Addison's disease: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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Addison's disease
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E27.1-E27.2
ICD-9 255.4
DiseasesDB 222
MedlinePlus 000378
eMedicine med/42
MeSH D000224
.Addison’s disease (also chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder wherein the adrenal glands produce insufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids).^ Pathological disorders of the; adrenal glands.
  • Adrenal disorders and anaesthesia including Phaeochromocytoma 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.4um.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of Addison disease involves replacing the hormones not being produced by the adrenal glands.
  • Addison's Disease - Medpedia 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Addison's disease, the part of the adrenal glands that produce cortical steroids is diseased and not functioning well.

.[1] It's generally diagnosed via blood tests and medical imaging.^ The condition is generally diagnosed with blood tests, medical imaging and additional investigations.
  • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Repeated ; blood tests during the day track the medication ; entering your blood stream when you take each ; dose and record how long it lasts.

^ In addition, there has never been a reliable urine or blood test that checks for, and can definitively diagnose, mild forms of hypoadrenia.
  • ; cortisol | Dr. James Wilson's Adrenal Fatigue Blog; 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC blog.adrenalfatigue.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Treatment involves replacing the absent hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone).^ Treatment for Addison's disease involves taking replacement hormones.
  • What Is Addison's Disease (Primary Adrenal Insufficiency)? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment is with replacement of the hormones (oral hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone).
  • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment is replacement of the hormones with synthetic glucocorticoids (i.e.

.Regular follow-up treatment and monitoring for other health problems is necessary.^ Regular follow-up and monitoring for other health problems is necessary.
  • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment and Follow-up .
  • Future Directions in the Study and Management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency — Ann Intern Med 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During follow-up 4 in CBT, 4 in support ; and 9 in control group dropped out ; (dropped out of treatment or did not ; .
  • CRD Report 22 - Treatment and management of CFS/ME 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.york.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Addison’s disease is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules (1849).^ Thomas Addison first described the clinical presentation of primary adrenocortical insufficiency ( Addison disease ) in 1855 in his classic paper, On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Supra-Renal Capsules .
  • Addison Disease: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The condition is named after Dr Thomas Addison, the British physician who first described the condition in his 1855 On the Constitutional and Local Effects of Disease of the Suprarenal Capsules .
  • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The condition is named after a Dr Addison who first described it in 1855.
  • Addison's Disease | Health | Patient UK 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .The adjective "Addisonian" describes features of the condition, and patients suffering Addison’s disease.^ The adjective "Addisonian" is used for features of the condition, as well as patients with Addison's disease.
  • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinical features of Addison’s disease .
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No cases of Addison's disease are likely to have been missed for the period of assessment, as all such patients are followed at hospital-based endocrine clinics within the region.
  • Coeliac disease and autoimmune Addison's disease: a clinical pitfall -- O'leary et al. 95 (2): 79 -- QJM 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .While Addison's six patients in 1855 all had adrenal tuberculosis,[4] the term "Addison's disease" does not imply an underlying disease process.^ Addison's ; disease have positive adrenal antibodies.
  • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately ; 70% of the patients with Addison's disease have ; anti-adrenal antibodies.

^ Addison's disease, adrenal insufficiency S .
  • Adrenal gland symptoms - WrongDiagnosis.com 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms

.The symptoms of Addison's disease develop insidiously, and it may take some time to be recognized.^ Hyperpigmentation can be the symptom of some severe diseases (e.g.

^ Symptoms of Addison's disease?

^ It will take some time.
  • Dog with Cushings Disease - Dogs - MedHelp 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

.The most common symptoms are fatigue, dizziness, muscle weakness, weight loss, difficulty in standing up, anxiety, diarrhea, headache, sweating, changes in mood and personality, sudden drops in blood pressure especially when going from a seated position to standing, and joint and muscle pains.^ Weight loss: Symptom Checker .

^ Common symptoms include weakness, weight loss, change in appetite or behavior, increased thirst and increased urination.

^ Pain - most common symptom - more than 90%.
  • HUMAN REPRODUCTION: CLINICAL, PATHOLOGIC AND PHARMACOLOGIC CORRELATIONS 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC library.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some have marked cravings for salt or salty foods due to the urinary losses of sodium.^ Because of salt loss, a craving for salty foods is common.
  • Adrenal Disease - Page 2 of 2: Online Reference for Health Concerns 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of salt loss, craving of salty foods also is common.
  • ; Knowledge Base - Disorders | Pituitary Network Association; 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.pituitary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A craving for salty; foods.
  • Addison's Disease, SVCMC; New York NY 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ann Arbor, MI Addison's Disease. Addison's disease (primary adrenocortical... 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.sjmercyhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Tools & Articles 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.carillonexecutivehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Adrenal insufficiency is manifested in the skin primarily by hyperpigmentation.^ Table 1 Clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency .
  • Coeliac disease and autoimmune Addison's disease: a clinical pitfall -- O'leary et al. 95 (2): 79 -- QJM 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic primary adrenal insufficiency presents with hyperpigmentation of the skin and mucosal membranes, weakness, fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, anorexia, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, salt craving, and, in children, hypoglycemia.
  • Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in Boys - Athena Diagnostics 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.athenadiagnostics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If skin hyperpigmentation becomes apparent in primary adrenal insufficiency, obtaining plasma ACTH levels may be helpful.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency: Still a Cause of Morbidity and Death in Childhood -- Shulman et al. 119 (2): e484 -- Pediatrics 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]:501

Clinical signs

.
The negative feedback loop for glucocorticoids.
^ There is a negative feedback loop that allows the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to refine precisely how much cortisol circulates in the bloodstream.
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.moorevet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a consequence, the loss of negative feedback from glucocorticoids, an increased ACTH drive and an increased steroid synthesis shunted into the androgen pathway, leads to the increased production of adrenal androgens.
  • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The negative feedback effects of cortisol are exerted at the level of both the hypothalamus and the pituitary and are mediated by Type II corticosteroid receptors ( i.e ., classic glucocorticoid receptors) ( 25 ).
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Because primary hypocortisolism is manifested as a deficiency in glucocorticoid release from the adrenal cortex, increased ACTH will be released by the pituitary in order to trigger release of the absent glucocorticoid; it is because of this overstimulation of ACTH that bronzing of the skin occurs.^ Glucocorticoid deficiency section of The adrenal cortex.
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their hormones stimulate the adrenal cortex to release its hormones.

^ Caused; by a deficiency of adrenal cortex hormones.

.In secondary or tertiary hypocortisolism, there is a deficiency of either CRH or ACTH release by the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, respectively.^ Inefficient cortisol synthesis signals the hypothalamus and pituitary to increase CRH and ACTH, respectively.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are released and controlled by the pituitary gland.
  • "Lesser Known Causes of AD"Copyright ©2004-2008 Mike Welch 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons-network.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glucocorticoids are released in ; times of stress and are controlled by the hypothalamus (corticotropin-releasing ; hormone (CRH)) and the pituitary gland (ACTH).
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

The former will manifest as no ACTH release while the latter will manifest as physiologic (normal) ACTH release; neither will cause an overproduction of ACTH.
On examination, the following may be noticed:[2]
.
  • Low blood pressure that falls further when standing (orthostatic hypotension)
  • Most people with primary Addison's have darkening (hyperpigmentation) of the skin, including areas not exposed to the sun; characteristic sites are skin creases (e.g.^ People with Addison's disease sometimes have low blood sugar.
    • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Blood pressure is low and falls further when standing, causing dizziness or fainting.
    • ; Knowledge Base - Disorders | Pituitary Network Association; 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.pituitary.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Most of the people I know with Addison's disease do have the bronze skin tone or hyperpigmentation mentioned above.

    of the hands), nipples, and the inside of the cheek .(buccal mucosa), also old scars may darken.^ The tumor presented as a soft tissue nodule on the buccal mucosa of a 60-year-old man.
    • http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/%7Ecartic/dataset/Angiofibroma/text 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC lsdis.cs.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .This occurs because melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) share the same precursor molecule, Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).^ Corticotropin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are both components of the same progenitor hormone.

    ^ This is because ACTH is equipotent with melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) at the G-protein linked melanocortin-1 receptor.
    • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Box 4.15 Synthesis of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) ACTH is derived from a large precursor molecule pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) that is cleaved by the action of specific peptidase enzymes ( Box 4.15 ).
    • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .After production in anterior pituitary gland, POMC gets cleaved into Gamma-MSH, ACTH and Beta-lipotropin.^ ACTH is a normal by-product of the anterior pituitary gland.
    • Cushing's Glossary / Cushings-Help.com Support for Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With the destruction of the adrenal cortex, feedback inhibition of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland is interrupted, and corticotropin is secreted continuously.

    ^ Pituitary diabetes insipidus : Metabolic disorder due to injury of the pituitary gland causing a deficient production of anti-diuretic hormone .
    • Cushing's Glossary / Cushings-Help.com Support for Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The subunit ACTH undergoes further cleavage to produce Alpha-MSH, the most important MSH for skin pigmentation.^ At the same time the increased ACTH secretion can cause marked skin pigmentation.
    • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Melanin The skin and hair bulb pigment produced by melanocytes.

    ^ The most common forms of ACTH -producing tumors are oat cell, or small cell lung cancer, which accounts for about 25 percent of all lung cancer cases, and carcinoid tumors.
    • Cushing's Glossary / Cushings-Help.com Support for Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

    In secondary and tertiary forms of Addison's, skin darkening does not occur.
  • Medical conditions such as goitre and vitiligo often occur together with Addison's

Addisonian crisis

.An "Addisonian crisis" or "adrenal crisis" is a constellation of symptoms that indicate severe adrenal insufficiency.^ Electrolytes are key indicators of adrenal insufficiency.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of an adrenal crisis include: .
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Tools & Articles 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.carillonexecutivehealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Signs, symptoms & indicators of Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency: .

.This may be the result of either previously undiagnosed Addison's disease, a disease process suddenly affecting adrenal function (such as adrenal hemorrhage), or an intercurrent problem (e.g.^ Addison's ; disease have positive adrenal antibodies.
  • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adrenal insufficiency: See Addison's Disease .
  • Cushing's Glossary / Cushings-Help.com Support for Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When immune-mediated disease affects the adrenal glands; it may also affect other glands.

infection, trauma) in the setting of known Addison's disease. .Additionally, this situation may develop in those on long-term oral glucocorticoids who have suddenly ceased taking their medication.^ Babies born prematurely may suffer respiratory distress syndrome and mothers with pre-term labor may be treated with glucocorticoids to stimulate fetal synthesis of surfactant.
  • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Repeated ; blood tests during the day track the medication ; entering your blood stream when you take each ; dose and record how long it lasts.

^ At some stage, you may ; experience illnesses or other situations requiring significant, ; short-term adjustments in medication.

.In these people, long term use of synthetic glucocorticoids will have caused further atrophy of the adrenal glands by negative feedback.^ The key to success is long-term use.

^ The same consequences arise from long-term use of glucocorticoid drugs.
  • Cushing's Glossary / Cushings-Help.com Support for Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It can be caused by a growth in the adrenal gland or of the pituitary gland.

.It is also a concern in the setting of myxedema coma; thyroxine given in that setting without glucocorticoids may precipitate a crisis.^ When thyroxine therapy is initiated, the metabolic rate and cortisol requirements increase, and an adrenal crisis is precipitated.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency: Still a Cause of Morbidity and Death in Childhood -- Shulman et al. 119 (2): e484 -- Pediatrics 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adrenal crisis, ; myxedema coma and thyroid storm.
  • Steroid cover for dental patients on long-term steroid medication: proposed clinical guidelines based upon a critical review of the literature 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ugr.es [Source type: Academic]

^ It is essential to do this slowly and progressively to avoid precipitating acute glucocorticoid deficiency that may be fatal.
  • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Untreated, an Addisonian crisis can be fatal.^ Untreated, an Addisonian crisis can be fatal.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Left untreated, an addisonian crisis ; can be fatal.

^ If untreated, an Addisonian crisis can be fatal.

.It is a medical emergency, usually requiring hospitalization.^ It is a medical emergency , usually requiring hospitalization.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is usually done through laparoscopic surgery, which is minimally invasive and requires fewer days spent in the hospital after the procedure.

^ All Addisonians are recommended to have ; an emergency injection kit at home, just in case you ; cannot get to a hospital or arrange to be seen by ; a medical practitioner quickly.

Characteristic symptoms are:[6]

Diagnosis

Suggestive features

Routine investigations may show:[2]
.
  • Hypercalcemia, (raised blood calcium levels)
  • Hypoglycemia, low blood sugar (worse in children)
  • Hyponatraemia (low blood sodium levels), due to loss of production of the hormone aldosterone
  • Hyperkalemia (raised blood potassium levels), also due to loss of production of the hormone aldosterone
  • Eosinophilia and lymphocytosis (increased number of eosinophils or lymphocytes, two types of white blood cells)
  • Metabolic acidosis (increased blood acidity), also due to loss of the hormone aldosterone because sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule is linked with acid/hydrogen ion (H+) secretion.^ The primary target of aldosterone is the kidney, where it stimulates reabsorption of sodium and secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions.
    • Adrenal Insufficiency: Still a Cause of Morbidity and Death in Childhood -- Shulman et al. 119 (2): e484 -- Pediatrics 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A diagnosis of hyperthyroidism is made when the level of thyroid hormone is increased in the blood.

    ^ This hormone also interacts with and affects potassium levels.
    • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Low levels of aldosterone stimulation of the renal distal tubule leads to sodium wasting in the urine and H+ retention in the serum.

Testing

.In suspected cases of Addison's disease, one needs to demonstrate that adrenal hormone levels are low even after appropriate stimulation (called the ACTH stimulation test) with synthetic pituitary ACTH hormone tetracosactide .^ Consider again the Addison's disease case.
  • MEDICINE IN DENIAL© 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC xnet.kp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ INHERITANCE ; In most cases, Addison's disease is not inherited.

^ Addison's ; disease have positive adrenal antibodies.
  • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two tests are performed, the short and the long test.^ Two tests are performed, the short and the long test.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the response to the short ACTH test is abnormal, a "long" CRH stimulation test is required to determine the cause of adrenal insufficiency.
  • Welcome to Addisons-Help.com your site for Adrenal Crisis, Addison's/Adrenal Insufficiency information and support. Adrenal Crisis can be life threatening. Print out this information, just in case you need it someday. / Addisons-Help.com Support for Addison's Disease and Adrenal Insufficiency 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC addisons-help.com [Source type: Academic]
  • addison's disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.seekwellness.com [Source type: Academic]
  • ENDOCRINE DISORDERS - Addison's disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Addison's Disease - Medpedia 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Diabetes Monitor - Addison's Disease: adrenal insufficiency 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.diabetesmonitor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, direct comparisons between the two test types have been performed only in patients at high risk for, or previously diagnosed with, colorectal cancer (CRC).
  • THE INFOJUSTICE JOURNAL: Beat the Press 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.infojustice.com [Source type: Academic]

.The short test compares blood cortisol levels before and after 250 micrograms of tetracosactide (IM/IV) is given.^ In this test, blood and/or urine cortisol levels ; are measured before and after a synthetic form of ACTH is given by injection.

^ In this test, ; blood and/or urine cortisol levels are measured before and after a ; synthetic form of ACTH is given by injection.

^ Cortisol levels were also tested.
  • March 23, 2005 Cushing's Help and Support/Newsletters 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushingsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If, one hour later, plasma cortisol exceeds 170 nmol/L and has risen by at least 330 nmol/L to at least 690 nmol/L, adrenal failure is excluded.^ Until then, ; patients with a morning cortisol not excluding secondary ; adrenal insufficiency ( <450 nmol/L at 3 days and ; <350 nmo/L at 7 days after surgery) should receive hydrocortisone ; replacement, withheld for 24 h before scheduled ; testing of adrenal function.

^ Cunningham SK, Moore A, McKenna TJ. Normal cortisol response ; to corticotropin in patients with secondary adrenal failure.

^ Different hospitals ; apply different thresholds ; to define how small an ; increase in blood cortisol ; means adrenal failure.

.If the short test is abnormal, the long test is used to differentiate between primary adrenal failure and secondary adrenocortical failure.^ I am Primary AD, 100% failure of adrenals.
  • Addison's Disease Support & Information Forum  - Learn aboutAddison's Disease - www.addisonsdisease.net - www.addisonsdisease.org - Part ofTELEPLEXUS® 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.teleplexus.com [Source type: General]

^ Comments:  Differentiate primary adrenal insufficiency from secondary  adrenal insufficiency .
  • Adrenal Insufficiency 15 September 2009 3:55 UTC m.arupconsult.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Measurement of plasma corticotropin can be used to differentiate between primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.
  • Autoimmune Adrenal Insufficiency and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes: Autoantibodies, Autoantigens, and Their Applicability in Diagnosis and Disease Prediction -- Betterle et al. 23 (3): 327 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The long test uses 1 mg tetracosactide (IM).^ The long test uses 1 mg tetracosactide (IM).
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ACTH stimulation test ; A. 1 U/lb ACTH gel IM-sampleat 0 and 2 hours in dogs ; B. 0.25 mg synthetic ACTH IM in dogs sample at 0 and 1 hour ; 4.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, because pituitary failure may cause adrenal atrophy (and hence failure to respond to ACTH), the patient may need to be primed with long-acting ACTH 1 mg IM once/day for 3 days before the cosyntropin test if pituitary disease is suspected.
  • Addison's Disease: Adrenal Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.Blood is taken 1, 4, 8, and 24 hours later.^ Blood is taken 1, 4, 8, and 24 hours later.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Male calves are still a by-product and are usually taken away from their mothers within 24 hours, and many are shot.
  • Milk: The Deadly Poison [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But my GP says ; she cannot see that it was Addison's crisis ; because the blood test taken less than 24 ; hours before showed a normal cortisol level.
  • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Normal plasma cortisol level should reach 1000 nmol/L by 4 hours.^ Normal plasma cortisol level should reach 1000 nmol/L by 4 hours.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pre and post cortisol levels should be normal.
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.moorevet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, one hour later, plasma cortisol exceeds 170 nmol/L and has risen by at least 330 nmol/L to at least 690 nmol/L, adrenal failure is excluded.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In primary Addison's disease, the cortisol level is reduced at all stages whereas in secondary corticoadrenal insufficiency, a delayed but normal response is seen.^ A low cortisol with a high ACTH is sufficient to diagnose primary adrenal insufficiency; a low ACTH with a low cortisol level is seen in secondary adrenal insufficiency.

^ Addison's disease is a condition of primary adrenal insufficiency that affects all age groups.

^ Adrenal; insufficiency is not to be confused with Addison's; disease .
  • adrenal insufficiency 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.drlwilson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other tests that may be performed to distinguish between various causes of hypoadrenalism are renin and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, as well as medical imaging - usually in the form of ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).^ Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the primary diagnostic tests.
  • http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/%7Ecartic/dataset/Angiofibroma/text 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC lsdis.cs.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In diagnostics, besides epypharyngoscopy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the primary diagnostic tests.
  • http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/%7Ecartic/dataset/Angiofibroma/text 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC lsdis.cs.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The tumour was also ; investigated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies.
  • Abstracts Posters 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.path.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Adrenoleukodystrophy, and the milder form, adrenomyeloneuropathy, cause adrenal insufficiency combined with neurological symtoms.^ Drugs causing adrenal insufficiency .

^ Table 2 Causes of adrenal insufficiency .
  • Coeliac disease and autoimmune Addison's disease: a clinical pitfall -- O'leary et al. 95 (2): 79 -- QJM 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC qjmed.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adrenomyeloneuropathy: related disorder with onset in teens to 20’s; adrenal insufficiency but no neurologic disorder at initial presentation; develop weakness, spasticity and distal polyneuropathy, slowly progressive .

.These diseases are estimated to be the cause of adrenal insufficiency in approximately 35% of male patients with idiopathic Addison’s disease and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any male with adrenal insufficiency.^ Consider again the Addison's disease case.
  • MEDICINE IN DENIAL© 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC xnet.kp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Then ; also consider that these animals can have concurrent ; diseases.
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisondogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Addison's ; disease have positive adrenal antibodies.
  • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diagnosis is made by a blood test to detect very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA).^ The diagnosis of Cushing's can be done with several blood tests.
  • Cushing's Disease and Liver Enzymes 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heartworm detection requires a blood test.
  • Medical Conditions Explained 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arkanimal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diagnosis is made with blood tests, urinalysis and imaging tests (radiographs and/or ultrasounds).

[7]

Causes

.Causes of adrenal insufficiency can be grouped by the way they cause the adrenals to produce insufficient cortisol.^ Drugs causing adrenal insufficiency .

^ Dysmenorrhea caused by ovarian dysfunction may disappear when low doses of cortisol are used to improve adrenal influence on ovarian function.

^ Cortisol: A hormone which produced by the adrenal gland (cortex) to control blood sugar.
  • Cushing's Glossary / Cushings-Help.com Support for Cushing's Syndrome and Cushing's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

.These are adrenal dysgenesis (the gland has not formed adequately during development), impaired steroidogenesis (the gland is present but is biochemically unable to produce cortisol) or adrenal destruction (disease processes leading to the gland being damaged).^ Cortisol is normally produced by the adrenal glands, located just above the kidneys .
  • More on Addison's Disease / Cushing's Help and Support 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of Addison disease involves replacing the hormones not being produced by the adrenal glands.
  • Addison's Disease - Medpedia 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cortisol is normally produced by the adrenal glands, located just; above the kidneys.
  • Addison's disease. - Free Online Library 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.thefreelibrary.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Adrenal dysgenesis

.All causes in this category are genetic, and generally very rare.^ Adrenal dysgenesis All causes in this category are genetic, and generally very rare.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Radioactive iodine treatment is very effective and rarely causes hypothyroidism.

^ One category of IBM illnesses, the hereditary inclusion-body myopathies ; (hIBM) are linked to specific genetic defects and are inherited; they ; are passed down from generation to generation.
  • General Information About IBM. 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ibmmyositis.com [Source type: Academic]

.These include mutations to the SF1 transcription factor, congenital adrenal hypoplasia (AHC) due to DAX-1 gene mutations and mutations to the ACTH receptor gene (or related genes, such as in the Triple A or Allgrove syndrome).^ DAX-1, the gene affected in congenital adrenal hypo plasia ( 51 ).
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DAX-1, Dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia gene 1; ACTHR, ACTH receptor (melanocortin-2 receptor) gene.
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No ACTH receptor mutations have been found in Allgrove’s syndrome ( 6 ).
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.DAX-1 mutations may cluster in a syndrome with glycerol kinase deficiency with a number of other symptoms when DAX-1 is deleted together with a number of other genes.^ You may also have other symptoms, such as: .

^ Causes: pituitary macroadenoma, craniopharyngioma, tuberculosis or other infections, sarcoidosis, lymphocytic hypophysitis, head trauma, aneurysms, postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan’s syndrome), pituitary apoplexy, metastases; also mutations in pro-opiomelanocortin gene .

^ An extra leucine near the N terminus (this has confused numbering of other mutations in some reports) and D183E also occur in CYP21P and presumably represent gene conversions that don’t affect activity ( 418 ).
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Impaired steroidogenesis

.To form cortisol, the adrenal gland requires cholesterol, which is then converted biochemically into steroid hormones.^ Cortisol is a steroid hormone that's produced by the adrenal cortex; Cortisol is ...
  • Cortisol Level | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The adrenal glands respond by producing ; cortisol.

^ The adrenal glands respond by producing cortisol.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison’s Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC endocrine.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison’s Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Interruptions in the delivery of cholesterol include Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome and abetalipoproteinemia.^ Adrenal insufficiency in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnoses not represented in our series include mutations in the gene for steroidogenic factor-1, or SF1 ( 38 ), IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth retardation/metaphysial dysplasia/adrenal hypoplasia/genital anomalies) ( 39 ), Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome ( 40 , 41 ), and Antley-Bixler syndrome ( 42 , 43 ).
  • Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in Children: Twenty Years Experience at the Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal -- Perry et al. 90 (6): 3243 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mutations in the ; Delta7-sterol reductase gene in patients with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz ; syndrome.

.Of the synthesis problems, congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the most common (in various forms: 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxylase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), lipoid CAH due to deficiency of StAR and mitochondrial DNA mutations.^ New MI. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Future directions in the study and management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Future Directions in the Study and Management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency — Ann Intern Med 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IV. Diagnosis of 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency .
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Some medications interfere with steroid synthesis enzymes (e.g.^ Some medications interfere with steroid synthesis enzymes (e.g.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Elias AN, Gwinup G. 1980 Effects of some clinically encountered drugs on steroid synthesis and degradation.
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s important to abstain from alcohol and caffeine for at least 24 hours before the test, and stop some medications that may interfere with it as well.

.ketoconazole), while others accelerate the normal breakdown of hormones by the liver (e.g.^ The hormones they secrete work in unison with other internal organs, particularly the liver, and have an enormous effect on physiology.
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.moorevet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the places where iron is normally stored are full, iron begins to be stored in the liver, heart, skin and other organs, damaging them.
  • March 23, 2005 Cushing's Help and Support/Newsletters 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushingsonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normal values ; Normal levels of hormones ; and other chemical ; components of the blood.

rifampicin, phenytoin).[2]

Adrenal destruction

.Autoimmune adrenalitis can be a cause of Addison's disease.^ The cause of autoimmune adrenalitis ; is not known, in common with most other ; autoimmune diseases.

^ Addison's ; disease have positive adrenal antibodies.
  • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What causes Addison's disease?

.Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex (often due to antibodies against the enzyme 21-Hydroxylase) is a common cause of Addison's in teenagers and adults.^ The cause of autoimmune adrenalitis ; is not known, in common with most other ; autoimmune diseases.

^ Classical Forms of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency in Adults .
  • Endo News from 2008 / Cushings Help Organization, Inc. 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Adrenal cortex autoantibodies or antibodies against ; 21-hydroxylase are present in more than 80% of patients ; with recent onset autoimmune adrenalitis.

.This may be isolated or in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS type 1 or 2).^ Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and NALP5, a parathyroid autoantigen.
  • References Chapter 8 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.uchsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS I) in Norway.
  • References Chapter 8 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.uchsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type II (APS-II, Schmidt’s Syndrome) The type II syndrome is the most common autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (101).
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Chapter 8 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.uchsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Adrenal destruction is also a feature of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), and when the adrenal glands are involved in metastasis (seeding of cancer cells from elsewhere in the body, especially lung), hemorrhage (e.g.^ Cancer that has spread to the adrenal; glands.

^ Cancer that has spread to the adrenal glands.
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS), adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), adrenal hemorrhage, adrenal metastases, infections, and amyloidoses can all lead to destruction of adrenal gland.
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

in .Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome or antiphospholipid syndrome), particular infections (tuberculosis,[8] histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis), deposition of abnormal protein in amyloidosis.^ Other less common causes include: infections (coccidioidomycosis, ; blastomycosis, or tuberculosis) , hemorrhagic infarctions, granulomatous disease, ; metastatic neoplasia, trauma, and amyloidosis.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to autoimmunity and tuberculosis, infectious fungal diseases (coccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis) or viral infections (cytomegalovirus and HIV) have been reported to be responsible for chronic adrenal damage leading to clinical AD (Table 1 ) ( 26 ).
  • Autoimmune Adrenal Insufficiency and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes: Autoantibodies, Autoantigens, and Their Applicability in Diagnosis and Disease Prediction -- Betterle et al. 23 (3): 327 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, adrenal hemorrhage can lead to acute adrenal failure, e.g ., during anticoagulation therapy with dicumarol or heparin or in the course of the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome.
  • Autoimmune Adrenal Insufficiency and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes: Autoantibodies, Autoantigens, and Their Applicability in Diagnosis and Disease Prediction -- Betterle et al. 23 (3): 327 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Treatment

Maintenance treatment

.Treatment for Addison's disease involves replacing the missing cortisol, usually in the form of hydrocortisone tablets, in a dosing regimen that mimics the physiological concentrations of cortisol.^ Treatment usually consists of replacing the missing nutrients.

^ Treatment of Addison's disease involves replacing the missing or low levels of cortisol.
  • Addison's disease - definition of Addison's disease in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Addisons Disease - definition of Addisons Disease in the Medical dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In children, the preferred cortisol replacement is hydrocortisone ( i.e.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Alternatively one quarter as much prednisolone may be used for equal glucocorticoid effect as hydrocortisone.^ Alternatively therapeutic glucocorticoids may be the cause.
  • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Prednisolone and ; dexamethasone have much longer biological half-lives than ; hydrocortisone and cortisone acetate, which could result in ; unfavourably high night-time glucocorticoid activity.

^ The method has been particularly useful in studying the adverse ; effects of vaccines 182 but may also have wider applications for monitoring drug safety.
  • On the evidence for decisions about the use of therapeutic interventions 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.rcplondon.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Treatment must usually be continued for life.^ Treatment must usually be continued for life.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, these drugs must usually be continued for life.

^ This usually stops, however, when burnout gets very serious, as there is; not enough energy to continue working hard and living a very active life.
  • adrenal burnout 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.drlwilson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, many patients require fludrocortisone as replacement for the missing aldosterone.^ In addition, many patients require fludrocortisone as replacement for the missing aldosterone.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This requires replacement with a synthetic form of aldosterone called fludrocortisone (Florinef) .
  • Hypoadrenalism (underactivity of the adrenal glands) 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrocortisone tablets - replaces cortisol hormone Fludrocortisone acetate (Florinef) - for aldosterone deficiency Salt intake - for aldosterone deficiency more treatments...» Read more about treatments for Addison's Disease .
  • Addison's Disease Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Caution must be exercised when the person with Addison's disease becomes unwell, has surgery or becomes pregnant.^ Addison's disease, exercise and living in Idaho.

^ Caution must be exercised when the person with Addison's disease becomes unwell, has surgery or becomes pregnant .
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the life expectancy of a person with Addison’s disease?
  • http://www.nadf.us/diseases/addisonsqa.htm 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.nadf.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medication may need to be increased during times of stress, infection, or injury.^ You may need to increase your dose during times of stress or illness.
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glucocorticoid therapy may need to be increased.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency: Still a Cause of Morbidity and Death in Childhood -- Shulman et al. 119 (2): e484 -- Pediatrics 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You may need to increase your dose; during times of stress or illness.

Epidemiology

.The frequency rate of Addison's disease in the human population is sometimes estimated at roughly 1 in 100,000.[9] Some research and information sites put the number closer to 40-60 cases per 1 million population.^ Consider again the Addison's disease case.
  • MEDICINE IN DENIAL© 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC xnet.kp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ INHERITANCE ; In most cases, Addison's disease is not inherited.

^ Prevalence rates range from less ; than 5 per 100,000 (e.g.

.(1/25,000-1/16,600)[10] (Determining accurate numbers for Addison's is problematic at best and some incidence figures are thought to be underestimates.^ Incidence is a measure of how many people are diagnosed with an illness ; per 100,000 (or per some other index) over a period of time (usually one year).
  • General Information About IBM. 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ibmmyositis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HPF (40x objective), counting 10 random fields in area of greatest number of mitotic figures on 5 slides with greatest number of mitoses .

^ Bruyette: We all agree that the incidence of ; Addison's disease is underestimated.
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.k9addisons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisondogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]) .Addison's can afflict persons of any age, gender, or ethnicity, but it typically presents in adults between 30 and 50 years of age.^ Typically, patients are between the ages of 30 and 50 years and are more often female than male.
  • The adrenal gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most patients are obese adults (mean age 50 years) .

^ It usually occurs between the ages of 30 and 50.

.[12] Research has shown no significant predispositions based on ethnicity.^ There were no significant differences in QALY at 3, 6 and 12 months.

^ Finally, there was no significant association between ethnicity and non-adherence to either diabetes mellitus (p = 0.215) or hypertensive medications (p = 0.895).

^ No significant association was found ; between AP2 and over-expression of HER2 gene/protein, unlike YY1 where it ; was shown that an inverse association with the HER2 gene (P=0.004) and ; protein (P=0.012) exists.
  • Abstracts Posters 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.path.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

[10]

Prognosis

.With proper medication, patients can expect to live a healthy and normal life.^ There is a CRITICAL need to raise awareness in the medical community of symptoms related to diagnosis as well as the proper patient care needed once diagnosed.

^ RESULTS: ; None of the MS patients, nor patient controls were positive for HHV-6 DNAaemia ; while, one of the normal healthy controls was positive for HHV-6 DNAaemia.

^ Anyone out there living with Addison 's and striving every day for a healthy and active life?
  • Addison's | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.A person with adrenal insufficiency should always carry identification stating their condition in case of an emergency.^ Patients with suspected Addison’s disease and hypothyroidism should be evaluated and treated for adrenal insufficiency prior to replacement of thyroid hormone to avoid Addisonian crisis.
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Chapter 8 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.uchsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because iatrogenic adrenal ; insufficiency is transient in most cases, 11 we suspect its ; prevalence to be lower than that of endogenous adrenal ; insufficiency.

^ An etiology for primary adrenal insufficiency was identified in 94% of cases.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency: Still a Cause of Morbidity and Death in Childhood -- Shulman et al. 119 (2): e484 -- Pediatrics 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.The card should alert emergency personnel about the need to inject 100 mg of cortisol if its bearer is found severely injured or unable to answer questions.^ This information helps medical personnel decide whether to give you a cortisol shot if you are unconscious, severely injured, or unable to answer questions.
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This; information helps medical personnel decide whether to give you a cortisol shot; if you are unconscious, severely injured, or unable to answer; questions.

^ Given the abundance and conflicting nature of information now available about dietary supplements, you may need help to sort the reliable information from the questionable.
  • THE INFOJUSTICE JOURNAL: Beat the Press 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.infojustice.com [Source type: Academic]

.The card should also include the doctor's name and telephone number and the name and telephone number of the nearest relative to be notified.^ The number should be in your telephone ; book.
  • Milk: The Deadly Poison [Archive] - David Icke's Official Forums 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.davidicke.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The log itself will include the Clinic name, address, telephone number.
  • Re: Drug Regulations for Health Professions Referral 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ccnm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Registrant's name/clinic name and telephone number).
  • Re: Drug Regulations for Health Professions Referral 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ccnm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When traveling, a needle, syringe, and an injectable form of cortisol should be carried for emergencies.^ Prevention ; The treatment of NMS should include prevention that may be carried out in ; several forms.

^ Any medication ; that you carry with you in a bag or pocket should ; be used within a few days, unless you are storing ; it inside a fully insulated travelling container.

^ Patients and parents should receive instructions for these types of emergency contingencies, and patients should carry or wear identification with information about their medical condition.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency -- White and Speiser 21 (3): 245 -- Endocrine Reviews 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC edrv.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.A person with Addison's disease also should know how to increase medication during periods of stress or mild upper respiratory infections.^ How is Addison's disease treated?

^ What happens during a medical history for Addison's disease?

^ Associated with upper respiratory infections ; Hirschprung's Disease ; 84.
  • USMLE STEP 1 and USMLE STEP 2 Highly tested topics The Complete Gold Collection 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.usmleadvice.com [Source type: Academic]

.Immediate medical attention is needed when severe infections, vomiting, or diarrhea occur, as these conditions can precipitate an Addisonian crisis.^ Severe vomiting and diarrhea.
  • CIGNA - Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is serious condition and needs immediate medical attention.
  • The Immune System | B-Naturals.Com Newsletter 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.b-naturals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Severe vomiting and; diarrhea.

.A patient who is vomiting may require injections of hydrocortisone, since oral hydrocortisone supplements cannot be adequately metabolised.^ Potassium and magnesium supplementation may be required.

^ However, this ; appointment may take days to schedule or the patient may not have a ; family physician; in either case the patient may instead go to the local ; ER to get the required treatment.
  • Re: Drug Regulations for Health Professions Referral 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ccnm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The number needed to treat describes the number of patients who would be required to be treated ; to achieve one beneficial outcome.
  • On the evidence for decisions about the use of therapeutic interventions 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.rcplondon.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

Canine hypoadrenocorticism

.The condition has been diagnosed in all breeds of dogs.^ This condition commonly occurs in small breed dogs, but can be present in all breeds and in cats.

^ Once a dog is diagnosed, it may possibly be maintained on a ; once or twice daily dose of fludrocortisone acetate (Florinef) - ; the most frequently prescribed medication for this condition.
  • Medical Conditions Explained 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arkanimal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Cushing's test that is 95% sensitive will diagnose Cushing's in 95% of all dogs with Cushing's disease.
  • Cushings 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.lbah.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, it is underdiagnosed, and one must clinically suspect it as an underlying disorder for many presenting complaints.^ Given that the individual components of disease develop over years to decades, one must be vigilant for other associated autoimmune disorders.
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Chapter 8 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.uchsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Today, for many of these disorders, the exact location of ; the disease-causing mutation is known and clinical genetic testing is available ; for patients.

^ Appendix D lists the complications ; associated with NMS. ; ; ; 27 ; Differential Diagnoses ; The list of differential diagnoses for NMS is extensive because the clinical ; presentation mirrors several medical and toxic disorders.

.Females are overrepresented, and the disease often appears in middle age (4-7 years), although any age or gender may be affected.^ The disease can strike at any age and affects males and females about equally.
  • Adrenal Gland Disorders / Cushing's Help and Support 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NMS has been found ; ; ; 9 ; equally in both genders and reported in patients ranging from age 3 to 80 years old with ; the greatest occurrence in young and middle-aged adults (Addonizio and Susman, 1991; ; Bottoni, 2002).

^ Addison's is primarily a disease of young to middle-aged female dogs, however, a dog of any age and either sex can develop the disease.
  • Addison's Disease (Hypoadrenocorticism) in Dogs - Pet Education | Dog Time - Dog Blog Network 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC blogs.dogtime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Genetic continuity between dogs and humans helps to explain the occurrence of Addison's disease in both species.^ Both have Addison’s disease.

^ Addison's disease is a disease that can affect any dog.

^ We will also discus what causes Addison's Disease and exactly ; what takes place in your dogs body during the time they are ; sick.

[13]
.Hypoadrenocorticism is treated with fludrocortisone (Florinef (r)) or a monthly injection called Percorten V (desoxycorticosterone pivlate (DOCP)) and prednisone.^ PERCOR TE N ®-V (desoxycorticosterone pivalate), approved ; by the FDAin 1998, is the only veterinary product ; approved for treating canine hypoadrenocorticism.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Scott-Moncrieff: I see much more PU-PD in ; dogs treated with Florinef than in dogs treated with ; Percorten-V. But I've seen it with both.
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.k9addisons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisondogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With this monograph, we are proud to educate you about PERCORTEN ® -V ; (desoxycorticosterone pivalate), the only FDA-approved * product to treat ; Addison's Disease in dogs.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Routine blood work is necessary in the initial stages until a maintenance dose is established.^ For major surgery, administration of iv hydrocortisone 100 mg/m 2 ·day is necessary for 24 h peri- and postoperatively, before tapering over several days to a maintenance dose.
  • Addison's Disease 2001 -- Ten et al. 86 (7): 2909 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stress-dose glucocorticoid therapy with a soluble hydrocortisone ester ( £ 50-100 mg IV q8h) should be administered at the initiation of active labor and continued until after delivery, followed by a rapid taper to previous maintenance doses.
  • Adrenal Disease and Pregnancy: eMedicine Endocrinology 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Usual Aciclovir dose for seizure prophylaxis:seizure prevention in preeclampsiaclampsia:initial: im: 4 to 5 g of a 50% neriifolia every 4 monacolins as necessary.
  • Egalité de traitement - Base de données des structures associatives du réseau 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.egaltraitement.net [Source type: General]

.Most of the medications used in the therapy of hypoadrenocorticism cause excessive thirst and urination.^ Symptoms to watch for are excessive thirst and urination.
  • http://www.srdogs.com/Pages/care.cd.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.srdogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the medications used in the therapy of hypoadrenocorticism cause excessive thirst and urination.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diabetes ; A metabolic disorder ; causing excessive thirst ; and large volumes of urine.

.It is absolutely vital to provide fresh drinking water for the canine sufferer.^ It is absolutely vital to provide fresh drinking water for the canine sufferer.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The article, "Populations Receiving Optimally Fluoridated Public Drinking Water -- United States, 2000," provides the most recent information on the status of water fluoridation by state.
  • THE INFOJUSTICE JOURNAL: Beat the Press 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.infojustice.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the owner knows about an upcoming stressful situation (shows, traveling etc.^ If the owner knows about an upcoming stressful situation (shows, traveling etc.
  • Addison's disease - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I start with a stand ard ; dose so the owner knows how good the dog ; can feel, and then I use the owner's intuition about ; the pet's needs for glucocorticoid supplementation.
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.k9addisons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What dog owners need to know ; about Canine Addison's Disease ; Your veterinarian has just prescribed PERCORTEN ; ® ; -V (desoxycorticosterone pivalate) for your ; dog.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

), patients generally need an increased dose of prednisone to help deal with the added stress. .Avoidance of stress is important for dogs with hypoadrenocorticism.^ More severe signs occur when a dog with hypoadrenocorticism is stressed or when potassium levels get high enough to interfere with heart function.
  • Addison's Disease in Dogs - Diagnosing, and Treating Hypothroidism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Behrend: Also, I'd stress that client communica- ; tion is important—I stress to clients that Addison's ; disease is easily treatable and the dogs do great, ; but they shouldn't forget that it's a deadly disease.
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.k9addisons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ADDISON'S DISEASE: UN COMMON OR UNDER DIAGNOSED? 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisondogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lack of a stress leukogram, which one would expect to see in an ill dog, ; should raise the suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism: Diagnosis and Treatment of an Emerging Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC canineaddisonsinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

Famous Addisonians

.
United States president John F. Kennedy (1961-63), probably the single most famous case of Addison's Disease
  • United States President John F. Kennedy was one of the best-known Addison's disease sufferers.^ Consider again the Addison's disease case.
    • MEDICINE IN DENIAL© 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC xnet.kp.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ INHERITANCE ; In most cases, Addison's disease is not inherited.

    ^ Addison's disease is also known as hypoadrenocorticism.
    • Addison's Disease in Dogs - Diagnosing, and Treating Hypothroidism 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He was possibly one of the first Addisonians to survive major surgery.^ The ; trial showed that corticosteroids had no beneficial effect and possibly a detrimental one on ; survival.
    • On the evidence for decisions about the use of therapeutic interventions 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.rcplondon.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Since; nitric oxide (NO) is one of the major inflammatory parameters, we first studied; the effects of SGT on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2; microglia.

    ^ If they had Cushings due to a tumor on the adrenal gland, (we thought at first that one of the dogs did), he recommended surgery to remove the tumor, since it could be cancer.
    • Cushing's Disease/Syndrome | Electronic Forum Digest 32 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.io.com [Source type: General]

    [14] .There was substantial secrecy surrounding his health during his years as president, and the 25th amendment to the U.S. constitution was introduced at least in part as a result of this secrecy.^ There are at least two factions that had historical ties with the Alliance and are still hostile the Horde, but are not part of the current alliance.
    • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 2007, our hospital took part in a trial of ; the OSNA system, during which a multicentre prospective study was carried ; out which showed promising results.
    • Abstracts Posters 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.path.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bone is severely affected in post-menopausal women so that during 2–5 years after the menopause there is an increased loss of bone mass (see Box 5.35 ).
    • The gonad -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    [15]
  • .
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver, one of John F. Kennedy's sisters, was believed to have Addison's disease as well.^ But that was never Eunice Kennedy Shriver’s point.

    ^ I learned this week from an article at an Addison’s disease website that Eunice Kennedy Shriver, like her brother John F. Kennedy, had Addison’s disease.

    ^ I can’t know how it simple or excruciatingly challenging it was for Eunice Kennedy Shriver to manage her Addison’s disease; I, and the only other person I know well who has Addison’s, find it difficult.

    [16]
  • Popular singer Helen Reddy.[17]
  • Scientist Eugene Merle Shoemaker, co-discoverer of the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9.[18]
  • .
  • French Carmelite nun and religious writer Blessed Elizabeth of the Trinity[19]
  • Some have suggested that Jane Austen was an avant la lettre case, but others have disputed this.^ The majority of cases have some other history.
    • HUMAN REPRODUCTION: CLINICAL, PATHOLOGIC AND PHARMACOLOGIC CORRELATIONS 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC library.med.utah.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is also used in some countries to resolve other types of disputes, such as labour disputes, consumer disputes or family disputes, and for the resolution of certain disputes between states and between investors and states.
    • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Whales, dolphins, and elephants all sing--suggesting that their common ancestors some 60 million years back may have hummed to each other as well.
    • [*Debut of..] The GRAND UNIFIED THEORY OF EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE INCLUDING THE HUMAN SOUL 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.bigbangtango.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [20]
  • According to Dr. Carl Abbott, a Canadian medical researcher, Charles Dickens may also have been affected.[21]
  • .
  • Osama bin-Laden may be an Addisonian.^ Its roots can be traced back to Osama bin Laden and others around the time of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989.
    • http://arael.shtooka.net/fi/html/1mb.html 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC arael.shtooka.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However Osama bin Laden might beg to disagree.
    • [*Debut of..] The GRAND UNIFIED THEORY OF EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE INCLUDING THE HUMAN SOUL 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.bigbangtango.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Now those very mujahadeen--Osama bin Laden and his buddies--threaten both us and the Chinese.
    • [*Debut of..] The GRAND UNIFIED THEORY OF EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE INCLUDING THE HUMAN SOUL 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.bigbangtango.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Lawrence Wright noted that bin-Laden manifests all the key symptoms, such as "low blood pressure, weight loss, muscle fatigue, stomach irritability, sharp back pains, dehydration, and an abnormal craving for salt". Bin-Laden is known to have consumed large amounts of the drug Sulbutiamine to treat his symptoms.^ Next Symptoms » Weight loss Weight loss .

    ^ Watch blood ; pressure and weight.
    • From NZAN's Medical Advisor, Professor Ian Holdaway: 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.addisons.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Weight loss: Symptom Checker .

    [22]
  • Sabino Arana, Spanish writer and Basque nationalist[citation needed]
  • Adrienne Herndon, Famous Black American educator and aspiring actress, married to Alonzo Herndon, and mother of Norris Herndon.[citation needed]
  • Turgut Cansever, Turkish architect renowned for being the only one to receive the Aga Khan Award for Architecture three times.
  • In the novel The Third Deadly Sin by Lawrence Sanders, killer Zoe Kohler suffers from the disease.

See also

References

  1. ^ Addison disease at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ten S, New M, Maclaren N (2001). "Clinical review 130: Addison's disease 2001". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (7): 2909–22. doi:10.1210/jc.86.7.2909. PMID 11443143. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/86/7/2909. 
  3. ^ Thomas Addison (1855) (HTML reprint). On The Constitutional And Local Effects Of Disease Of The Supra-Renal Capsules. London: Samuel Highley. http://www.wehner.org/addison/x1.htm. 
  4. ^ Patnaik MM, Deshpande AK (May 2008). "Diagnosis--Addison's disease secondary to tuberculosis of the adrenal glands". Clin Med Res 6 (1): 29. doi:10.3121/cmr.2007.754a. PMID 18591375. PMC 2442022. http://www.clinmedres.org/cgi/content/full/6/1/29. 
  5. ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
  6. ^ Addison's Disease National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service. Retrieved on 26 October 2007.
  7. ^ Lauretti, S; Casucci, G; Santeisanio, F (1996), "X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison’s disease in young adult male patient.", J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81: 470–474 
  8. ^ Wang L, Yang J (2008). "Tuberculous Addison's disease mimics malignancy in FDG-PET images" (). Intern. Med. 47 (19): 1755–6. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.47.1348. PMID 18827432. http://joi.jlc.jst.go.jp/JST.JSTAGE/internalmedicine/47.1348?from=PubMed. 
  9. ^ "Addison Disease � Health information regarding this hormonal (endocrine) disorder on MedicineNet.com". http://www.medicinenet.com/addison_disease/article.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  10. ^ a b "eMedicine - Addison Disease : Article by Sylvester Odeke". http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic42.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  11. ^ "medhelp". http://www.medhelp.org/www/nadf3.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  12. ^ Volpé, Robert (1990). Autoimmune Diseases of the Endocrine System. CRC Press. pp. 299. ISBN 0849368499. 
  13. ^ "Dog Days Of Science". http://grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/air/dog_days.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  14. ^ Nicholas JA, Burstein CL, Umberger CJ, Wilson PD (November 1955). "Management of adrenocortical insufficiency during surgery". AMA Arch Surg 71 (5): 737–42. PMID 13268224. 
  15. ^ Owen, David (May 2003). "Diseased, demented, depressed: serious illness in Heads of State". QJM: an International Journal of Medicine (Oxford University Press) 96 (5): 325–36. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcg061. PMID 12702781. http://qjmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/96/5/325. 
  16. ^ Dallek, Robert (2003). An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963. London: Penguin Books. pp. 105, 731. ISBN 978-0141015354. 
  17. ^ "The Australian Addison's Disease Association". http://www.addisons.org.au/core.htm?page=/awareness/awarenessweek.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  18. ^ Marsden, Brian (1997-07-18). "Eugene Shoemaker (1928-1997)". Comet Shoemaker-Levy Collision with Jupiter. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/sl9/news81.html. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  19. ^ Jones, Terry. "Patron Saints Index: Blessed Elizabeth of the Trinity". http://saints.sqpn.com/sainte46.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  20. ^ Upfal, Annette (2005). "Jane Austen’s lifelong health problems and final illness: New evidence points to a fatal Hodgkin’s disease and excludes the widely accepted Addison's". Medical Humanities (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd) 31: 3–11. doi:10.1136/jmh.2004.000193. http://mh.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/31/1/3. 
  21. ^ L. Williams et al. (1991). "The Nineteenth Century: Victorian Period". The Year's Work in English Studies (Oxford University Press) 72 (1): pp. 314–360. doi:10.1093/ywes/72.1.314. http://ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/long/72/1/314. 
  22. ^ Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower. New York City: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. p. 139. ISBN 978-0375414862. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

.Named from Thomas Addison (1793-1860), M. D., of London, who first described it.^ When Dr. Thomas Addison first described this disease in London in 1855, the most common cause was tuberculosis .
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Addison's Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1855, Thomas Addison first described adrenal insufficiency, which was subsequently named after him.

^ One of the first people to post to the site was a Bulgarian man named Stefan Petkov , who wrote about his 12-year-old daughter.
  • DIY DNA: One Father's Attempt to Hack His Daughter's Genetic Code 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Noun

Singular
Addison’s disease
Addison’s disease (uncountable)
.
  1. (pathology) a disorder in which the adrenal glands fail to produce a sufficient quantity of steroids, causing a brownish discoloration of the skin.^ Pathological disorders of the; adrenal glands.
    • Adrenal disorders and anaesthesia including Phaeochromocytoma 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.4um.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Categories : Adrenal gland disorders .
    • Cushing's syndrome - Psychology Wiki 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is often caused by disorders of the parathyroid gland that cause it to produce too much hormone.

    • 1875, Edward Headlam Greenhow, M.D., F.R.S., Addison's Disease, Lindsay and Blackston, page 6:
      Nearly thirty years before the date of Addison's discovery, his eminent colleague, Dr. Bright, had observed and recorded, in his celebrated 'Reports of Medical Cases,' a case of Addison's disease.

Synonyms

Translations

.Part or all of this page has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain.^ Find Articles at BNET All Bnet Articles Library Stocks Dictionary Search Advanced Search in free and premium articles .
  • Myths & facts...about Addison's disease | Nursing | Find Articles at BNET 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: General]

^ Copyright © 2005-2008 Free Articles by ArticlesBase.com, All rights reserved.
  • Addisons Disease Causes Symptoms Information With Treatment 15 September 2009 3:55 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Can I Catch A Disease Or Worms From My Puppy? 15 September 2009 3:55 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Addison's Disease 19 September 2009 15:14 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyright © 2005-2010 Free Articles by ArticlesBase.com, All rights reserved.
  • Canine Hypoadrenocorticism Disease 13 May 2010 11:43 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Addison's disease, which are similar to those in the above article.








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