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Actinomyces israelii
Scanning electron micrograph of Actinomyces israelii.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Family: Actinomycetaceae
Genus: Actinomyces
Species: A. israelii
Binomial name
Actinomyces israelii
(Kruse 1896)
Lachner-Sandoval 1898

Actinomyces israelii is a species of Actinomyces.

Actinomycosis is most frequently caused by Actinomyces israelii and is sometimes known as the "most misdiagnosed disease," as it is frequently confused with neoplasms. A. israelii is a normal colonizer of the vagina, colon, and mouth. Infection is established first by a breach of the mucosal barrier during various procedures (dental, GI), aspiration, or pathologies such as diverticulitis. The chronic phase of this disease is also known the "classic phase" because the acute, early phase is often missed by health care providers. This is characterized by slow contiguous growth that ignores tissue planes and forms a sinus tract that can spontaneously heal and recur, leading to a densely fibrotic lesion. This lesion is often characterized as "wooden." "Sulfur" granules form in a central purulence surrounded by neutrophils. This conglomeration of organisms is virtually diagnostic of Actinomyces israelii. Oral-cervicofacial disease is the most common form of actinomycosis. It is characterized by a painless "lumpy jaw." Lymphadenopathy is uncommon in this form of the disease. Another form of actinomycosis is thoracic disease, which is often misdiagnosed as a neoplasm, as it forms a mass that extends to the chest wall. It arises from aspiration of organisms from the oropharynx. Symptoms include chest pain, fever, and weight loss. Abdominal disease is another manifestation of actinomycosis. This can lead to a sinus tract that drains to the abdominal wall or the perianal area. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss. [1] Actinomyces sp. have also been shown to infect the central nervous system in a dog "without history or evidence of previous trauma or other organ involvement." [1]

Treatment

Treatment for actinomycosis consists of antibiotics such as penicillin or amoxicillin for six to twelve months, as well as surgery if the disease is extensive. [1]

Diagnosis

Consider actinomycosis when the patient has chronic progression of disease across tissue planes that is mass-like at times, sinus tract development that may heal and recur, and refractory infection after a typical course of antibiotics.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c El Sahli, MD, MS. "Anaerobic Pathogens." Infectious Disease Module 2007. Baylor College of Medicine, 2007.
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Actinomyces israelii

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Classis: Actinobacteria
Subclassis: Actinobacteridae
Ordo: Actinomycetales
Subordo: Actinomycineae
Familia: Actinomycetaceae
Genus: Actinomyces
Species: Actinomyces israelii

Name

Actinomyces israelii (Kruse, 1896) Lachner-Sandoval, 1898
Basonyme : "Streptothrix israeli" (sic) Kruse, 1896

References

  • W. KRUSESystematik der Streptothricheen und Bakterien. In: C. FLÜGGE, Die Mikroorganismen, 3rd ed., vol.2, Vogel, Leipzig, 1896, pp. 48-96.
  • V. LACHNER-SANDOVAL : Über Strahlenpilze. Inaugural Dissertation Strassburg. Universitäts Buchdruckerei Von Carl Georgi, Bonn, 1898.

Synonyms

  • "Discomyces israeli" (Kruse 1896) Gedoelst 1902
  • "Actinobacterium israeli" (Kruse 1896) Sampietro 1908
  • "Cohnistreptothrix israeli" (Kruse 1896) Pinoy 1913
  • "Nocardia israeli" (Kruse 1896) Castellani & Chalmers 1913
  • "Oospora israeli" (Kruse 1896) Sartory 1920
  • "Brevistreptothrix israeli" (Kruse 1896) Lignières 1924
  • "Corynebacterium israeli" (Kruse 1896) Haupt & Zeki 1933
  • "Proactinomyces israeli" (Kruse 1896) Negroni 1934

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