhere.
  • The Iranian Revolution, Past, Present and Future 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranchamber.com [Source type: Original source]

.The columned hall in architecture can now be seen as belonging to an architectural tradition on the Iranian Plateau that extended back through the Median period.^ Evidence of man’s presence as far back as the Lower Palaeolithic period on the Iranian plateau has been found in the Kerman Shah Valley.
  • The Iranian Revolution - Past, Present and Future 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The western priests of Zoroastrianism were Median magi, and Persia appears to have been converted to the eastern Iranian faith largely through Media.
  • Persia Older Than History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC persian.blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly 15,000 Iranian ; soldiers were rotated through Oman during the five-year period.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rich Achaemenid gold work, which inscriptions suggest may have been a specialty of the Medes, was in the tradition of the delicate metalwork found in Iron Age II times at Hasanlu and still earlier at Marlik.^ II. From what has been said, we may pass to the earlier ages.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Brand America may still shine, but it's the afterglow of times gone by.
  • ; Economist Debates: Brand America: Statements (Printer Version) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are of three types, respectively from the Pontevecchio, Malgrate and Reusa districts in the valley of the river Magra; but whether any of them was fashioned by Ligures of historical times cannot be determined.91 The nine found aligned at Pontevecchio seem earlier than the Iron Age; but 85 w D 154, 302.
  • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This artistic style is particularly evident at Persepolis: with its carefully proportioned and well-organized ground plan, rich architectural ornament, and magnificent decorative reliefs, the palace there is one of the great artistic legacies of the ancient world.^ Great rulers of the ancient world?
  • Great rulers of the ancient world? [Archive] - RPGnet Forums 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC forum.rpg.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The oracles are one of the great mysteries of the ancient world.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ But this time there was one for Leonidas as well.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.In its art and architecture, Persepolis celebrates the king and the office of the monarch and reflected Darius' perception of himself as the leader of a conglomerate people to whom he had given a new and single identity.^ In its art ; and architecture, Persepolis reflected Darius's perception of himself as the ; leader of conglomerates of people to whom he had given a new and single ; identity.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This Achaemenid artistic style is evident in ; the iconography of Persepolis, which celebrates the king and the office of the ; monarch.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its art and architecture, Persepolis reflected Darius's perception of himself as the leader of conglomerates of people to whom he had given a new and single identity.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Achaemenids took the art forms and the cultural and religious traditions of many of the ancient Middle Eastern peoples and combined them into a single form.^ Ancient society, ancient culture, ancient people, ancient religion.
  • What is the history of India? - Yahoo! Answers India 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Achaemenids took the art forms and the cultural and religious traditions of many of the ancient Middle Eastern peoples and combined them into a single form.
  • Alienshift, MARS, UFO, Alien, Pole Shift, Time Travel, 2012, IRAN, IRAQ, RUSSIA, CHINA, ARMAGEDDON, UFO Video, NASA, SUFISM, ASCENSION 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.alienshift.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Achaemenids took the art forms and the cultural ; and religious traditions of many of the ancient Middle Eastern peoples and ; combined them into a single form.
  • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In describing the construction of his palace at Susa, Darius records that "The cedar timber from there (a mountain by name Lebanon) was brought, the yaka timber was brought from Gandara and from Carmania.^ The one ; documented journey from Gandara to Susa ; (PF1358) was made via Harauvatish under the authority ; of an official there named Bakabadush who ; also authorized journeys from other areas.
  • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ajaonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have no detail on the two names you brought, but I do not believe what you state just like I do not believe 6000 BC as Asgharzadeh claims, there was Turks in Iran.
  • Advocacy Project Blogs - Farzin Farzad 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC advocacynet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Diodorus who describes the tomb of Alexander in Memphis in some detail, the monument which was constructed by Ptolemy I there, was in the traditional Egyptian style.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria . . .^ The gold was brought from Sardis and from Bactria,; which here was wrought.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the precious stone lapis-lazuli and carnelian . . . was brought from Sogdiana. .The turquoise from Chorasmia, the silver and ebony from Egypt, the ornamentation from Ionia, the ivory from Ethiopia and from Sindh (Pakistan) and from Arachosia.^ The silver and the ebony were brought from Egypt.; The ornamentation with which the wall was adorned, that from Ionia; was brought.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ivory which was wrought here, was brought from; Ethiopia and from Sind and from Arachosia.; ; 3j.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It grows rich by exporting slaves, ivory, ebony, and gold to Egypt and Arabia .
  • Flotte's Outline of History: Ancient History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flotte2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stone-cutters who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians.^ The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians; and Egyptians.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stone-cutters; who wrought the stone, those were Ionians and Sardians.; ; 3k.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goldsmiths who wrought the gold, those were Medes; and Egyptians.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The goldsmiths were Medes and Egyptians. .The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians and Egyptians.^ He promoted intermarriage with the Persian nobility, setting the example himself and also giving presents to those of his men who married Asiatics.
  • India and the Greek World 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.adolphus.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ To those who have seen the terrible mutila- tions and disfigurements wrought by leprosy LEVIATHAN 473 was in nc sense part of the treatment of the leper.
  • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ May not those who inhabit woods be allowed to live without knowing who thou art and whence thou comest?
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

.The men who wrought the baked brick, those were Babylonians.^ The men who wrought the wood, those were Sardians; and Egyptians.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The men who wrought the baked brick, those were; Babylonians.
  • Old Persian Texts 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.avesta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He promoted intermarriage with the Persian nobility, setting the example himself and also giving presents to those of his men who married Asiatics.
  • India and the Greek World 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.adolphus.nl [Source type: Original source]

.The men who adorned the wall, those were Medes and Egyptians."^ He promoted intermarriage with the Persian nobility, setting the example himself and also giving presents to those of his men who married Asiatics.
  • India and the Greek World 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.adolphus.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians set fire to parts of the city as they were withdrawing and Alexander ordered his men to kill those who had set the fires and save any citizens left in the city.
  • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

^ Both Medes and Persians are Aryans; the Aryans who settled in the southern part of the Iranian plateau became known as Persians, while those of the mountain regions of the north-west were called Medes.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.This was an imperial art on a scale the world had not seen before.^ The period after the First World War had seen the rapid development of the unions, and ; the period following the Second World War now saw a similar re-emergence but on a ; far greater scale.
  • The Iranian Revolution, Past, Present and Future 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranchamber.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The period after the First World War had seen the rapid development of the unions, and the period following the Second World War now saw a similar re-emergence but on a far greater scale.
  • The Iranian Revolution - Past, Present and Future 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Materials and artists were drawn from all corners of the empire, and thus tastes, styles, and motifs became mixed together in an eclectic art and architecture that in itself mirrored the empire and the Persian understanding of how that empire ought to function.^ Egypt again became the province of an empire, as it had been under the Persians and briefly under Alexander.
  • Egypt.... :: Egypt from Egyptians Point of View :: Care2 Groups 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our art,; architecture, drama, literature, and poetry are all firmly based on Greek models.
  • http://www.flowofhistory.com/category/export/html/3 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.flowofhistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Zoroastrianism spread throughout the empire with Persian households, administration and military being present in every corner of the empire.
  • Persia Older Than History 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC persian.blog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Achaemenid kings and rulers

Unattested

The epigraphic evidence for these rulers cannot be confirmed and are often considered to have been invented by Darius I

Attested

    .
  • Teispes of Anshan, son of Achaemenes
  • Cyrus I of Anshan, son of Teispes
  • Cambyses I of Anshan, son of Cyrus I
  • Cyrus II, the Great, son of Cambyses I, ruled from c.550-530 BCE E(ruler of Anshan c.^ Cyrus the Mede, of Persia, (later to be known as Cyrus the Great) becomes ruler of Babylon and of the general area.
    • Thunderation - TimeLine 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC thunderation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A descendant, Cyrus ; II (also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder), led the combined forces ; of the Medes and the Persians to establish the most extensive empire known in ; the ancient world.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He recalls that this great country is ruled by a young and inexperienced monarch, Psammetichus III (Psamtik), son of Persia's constant enemy Amasis.
    • Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    559 BCE – conquered Media 550 BCE)
  • Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ruled 529-522 BCE
  • Smerdis (Bardiya), alleged son of Cyrus the Great, ruled 522 BCE (Possibly a usurper)
  • Darius I the Great, brother-in-law of Smerdis and grandson of Arsames, ruled 521-486 BCE
  • Xerxes I the Great, son of Darius I, ruled 485-465 BCE
  • Artaxerxes I Longimanus, son of Xerxes I, ruled 465-424 BCE
  • Xerxes II, son of Artaxerxes I, ruled 424 BCE
  • Sogdianus, half-brother and rival of Xerxes II, ruled 424-423 BCE
  • Darius II Nothus, half-brother and rival of Xerxes II, ruled 423-405 BCE
  • Artaxerxes II Mnemon, son of Darius II, ruled 404-359 BCE (see also Xenophon)
  • Artaxerxes III Ochus, son of Artaxerxes II, ruled 358-338 BCE
  • Artaxerxes IV Arses, son of Artaxerxes III, ruled 338-336 BCE
  • Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336-330 BCE

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Vasseghi, Sheda, "The other Iran story: Re-engineering the nation's cultural DNA", Breaking... WorldTribune.com World Tribune News, (12 October 2009).
  2. ^ Stewart, Basil, "Restoration of Palestine", (In reference to the Achaemenid Empire), p. 3 (2003).
  3. ^ a b Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty)
  4. ^ Schlerath p. 36, no. 9. See also Iranica in the Achaemenid Period p. 17.
  5. ^ Stronach, David "Anshan and Parsa: Early Achaemenid History, Art and Architecture on the Iranian Plateau". In: John Curtis, ed., Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism 539–331, 35–53. London: British Museum Press 1997. (see pages: 37, 38, 39, 49, 50)
  6. ^ e. g. Cyrus Cylinder Fragment A. ¶ 21.
  7. ^ [1], Josef Wiesehöfer
  8. ^ A. Sh. Shahbazi, Ariaramnes. See also R. Schmitt, Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty)
  9. ^ P. Briant
  10. ^ Ranajit Pal, "Non-Jonesian Indology and Alexander", New Delhi, 2002.
  11. ^ Herodotus. The Histories Book 3.80-83. 
  12. ^ While estimates for the Achaemenid Empire range from 10-80+ million, most prefer 50 million. Prevas (2009, p. 14) estimates 10 million 1. Langer (2001, p. 40) estimates around 16 million 2. McEvedy and Jones (2001, p. 50) estimates 17 million 3. Strauss (2004, p. 37) estimates about 20 million 4. Ward (2009, p. 16) estimates at 20 million 5. Aperghis (2007, p. 311) estimates 32 million 6. Scheidel (2009, p. 99) estimates 35 million 7. Zeinert (1996, p. 32) estimates 40 million 8. Rawlinson and Schauffler (1898, p. 270) estimates possibly 50 million 9. Astor (1899, p. 56) estimates almost 50 million 10. Lissner (1961, p. 111) estimates probably 50 million 11. Milns (1968, p. 51) estimates some 50 million 12. Hershlag (1980, p. 140) estimates nearly 50 million 13. Yarshater (1996, p. 47) estimates by 50 million 14. Daniel (2001, p. 41) estimates at 50 million 15. Meyer and Andreades (2004, p. 58) estimates to 50 million 16. Pollack (2004, p. 7) estimates about 50 million 17. Jones (2004, p. 8) estimates over 50 million 18. Safire (2007, p. 627) estimates in 50 million 19. Dougherty (2009, p. 6) estimates about 70 million 20. Richard (2008, p. 34) estimates nearly 70 million 21. Mitchell (2004, p. 16) estimates over 70 million 22. Hanson (2001, p. 32) estimates almost 75 million 23. West (1913, p. 85) estimates about 75 million 24. Zenos (1889, p. 2) estimates exactly 75 million 25. Cowley (1999 and 2001, p. 17) estimates possibly 80 million 26. Cook (1904, p. 277) estimates exactly 80 million 27.
  13. ^ Historical Estimates of World Population U.S. Census Bureau.
  14. ^ Chr. Walker, "Achaemenid Chronology and the Babylonian Sources," in: John Curtis (ed.), Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism, 539-331 BC (London 1997), page 22.
  15. ^ M. Dandamayev, “Foreign Slaves on the Estates of the Achaemenid Kings and their Nobles,” in Trudy dvadtsat' pyatogo mezhdunarodnogo kongressa vostokovedov II, Moscow, 1963, pp. 151-52
  16. ^ "Volume 2". http://www.zarathushtra.com/z/article/dgm/vol2.htm. 
  17. ^ "Vexilloid of". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. http://www.webcitation.org/5km8FUWby. 
  18. ^ "Flags". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. http://www.webcitation.org/5km8ESGII. 
  19. ^ Garrison, Mark B. and Root, Margaret C. (2001). Seals on the Persepolis Fortification Tablets, Volume 1. Images of Heroic Encounter (OIP 117). Chicago: Online Oriental Institute Publications. http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/PUB/SRC/OIP/117/OIP117.html. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  20. ^ a b Dandamayev, Muhammad (2003). "Persepolis Elamite Tablets". Encyclopedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/articles/sup/Persepolis_Elam_Tab.html. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  21. ^ Insler, Stanley (1975). "The Love of Truth in Ancient Iran". http://www.vohuman.org/Article/The%20Love%20of%20Truth%20in%20Ancient%20Iran.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-09.  In Insler, Stanley; Duchesne-Guillemin, J. (ed.) (1975). The Gāthās of Zarathustra (Acta Iranica 8). Liege: Brill. .
  22. ^ "Darius, Behishtan (DB), Column 1". http://www.avesta.org/op/op.htm#db1.  From Kent, Roland G. (1953). Old Persian: Grammar, texts, lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society. 
  23. ^ Shaked, Saul (1987). "Aramaic". Encyclopedia Iranica. 2. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 250–261.  p. 251
  24. ^ Frye, Richard N. (1955). "Review of G. R. Driver's "Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C."". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 18 (3/4): 456–461. doi:10.2307/2718444.  p. 457.
  25. ^ Geiger, Wilhelm & Ernst Kuhn (2002). Grundriss der iranischen Philologie: Band I. Abteilung 1. Boston: Adamant.  pp. 249ff.
  26. ^ Ware, James R. and Kent, Roland G. (1924). "The Old Persian Cuniform Inscriptions of Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 55: 52–61. doi:10.2307/283007.  p. 53
  27. ^ Gershevitch, Ilya (1964). "Zoroaster's own contribution". Journal of Near Eastern Studies 23 (1): 12–38. doi:10.1086/371754.  p. 20.
  28. ^ Herodotus. Histories. "[...]moreover they adopt all kinds of luxuries when they hear of them, and in particular they have learnt from the Hellenes to have commerce with boys[...]"
  29. ^ Plutarch. On the Malice of Herodotus. "The same Herodotus says that the Persians learned the defiling of the male sex from the Greeks. And yet how could the Greeks have taught this impurity to the Persians, amongst whom, as is confessed by many, boys had been castrated before ever they arrived in the Grecian seas?"

See also

Ancient history
Prehistory

Ancient Near East

Sumer · Elam · Akkad · Babylonia · Hittite Empire · Syro-Hittite states · Neo-Assyrian Empire · Urartu

Ancient Africa

Egypt · Nubia · Land of Punt · Axum · Nok · Carthage · Ancient Ghana

Classical Antiquity

Archaic Greece · Median Empire . .Classical Greece · Achaemenid Empire · Seleucid Empire · Dacia · Thrace · Scythia · Macedon · Roman Republic · Roman Empire · Parthia .^ A brief overview of the occurrence of rhyta in Anatolia, Cyprus, the Levant, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace and Greece will shed some light on the workings of cultural interaction in the period of Achaemenid Persian rule.
  • http://www.iranheritage.org/achaemenidconference/abstracts_full.htm 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of its power, the Achaemenid Empire encompassed approximately 7.5 million square kilometers and was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity.
  • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Persian empire ; under the Achaemenids ultimately stretched from Egypt to India, and was the largest ; empire of pre-Roman times.
  • ASIAN-AMERICAN BASELINE ESSAY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.pps.k12.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parthian Empire · Sassanid Empire · Late Antiquity

East Asia

Hồng Bàng Dynasty · Gojoseon · Shang China · Qin Dynasty · Han Dynasty · Jin Dynasty

South Asia

Vedic India · Maha Janapadas · Mauryan India · Chola India · Satavahana India · Gupta India

Pre-Columbian Americas

Paleo-Indians, Incas · Aztecs · Wari · Tiahuanaco · Moche · Teotihuacan · Chavín · Mayas · Norte Chico · Olmecs · Poverty Point · Hopewell · Mississippians
see also: World history · Ancient maritime history · Protohistory · Axial Age · Iron Age · Historiography · Ancient literature · Ancient warfare · Cradle of civilization
Middle Ages

References

Modern Sources

  • Briant, P.. "Alexander". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. .Routledge & Kegan Paul.^ New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • Gāndhārī Dictionary Project – Bibliography 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ebmp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ; 1985.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v1f8/v1f8a031.html.
     
  • Shahbazi, A. Sh..^ Full article here: http://www.echeat.com/essay.php?t=26510 * "Alexander is taking credit for the wild thunderstorm which allowed his troops to win the battle of the Hydapses.
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ S2drt2yfSp8 http://www.hamiltonwende.com/ .
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Read more: http://www.forbes.com/2009/06/18/alexander-great-hubris-leadership-power.html .
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    "ARIYĀRAMNA". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 2. .Routledge & Kegan Paul.^ New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • Gāndhārī Dictionary Project – Bibliography 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ebmp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ; 1985.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v2f4/v2f4a061.html.
     
  • Schmitt, Rüdiger.^ Full article here: http://www.echeat.com/essay.php?t=26510 * "Alexander is taking credit for the wild thunderstorm which allowed his troops to win the battle of the Hydapses.
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ S2drt2yfSp8 http://www.hamiltonwende.com/ .
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Source: http://www.middle-east-online.com (2-8-07) .
    • History News Network 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    "Achaemenid dynasty". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. .Routledge & Kegan Paul.^ New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • Gāndhārī Dictionary Project – Bibliography 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ebmp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ; 1985.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v1f4/v1f4a109.html.
     
  • Schlerath, Bernfried (1973).^ Full article here: http://www.echeat.com/essay.php?t=26510 * "Alexander is taking credit for the wild thunderstorm which allowed his troops to win the battle of the Hydapses.
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ S2drt2yfSp8 http://www.hamiltonwende.com/ .
    • Print Page - Travels with Alexander the Great 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.davecullen.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Source: http://www.middle-east-online.com (2-8-07) .
    • History News Network 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    Die Indogermanen. Inst. f. Vergl. Sprachwiss.. ISBN 3851245164. 
  • Tavernier, Jan (2007). .Iranica in the Achaemenid Period (ca.^ Sally Ann Baynard ; The PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD-Achaemenid ; Rule, ca.
    • Afghanistan country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC galvin.iit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .550-330 B.C.): Linguistic Study of Old Iranian Proper Names and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts
    .
    ^ A preliminary study of Gāndhārī lexicography.” In Bertil Tikkanen and Heinrich Hettrich, eds., Themes and Tasks in Old and Middle Indo‐Aryan Linguistics .
    • Gāndhārī Dictionary Project – Bibliography 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ebmp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The main sources for our extremely limited knowledge about the language are proper names, not Akkadian in style, that are preserved in such texts.
    • 3,000 B.C. - 1 A.D. 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the received text of Pr.SJ.i (A.V. and R.V.) ITHIEL and Ucal appear as proper names.
    • Full text of "Murray's illustrated Bible dictionary" 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    Peeters Publishers. .ISBN 9042918330. 
  • Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: A Neglected Source for the History of Early Persia," Topoi
  • Stronach, David "Anshan and Parsa: Early Achaemenid History, Art and Architecture on the Iranian Plateau". In: John Curtis, ed., Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian Period: Conquest and Imperialism 539–331, 35–53. London: British Museum Press 1997.
  • Wiesehöfer, Josef.^ There are many people calling themselves Persian whom they are changed the Iranian histories for their own interest.
    • Astarjian: Our Friends, Our Foes: The Kurds | Armenian Weekly 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.armenianweekly.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In Italy, Gianlorenzo Bernini’s architecture would usher in the Rococo period of art accompanying the Age of Reason.
    • WebLessons: Teaching Social Studies and Science with Online Lessons 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC www.weblessons.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It has often been observed that, compared to those from other periods of Iranian art, representations of women in Achaemenid art are rare.
    • http://www.iranheritage.org/achaemenidconference/abstracts_full.htm 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.iranheritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."History in pre-Islamic period".^ It has a; rich and varied history with ancient pre-Islamic roots and its practitioners; today are widely spread throughout both the Sunni and Shiah world; communities.
    • In Shiraz, Persian, the evening of May 23rd, 1844, a new religion was;born out of Islam 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC bahaifaith-islam-worldpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Much useful information, for the early as well as the later Islamic period, can ; be culled from E.G. Browne's four-volume A Literary History of Persia.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISLAMABAD, Pakistan -- Religious parties in the National Assembly were on Wednesday up in arms against teaching Pakistans pre-Islamic history in schools...
    • History News Network 10 February 2010 10:47 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    Encyclopaedia Iranica. http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v9f3/v9f393a.html. 

Further reading

  • Wiesehöfer, Josef; Azizeh Azodi (translator) (2001). Ancient Persia. .London, New York: I.B. Tauris.^ London; New ; York: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003).

    ^ See also John ; Frow, Genre (London and New York: Routledge, 2006), especially chapter 2, where ; Frow discusses the generic complexity of so-called simple genres.

    ^ London and New York: Routledge.
    • AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.ajaonline.org [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 1860646751.  There have been a number of editions since 1996.
  • Curtis, John E.; Nigel Tallis (editors) (2005).^ Curtis and Tallis 2005: 78) ; Fig.
    • THE FORMATION OF ACHAEMENID IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ‎AVESTA 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.soudavar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Matching the shape of the symbol of Ahura Mazdā to that of the khvarnah in ; Persepolis (per Curtis and Tallis 2005: 76) ; Fig.
    • THE FORMATION OF ACHAEMENID IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ‎AVESTA 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.soudavar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gold 'Croeseids' from the foundation box of the Apadana (Curtis and Tallis ; 2005: 58).
    • THE FORMATION OF ACHAEMENID IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ‎AVESTA 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.soudavar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia.^ Ardeshir Babakan, the founder of the Sasanian empire in ancient Persia.
    • Oriental rugs and Persian carpets Glossary, Learn about Rugs and Carpets Oldcarpet.com Everything About Persian Rugs 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.oldcarpet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A descendant, Cyrus ; II (also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder), led the combined forces ; of the Medes and the Persians to establish the most extensive empire known in ; the ancient world.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Persia was an ancient empire, extending from the Indus to Thrace, and from the Caspian Sea to the Red Sea and the Persia n Gulf.
    • Persia : Reference (The Full Wiki) 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.thefullwiki.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.^ Miriam Lichtheim; Berkeley: University of ; California Press, 1980), pages 36-41.

    ^ University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1971.
    • Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece - OrthodoxWiki 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC orthodoxwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The main U.S. holders of papyri are Duke University, University of California at Berkeley, University of Michigan, Columbia, Yale, and Princeton.
    • Archaeology Timeline : From Cave Paintings to the Internet 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC historyofscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Writing / Palaeography / Calligraphy Timeline : From Cave Paintings to the Internet 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.historyofscience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0520247310.  A collection of articles by different authors.
  • From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Pierre Briant, Eisenbrauns: 2002, ISBN 978-1-57506-0316
  • The Greco-Persian Wars, Peter Green
  • The Greek and Persian Wars 499–386 BCE, Philip De Souza
  • The Heritage of Persia, Richard N. Frye
  • History of the Persian Empire, A.T. Olmstead
  • The Persian Empire, Lindsay Allen
  • The Persian Empire, J.M. Cook
  • Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West, Tom Holland
  • Pictorial History of Iran: Ancient Persia Before Islam 15000 B.C.–625 A.D., Amini Sam
  • Timelife Persians: Masters of the Empire (Lost Civilizations)
  • Dandamaev, M.A. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire.^ Dissension and civil wars broke out at once in every quarter of the vast empire, from India to the Nile, and lasted for nearly forty-two years.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Persia 16 January 2010 2:51 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The major capital of Susa surrendered to the Greeks without resisting, and the immense treasure accumulated by the Persian empire was found in the palace.
    • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Ethics of Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Empires by Sanderson Beck 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Armed Forces ; ; ***Historical Background ; ; The importance of the armed forces in Iran flows from Iran's long history of ; successive military empires.
    • Free Ebooks - Iran, a country study 15 May 2010 10:12 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 1989 (ISBN 90-04-09172-6).
  • Hallock, R., Persepolis Fortification Tablets

External links


Simple English

Achaemenid Empire شاهنشاهی هخامنشی ایران
File:Map achaemenid empire
Achaemenid Empire.
Vexilloid The vexilloid of the Achaemenid Empire was a gold falcon on a field of crimson. [1][2]
Languages Persian, Elamite, Aramaic, Hebrew
Religions There was no official state religion. Zoroastrianism was practiced by the nobility but limited to them; numerous other religions, such as Judaism, were practiced.
Capitals Anshan,
Ecbatana,
Pasargadae,
Persepolis,
Susa
Area Near East, Central Asia, Western South Asia, North Africa, and Southeast Europe
Existed 550-330 BCE

The Achaemenid Empire, or Achaemenid Persian Empire,[3] (550–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Persia (or Iran). It followed the Median Empire as the second great empire of the Iranian peoples.[4] At the height of its power, the Achaemenid Empire had about 7.5 million square kilometers and was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity.

The empire was forged by Cyrus the Great. It spanned three continents, including parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan; parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace; much of the Black Sea coastal regions; Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria; and all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya. The empire was the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-Persian Wars. It freed the Israelites from their Babylonian captivity, and instituted Aramaic as the empire's official language. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Persian influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and government of nations around the world lasts to this day.

Contents

History

The empire began as a tributary state of the Medes but ended up conquering and enlarging the Median empire to include Egypt and Asia Minor. Under Xerxes, it came very close to conquering Ancient Greece. The Achaemenids were overthrown by the conquest of Alexander the Great in 330 BCE.

File:World 500
The world, c. 500 BCE, showing the Achaemenid Empire (in brown) relative to the rest of the world at the time.

Achaemenid kings and leaders

  • Teispes of Anshan, son of Achaemenes
  • Cyrus I of Anshan, son of Teispes
  • Cambyses I of Anshan, son of Cyrus I
  • Cyrus II, the Great, son of Cambyses I, ruled from c.550-530 BCE (ruler of Anshan c. 559 BCE – conquered Media 550 BCE)
  • Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, ruled 529-522 BCE
  • Smerdis (Bardiya), alleged son of Cyrus the Great, ruled 522 BCE (Possibly a usurper)
  • Darius I, the Great, brother-in-law of Smerdis and grandson of Arsames, ruled 521-486 BCE
  • Xerxes I, son of Darius I, ruled 485-465 BCE
  • Artaxerxes I Longimanus, son of Xerxes I, ruled 465-424 BCE
  • Xerxes II, son of Artaxerxes I, ruled 424 BCE
  • Sogdianus, half-brother and rival of Xerxes II, ruled 424-423 BCE
  • Darius II Nothus, half-brother and rival of Xerxes II, ruled 423-405 BCE
  • Artaxerxes II Mnemon, son of Darius II, ruled 404-359 BCE (see also Xenophon)
  • Artaxerxes III Ochus, son of Artaxerxes II, ruled 358-338 BCE
  • Artaxerxes IV Arses, son of Artaxerxes III, ruled 338-336 BCE
  • Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336-330 BCE

Notes

  1. Vexilloid of |the Achaemenid Empire:
  2. Flags |of Persian History:
  3. Persian: هخامنشیان IPA: [haχɒmaneʃijɒn]
  4. The Iranian peoples spoke Indo-European languages such as Old Persian and Avestan.

Other pages

References

  • Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: a neglected source for the history of early Persia," Topoi
  • Stronach, David "Anshan and Parsa: early Achaemenid history, art and architecture on the Iranian Plateau". In: John Curtis, ed., Mesopotamia and Iran in the Persian period: conquest and imperialism 539–331, 35–53. London: British Museum Press 1997.

Further reading

  • From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, Pierre Briant, Eisenbrauns: 2002, ISBN 978-1-57506-0316

Other websites

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