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Adjectival participles are built out of a verb (mostly with a suffix), and in most cases they play the role of the sentence element called attribute in the grammar of some languages (Russian [1], Hungarian, many Eskimo languages, e.g. Sireniki [2]). Thus it can usually be translated into English by using an appropriate relative clause [3] and sometimes directly using the same construction in English (e.g. the running man).

Some descriptive grammars treat them as a distinct lexical category, others avoid that and use a more minimalistic approach.[4] Because the above languages have also adverbial participle, the word participle is meant often for both lexical categories [1].

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Russian Participles. Part of “An Intercative On-line Reference Grammar — Russian” by Dr. Robert Beard.
  2. ^ Menovshchikov, G.A.: Language of Sireniki Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow • Leningrad, 1964. Original data: Г.А. Меновщиков: Язык сиреникских эскимосов. Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. Институт языкознания. Москва • Ленинград, 1964
  3. ^ Ernest De Witt Burton: Moods and Tenses of New Testament Greek. The adjective participle. Paragraph 428.
  4. ^ É. Kiss, Katalin; Kiefer Ferenc - Siptár Péter (2003) (in Hungarian). Új magyar nyelvtan (3. kiadás ed.). Budapest: Osiris Kiadó.  

See also

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