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Ray-finned fish
Fossil range: Late Silurian–Recent
Atlantic herring
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Class: Actinopterygii
Klein, 1885
Subclasses

Chondrostei
Neopterygii

The Actinopterygii constitute the class or sub-class of the ray-finned fishes.

The ray-finned fishes are so called because they possess lepidotrichia or "fin rays", their fins being webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii which also, however, possess lepidotrichia. These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles).

In terms of numbers, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 95% of the 25,000 species of fish. They are ubiquitous throughout fresh water and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 millimetres (0.31 in), to the massive Ocean Sunfish, at 2,300 kilograms (5,100 lb), and the long-bodied Oarfish, to at least 11 metres (36 ft).

Contents

Fossil record

Hypsospondylus fossil

The earliest known fossil Actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei, dating back 420 million years (Late Silurian). This microvertebrate has been uncovered in Russia, Sweden, and Estonia[1].

Classification

Traditionally three grades of actinopterygians have been recognised: the Chondrostei, Holostei, and Teleostei. Some morphological evidence suggests that the second is paraphyletic and should be abandoned; however, recent work based on more complete sampling of fossil taxa, and also an analysis of DNA sequence data from the complete mitochondrial genome, supports its recognition. Nearly all living bony fishes are teleosts.

A listing of the different groups is given below, down to the level of orders, arranged in what has been suggested to represent the evolutionary sequence down to the level of order based primarily on the long history of morphological studies. This classification, like any other taxonomy based on phylogenetic research is in a state of flux. Many of these ordinal and higher-level groupings have not been supported in both the recent morphological and molecular literature. Examples of demonstrably paraphyletic or unnatural groups include the Paracanthopterygii, Scorpaeniformes, and Perciformes[2]. The listing follows FishBase[3] with notes when this differs from Nelson[4] and ITIS.[5]

Notes

  1. ^ Palaeobase
  2. ^ G. D. Johnson and E. O. Wiley (March 2007). "Tree of Life: Percomorpha". http://www.tolweb.org/Percomorpha/52146. 
  3. ^ R. Froese and D. Pauly (editors) (February 2006). "FishBase". http://www.fishbase.org. 
  4. ^ Nelson, Joseph, S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. ISBN 0471250317. 
  5. ^ Actinopterygii (TSN 161061). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 3 April 2006.
  6. ^ In Nelson, Polypteriformes is placed in its own subclass Cladistia.
  7. ^ In ITIS, Gobiesociformes is placed as the suborder Gobiesocoidei of the order Perciformes.
  8. ^ In Nelson and ITIS, Syngnathiformes is placed as the suborder Syngnathoidei of the order Gasterosteiformes.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

From the New Latin prefix actino- + Ancient Greek πτέρυξ (pteruks), wing).

Proper noun

Actinopterygii

  1. (taxonomy) A taxonomic class within the superclass Osteichthyes — the ray-finned fish.

Hyponyms

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Forcipiger longirostris

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Chondrostei - Neopterygii

Name

Actinopterygii Klein, 1885

References

  • Nelson, J. S. 2006: Fishes of the World, 4th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, New York.
  • Roberts, C.D.; Paulin, C.D.; Stewart, A.L.; McPhee, R.P.; McDowall, R.M. (compilers) 2009: Checklist of New Zealand Chordata: living lancelets, jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, and bony fishes. Pp. 527-536 in Gordon, D.P. (ed.) New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume 1. Kingdom Animalia. Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877257-72-8
  • Wiley, E. O., G. D. Johnson, and W. W. Dimmick. 2000: The interrelationships of acanthomorph fishes: a total evidence approach using morphological and molecular data. Biochem. Syst. Evol. 28(2000):319-350.

Vernacular names

Česky: Paprskoploutví
Deutsch: Strahlenflosser
English: Ray-finned Fishes
Esperanto: Aktinopterigoj
Français: Actinoptérygiens
한국어: 조기어강
Hrvatski: Zrakoperke
עברית: מקריני סנפיר
Magyar: Sugarasúszójú halak
日本語: 条鰭綱
Português: Actinopterígio
Русский: Лучепёрые рыбы
Suomi: Viuhkaeväiset kalat
Svenska: Taggfeniga fiskar
Türkçe: Işınsal yüzgeçliler
Українська: Променепері
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Actinopterygii on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Ray-finned fish
Fossil range: Upper Silurian – Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Class: Actinopterygii
Klein, 1885
Subclasses

Chondrostei
Neopterygii

The Actinopterygii is the class of ray-finned fishes.

The ray-finned fishes get their name from the fact that they have lepidotrichia or "fin rays". Their fins are webs of skin held by bony or horny spines ("rays"). This is different from the fleshy fins of the fish in the Sarcopterygii.

Actinopterygians are the largest class of vertebrates. There are nearly 25,000 species. They can be found in both fresh water and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Most of the living species are teleosts.[1]

Taxonomy

CLASS ACTINOPTERYGII

References

  1. R. Froese and D. Pauly (editors) (February 2006). "FishBase". http://www.fishbase.org. 







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