# Acre: Wikis

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# Encyclopedia

The acre is a unit of area in a number of different systems, including the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre.

One international acre is equal to 4,046.8564224 m2. One U.S. survey acre is equal to 62,726,400,00015,499,969 m 2 = 4,046.8726098 m2.

The area of one acre (red) overlaid on an American football field (green) and Association football field (blue).

One acre comprises 4,840 square yards or 43,560 square feet[1] (which can be easily remembered as 44,000 square feet, less 1%; or as the product of 66 x 660). Because of alternative definitions of a yard or a foot, the exact size of an acre also varies slightly. Originally, an acre was understood as a selion of land sized at one furlong (660 ft) long and one chain (66 ft) wide; this may have also been understood as an approximation of the amount of land an ox could plow in one day. A square enclosing one acre is approximately 208 feet and 9 inches (63.6 meters) on a side. But as a unit of measure an acre has no prescribed configuration; any perimeter enclosing 43,560 ft2 is an acre in size.

The acre is often used to express areas of land. In the metric system, the hectare is commonly used for the same purpose. An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.

One acre is 90.75 percent of a 53.33-yard-wide American football field. The full field, including the end zones, covers approximately 1.32 acres (0.53 ha).

## International acre

In 1958, the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations defined the length of the international yard to be 0.9144 meters.[2] Consequently, the international acre is exactly 4,046.8564224 square meters.

## United States survey acre

The United States survey acre is approximately 4,046.873 square meters; its exact value (404613,525,42615,499,969 m²) is based on an inch defined by 1 meter = 39.37 inches exactly, as established by the Mendenhall Order.

## Equivalence to other units of area

1 international acre is equal to the following metric units:

• 4,046.8564224 square meters
• 0.40468564224 hectare (A square with 100 m sides has an area of 1 hectare.)

1 United States survey acre is equal to:

1 acre (both variants) is equal to the following customary units:

• 66 feet × 660 feet (43,560 square feet)
• 1 chain × 10 chains (1 chain = 66 feet = 22 yards = 4 rods = 100 links)
• 1 acre is approximately 208.71 feet × 208.71 feet (a square)
• 4,840 square yards
• 160 perches. A perch is equal to a square rod (1 square rod is 0.00625 acre)
• 10 square chains
• 4 roods
• A chain by a furlong (chain 22 yards, furlong 220 yards)
• 1/640 (0.0015625) square mile (1 square mile is equal to 640 acres)

1 international acre is equal to the following Indian unit:

## Historical origin

Farm-derived units of measurement:
1. The rod is a historical unit of length equal to 5½ yards. It may have originated from the typical length of a mediaeval ox-goad.
2. The furlong (meaning furrow length) was the distance a team of oxen could plough without resting. This was standardised to be exactly 40 rods.
3. An acre was the amount of land tillable by one man behind one ox in one day. Traditional acres were long and narrow due to the difficulty in turning the plough.
4. An oxgang was the amount of land tillable by one ox in a ploughing season. This could vary from village to village, but was typically around 15 acres.
5. A virgate was the amount of land tillable by two oxen in a ploughing season.
6. A carucate was the amount of land tillable by a team of eight oxen in a plowing season. This was equal to 8 oxgangs or 4 virgates.

The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer (originally meaning "open field", cognate to west coast Norwegian language "ækre" and Swedish "åker", German Acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος (agros).

The acre was approximately the amount of land tillable by one man behind an ox in one day. This explains one definition as the area of a rectangle with sides of length one chain and one furlong. A long narrow strip of land is more efficient to plough than a square plot, since the plough does not have to be turned so often. The word "furlong" itself derives from the fact that it is one furrow long.

Before the enactment of the metric system, many countries in Europe used their own official acres. These were differently sized in different countries, for instance, the historical French acre was 4,221 square meters, whereas in Germany as many variants of "acre" existed as there were German states.

Statutory values for the acre were enacted in England by acts of:

Historically, the size of farms and landed estates in the United Kingdom was usually expressed in acres (or acres, roods, and perches), even if the number of acres was so large that it might conveniently have been expressed in square miles. For example, a certain landowner might have been said to own 32,000 acres of land, not 50 square miles of land.

## Customary acre

The customary acre was a measure of roughly similar size to the acre described above, but it was subject to considerable local variation similar to the variation found in carucates, virgates, bovates, nooks, and farundells. However, there were more ancient measures that were also farthingales. These may have been multiples of the customary acre, rather than the statute acre.

## References

1. ^ National Institute of Standards and Technology General Tables of Units of Measurement
2. ^ National Bureau of Standards. Refinement of Values for the Yard and the Pound.
3. ^ [1] Holland, Robert, A glossary of words used in the County of Chester, 1886, p. 3.
4. ^ [2] The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

The acre is a unit of area in a number of different systems, including the imperial and U.S. customary systems. The most commonly used acres today are the international acre and, in the United States, the survey acre. The most common use of the acre is to measure tracts of land.

One acre comprises 4,840 square yards, 43,560 square feet[1] or about 4046.86 square meters (see below). While all modern variants of the acre contain 4,840 square yards, there are alternative definitions of a yard, so the exact size of an acre depends on which yard it is based on. Originally, an acre was understood as a selion of land sized at one furlong (660 ft) long and one chain (66 ft) wide; this may have also been understood as an approximation of the amount of land an ox could plough in one day. A square enclosing one acre is approximately 208 feet and 9 inches (63.6 metres) on a side. But as a unit of measure an acre has no prescribed shape; any perimeter enclosing 43,560 square feet is an acre in size.

The acre is often used to express areas of land. In the metric system, the hectare is commonly used for the same purpose. An acre is approximately 40% of a hectare.

One acre is 90.75 percent of a 100-yard (91.44-meter) long by 53.33-yard (48.77-meter) wide American football field (without the end zones). The full field, including the end zones, covers approximately 1.32 acres (0.53 ha). It is also approximately 56.68 percent of a 105-meter (344.49-foot) long by 68-meter (223.10-foot) wide Association football pitch (soccer field). It may also be remembered as 44,000 square feet, less 1%; or as the product of 66 x 660.

File:Acre over US and Associationl football
The area of one acre (red) overlaid on an American football field (green) and Association football field (blue).

## International acre

In 1958, the United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations defined the length of the international yard to be 0.9144 metres.[2] Consequently, the international acre is exactly 4,046.856 422 4 square metres. Since the difference between the U.S. and International acre is only approximately 0.016 square meters, it is usually not important which one is being discussed.

## United States survey acre

The United States survey acre is approximately 4,046.872 609 874 252 square metres; its exact value (4046 13,525,42615,499,969 m2) is based on an inch defined by 1 metre = 39.37 inches exactly, as established by the Mendenhall Order.

## Equivalence to other units of area

1 international acre is equal to the following metric units:

• 4,046.8564224 square metres
• 0.40468564224 hectare (A square with 100 m sides has an area of 1 hectare.)

1 United States survey acre is equal to:

1 acre (both variants) is equal to the following customary units:

• 66 feet × 660 feet (43,560 square feet)
• 1 chain × 10 chains (1 chain = 66 feet = 22 yards = 4 rods = 100 links)
• 1 acre is approximately 208.71 feet × 208.71 feet (a square)
• 4,840 square yards
• 160 perches. A perch is equal to a square rod (1 square rod is 0.00625 acre)
• 10 square chains
• 4 roods
• A chain by a furlong (chain 22 yards, furlong 220 yards)
• 1/640 (0.0015625) square mile (1 square mile is equal to 640 acres)

1 international acre is equal to the following Indian unit:

## Historical origin

Farm-derived units of measurement:
1. The rod is a historical unit of length equal to 5½ yards. It may have originated from the typical length of a mediaeval ox-goad.
2. The furlong (meaning furrow length) was the distance a team of oxen could plough without resting. This was standardised to be exactly 40 rods.
3. An acre was the amount of land tillable by one man behind one ox in one day. Traditional acres were long and narrow due to the difficulty in turning the plough.
4. An oxgang was the amount of land tillable by one ox in a ploughing season. This could vary from village to village, but was typically around 15 acres.
5. A virgate was the amount of land tillable by two oxen in a ploughing season.
6. A carucate was the amount of land tillable by a team of eight oxen in a ploughing season. This was equal to 8 oxgangs or 4 virgates.

The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer originally meaning "open field", cognate to west coast Norwegian ækre and Swedish åker, German acker, Latin ager, and Greek αγρος (agros).

The acre was approximately the amount of land tillable by one man behind an ox in one day. This explains one definition as the area of a rectangle with sides of length one chain and one furlong. A long narrow strip of land is more efficient to plough than a square plot, since the plough does not have to be turned so often. The word "furlong" itself derives from the fact that it is one furrow long.

Before the enactment of the metric system, many countries in Europe used their own official acres. These were differently sized in different countries, for instance, the historical French acre was 4,221 square meters, whereas in Germany as many variants of "acre" existed as there were German states.

Statutory values for the acre were enacted in England by acts of:

Historically, the size of farms and landed estates in the United Kingdom was usually expressed in acres (or acres, roods, and perches), even if the number of acres was so large that it might conveniently have been expressed in square miles. For example, a certain landowner might have been said to own 32,000 acres of land, not 50 square miles of land.

## Customary acre

The customary acre was a measure of roughly similar size to the acre described above, but it was subject to considerable local variation similar to the variation found in carucates, virgates, bovates, nooks, and farundels. However, there were more ancient measures that were also farthingales. These may have been multiples of the customary acre, rather than the statute acre.

## References

1. ^ National Institute of Standards and Technology (n.d.) General Tables of Units of Measurement
2. ^ National Bureau of Standards. (1959). Refinement of Values for the Yard and the Pound.
3. ^ Holland, Robert. (1886). A glossary of words used in the County of Chester. London: Trübner for the English Dialect Society. p. 3.

# Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

### From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Acre:

# Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

## English

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

### Proper noun

Acre

1. Old name of a city in modern Israel famed from the Crusades: see Acco.
2. A state in north-western Brazil, bordering Peru and Bolivia.

# Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

### From BibleWiki

Acre is the translation of a word (tse'med), which properly means a yoke, and denotes a space of ground that may be ploughed by a yoke of oxen in a day. It is about an acre of our measure (Isa 5:10; 1Sam 14:14).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

# Simple English

For the state in Brazil, see Acre (state).

An acre is an English unit of area, which is also used in the United States and some Commonwealth countries. It is most often used to describe areas of land.

• By the official definition it is 4.840 square yards.
• The international acre is 4,046.8564224 m². This is based on international foot of 0.3048 m.
• The U.S. survey acre is 4,046.87261 m². This is based on the U.S. survey foot of 12003937 m.

An acre is equivalent to approximately:

Originally, it was seen as the area of land a farmer could plough with an ox in a day. Since this definition depended on the farmer and the ox, it looked variable. Therefore, Edward I, Edward III, Henry VIII and George IV passed laws fixing its size. The Commonwealth countries, including the United states then also introduce these laws.