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The Administrative divisions of the German Democratic Republic were constituted in two different forms during the country's 41-year-long history. The Republic first retained the traditional German division into federated states called Länder, but in 1952 replaced them with arbitrarily-drawn districts called Bezirke. Immediately before German reunification in 1990, the old Länder were restored, but they were not effectively reconstituted until after the GDR had ceased to exist as a separate state.

Contents

Division into Länder

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General background

The GDR, coloured red, with the original division into Länder.

Following its collapse in World War II in 1945, Germany was occupied by the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union. All four occpation powers, in their respective occupation zones, reorganised political life by restoring the Länder, the constituting parts of federal Germany, though the borders of these entities were adjusted and new entities created to form cohesive territories, avoid petty states and conform with the borders of the zones. The state of Prussia, whose provinces extended to all four zones and covered two thirds of Germany, was dissolved in 1947.

Special conditions were assigned to Berlin, which the four powers divided into four sectors. A united German state government existed in the city until it broke apart in 1948. After 1949, both West Berlin and East Berlin (officially only called Berlin) were in effect incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, respectively, despite not legally being part of these countries.

Länder in East Germany

In the Soviet occupation zone, five Länder were established which roughly corresponded to the preexisting states and provinces. However, all territories east of the Oder-Neisse line was transferred to Polish administration. The five states were:

In 1949, the Soviet occupation zone was transformed into the German Democratic Republic. The five Länder (and East Berlin, though the latter only with consultative votes) participated in the legislative branch through the Länderkammer (Chamber of States), which was elected by the Landtage (state parliaments). However, the Länder were not constituting entities forming a Federal state (as in West Germany) but rather entities of decentralised administrative entites of a unitary state.

Division into Bezirke

The Bezirke of the GDR, 1952-1990

The GDR's centralist tendencies quickly gained speed, especially after the ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) had adopted the Communist principle of Democratic centralism in 1950. In 1952, the SED announced to establish "socialism in a planned manner". Now, the Länder were considered as no longer corresponding to the requirements of the new tasks of the state. On 23 July 1952, a law combined municipal districts (Kreise) into regional districts (Bezirke), and subsequently, on 25 July 1952, the state governments transferred their administrative tasks to the new districts.

With this law, the Länder were in effect dissolved, though they formally remained in existence, though without any political or administrative function. The Länderkammer also remained in existence and its members were elected in 1954 by combined sessions of the Bezirkstage (district assemblies) in each Land and in 1958 directly by the Bezirktage. However, on 8 December 1958, the Länderkammer was formally dissolved with no objections being raised.

The 14 new Bezirke were drawn without regard to the borders of the Länder and each named after their capitals,from north to south: Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Schwerin, Potsdam, Frankfurt (Oder), Magdeburg, Cottbus, Halle, Leipzig, Erfurt, Dresden, Karl-Marx-Stadt (named Chemnitz until 1953).

Due to its special status, East Berlin was originally not counted as a Bezirk but it was claimed as the "capital city of the GDR" (though legally, it was not even fully part of the GDR's territory). In 1961, after the construction of the Berlin Wall, East Berlin came to be reconised in GDR administration as the Bezirk Berlin.

The Bezirke (with the exception Berlin, which consisted of a single municipality) were again divided into rural district (Landkreise) and urban districts (Stadtkreise):

Bezirk subdivisions
Cottbus Urban districts: Cottbus
Rural districts: Bad Liebenwerda  • Calau  • Cottbus-Land  • Finsterwalde  • Forst  • Guben (Wokrejs Gubin)  • Herzberg  • Hoyerswerda  • Jessen  • Luckau  • Lübben  • Senftenberg  • Spremberg  • Weißwasser
Dresden Urban districts: Dresden  • Görlitz
Rural districts: Bautzen  • Bischofswerda  • Dippoldiswalde  • Dresden-Land  • Freital  • Görlitz-Land  • Großenhain  • Kamenz  • Löbau  • Meißen  • Niesky  • Pirna  • Riesa  • Sebnitz  • Zittau
Erfurt Urban districts: Erfurt  • Weimar
Rural districts: Apolda  • Arnstadt  • Eisenach  • Erfurt-Land  • Gotha  • Heiligenstadt  • Langensalza  • Mühlhausen  • Nordhausen  • Sömmerda  • Sondershausen  • Weimar-Land
Frankfurt (Oder) Urban districts: Frankfurt (Oder)  • Eisenhüttenstadt  • Schwedt/Oder
Rural districts: Angermünde  • Bad Freienwalde  • Beeskow  • Bernau  • Eberswalde  • Eisenhüttenstadt  • Fürstenwalde  • Seelow  • Strausberg
Gera Urban districts: Gera  • Jena
Rural districts: Eisenberg  • Gera-Land  • Greiz  • Jena  • Lobenstein  • Pößneck  • Rudolstadt  • Saalfeld  • Schleiz  • Stadtroda  • Zeulenroda
Halle Urban districts: Halle  • Dessau  • Halle-Neustadt (since 12 May 1967)
Rural districts: Artern  • Aschersleben  • Bernburg  • Bitterfeld  • Eisleben  • Gräfenhainichen  • Hettstedt  • Hohenmölsen  • Köthen  • Merseburg  • Naumburg  • Nebra  • Quedlinburg  • Querfurt  • Roßlau  • Saalkreis  • Sangerhausen  • Weißenfels  • Wittenberg  • Zeitz
Karl-Marx-Stadt Urban districts: Karl-Marx-Stadt  • Plauen  • Zwickau  • Johanngeorgenstadt (until 1957)  • Schneeberg (until 1958)
Rural districts: Annaberg  • Aue  • Auerbach  • Brand-Erbisdorf  • Flöha  • Freiberg  • Glauchau  • Hainichen  • Hohenstein-Ernstthal  • Karl-Marx-Stadt-Land  • Klingenthal  • Marienberg  • Oelsnitz  • Plauen-Land  • Reichenbach  • Rochlitz  • Schwarzenberg  • Stollberg  • Werdau  • Zschopau  • Zwickau-Land
Leipzig Urban districts: Leipzig
Rural districts: Altenburg  • Borna  • Delitzsch  • Döbeln  • Eilenburg  • Geithain  • Grimma  • Leipzig-Land  • Oschatz  • Schmölln  • Torgau  • Wurzen
Magdeburg Urban districts: Magdeburg
Rural districts: Burg  • Gardelegen  • Genthin  • Halberstadt  • Haldensleben  • Havelberg  • Kalbe (Milde) (until December 1987)  • Klötze  • Loburg (until June 1957)  • Oschersleben  • Osterburg  • Salzwedel  • Schönebeck  • Seehausen (until July 1965)  • Staßfurt  • Stendal  • Tangerhütte (until December 1987)  • Wanzleben  • Wernigerode  • Wolmirstedt  • Zerbst
Neubrandenburg Urban districts: Neubrandenburg (from January 1969)
Rural districts: Altentreptow  • Anklam  • Demmin  • Malchin  • Neubrandenburg-Land  • Neustrelitz  • Pasewalk  • Prenzlau  • Röbel/Müritz  • Strasburg  • Templin  • Teterow  • Ueckermünde  • Waren
Potsdam Urban districts: Potsdam  • Brandenburg an der Havel
Rural districts: Belzig  • Brandenburg  • Gransee  • Jüterbog  • Königs-Wusterhausen  • Kyritz  • Luckenwalde  • Nauen  • Neuruppin  • Oranienburg  • Potsdam  • Pritzwalk  • Rathenow  • Wittstock  • Zossen
Rostock Urban districts: Rostock  • Greifswald (from January 1974)  • Stralsund  • Wismar
Rural districts: Bad Doberan  • Greifswald Land  • Grevesmühlen  • Grimmen  • Ribnitz-Damgarten  • Rostock-Land  • Rügen  • Stralsund  • Wismar  • Wolgast
Schwerin Urban districts: Schwerin
Rural districts: Bützow  • Gadebusch  • Güstrow  • Hagenow  • Ludwigslust  • Lübz  • Parchim  • Perleberg  • Schwerin-Land  • Sternberg
Suhl Urban districts: Suhl
Rural districts: Bad Salzungen  • Hildburghausen  • Ilmenau  • Meiningen  • Neuhaus  • Schmalkalden  • Sonneberg  • Suhl-Land

Restoration of the Länder

The restored Länder in 1990, with borders in red. The grey borders show the situation of 1952.

Immediately before German reunification on 3 October 1990, the restoration of the old Länder was declared. In theory, it was the Länder which then acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany.

In effect the restored Länder did not constitute themselves until after the reunification: on 14 Oktober 1990, eletions to the Landtag (state parliament) were held in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, initiating the formation of state governments.

Since changes to the boundaries of municipal districts were not reversed, and also due to considerations of expediency, the territorial make-up of the restored Länder differed somewhat from the borders prior to 1952.

Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt intially retained the districts remained as administrative entities (Regierungsbezirke). Saxony-Anhalt abolished them in 2003, while Saxony transformed them into directorates in 2008.

External links


The Administrative divisions of the German Democratic Republic were constituted in two different forms during the country's 41-year-long history. The Republic first retained the traditional German division into federated states called Länder, but in 1952 replaced them with arbitrarily-drawn districts called Bezirke. Immediately before German reunification in 1990, the old Länder were restored, but they were not effectively reconstituted until after the GDR had ceased to exist as a separate state.

Contents

Division into Länder

General background

Following its collapse in World War II in 1945, Germany was occupied by the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union. All four occupation powers, in their respective occupation zones, reorganised political life by restoring the Länder, the constituting parts of federal Germany, though the borders of these entities were adjusted and new entities created to form cohesive territories, avoid petty states and conform with the borders of the zones. The state of Prussia, whose provinces extended to all four zones and covered two thirds of Germany, was dissolved in 1947.

Special conditions were assigned to Berlin, which the four powers divided into four sectors. A united German state government existed in the city until it broke apart in 1948. After 1949, both West Berlin and East Berlin (officially only called Berlin) were in effect incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, respectively, despite not legally being part of these countries.

Länder in East Germany

In the Soviet occupation zone, five Länder were established which roughly corresponded to the preexisting states and provinces. However, all territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Polish administration. The five states were:

In 1949, the Soviet occupation zone was transformed into the German Democratic Republic. The five Länder (and East Berlin, though the latter only with consultative votes) participated in the legislative branch through the Länderkammer (Chamber of States), which was elected by the Landtage (state parliaments). However, the Länder were not constituting entities forming a Federal state (as in West Germany) but rather entities of decentralised administrative entities of a unitary state.

Division into Bezirke

The GDR's centralist tendencies quickly gained speed, especially after the ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) had adopted the Communist principle of Democratic centralism in 1950. In 1952, the SED announced to establish "socialism in a planned manner". Now, the Länder were considered as no longer corresponding to the requirements of the new tasks of the state. On 23 July 1952, a law combined municipal districts (Kreise) into regional districts (Bezirke), and subsequently, on 25 July 1952, the state governments transferred their administrative tasks to the new districts.

With this law, the Länder were in effect dissolved, though they formally remained in existence, though without any political or administrative function. The Länderkammer also remained in existence and its members were elected in 1954 by combined sessions of the Bezirkstage (district assemblies) in each Land and in 1958 directly by the Bezirktage. However, on 8 December 1958, the Länderkammer was formally dissolved with no objections being raised.

The 14 new Bezirke were drawn without regard to the borders of the Länder and each named after their capitals,from north to south: Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Schwerin, Potsdam, Frankfurt (Oder), Magdeburg, Cottbus, Halle, Leipzig, Erfurt, Dresden, Karl-Marx-Stadt (named Chemnitz until 1953), Gera and Suhl.

Due to its special status, East Berlin was originally not counted as a Bezirk but it was claimed as the "capital city of the GDR" (though legally, it was not even fully part of the GDR's territory). In 1961, after the construction of the Berlin Wall, East Berlin came to be recognised in GDR administration as the Bezirk Berlin.

The Bezirke (with the exception Berlin, which consisted of a single municipality) were again divided into rural district (Landkreise) and urban districts (Stadtkreise):

Bezirk subdivisions
Cottbus Urban districts: Cottbus
Rural districts: Bad Liebenwerda Template:• Calau Template:• Cottbus-Land Template:• Finsterwalde Template:• Forst Template:• Guben (Wokrejs Gubin) Template:• Herzberg Template:• Hoyerswerda Template:• Jessen Template:• Luckau Template:• Lübben Template:• Senftenberg Template:• Spremberg Template:• Weißwasser
Dresden Urban districts: Dresden Template:• Görlitz
Rural districts: Bautzen Template:• Bischofswerda Template:• Dippoldiswalde Template:• Dresden-Land Template:• Freital Template:• Görlitz-Land Template:• Großenhain Template:• Kamenz Template:• Löbau Template:• Meißen Template:• Niesky Template:• Pirna Template:• Riesa Template:• Sebnitz Template:• Zittau
Erfurt Urban districts: Erfurt Template:• Weimar
Rural districts: Apolda Template:• Arnstadt Template:• Eisenach Template:• Erfurt-Land Template:• Gotha Template:• Heiligenstadt Template:• Langensalza Template:• Mühlhausen Template:• Nordhausen Template:• Sömmerda Template:• Sondershausen Template:• Weimar-Land
Frankfurt (Oder) Urban districts: Frankfurt (Oder) Template:• Eisenhüttenstadt Template:• Schwedt/Oder
Rural districts: Angermünde Template:• Bad Freienwalde Template:• Beeskow Template:• Bernau Template:• Eberswalde Template:• Eisenhüttenstadt Template:• Fürstenwalde Template:• Seelow Template:• Strausberg
Gera Urban districts: Gera Template:• Jena
Rural districts: Eisenberg Template:• Gera-Land Template:• Greiz Template:• Jena Template:• Lobenstein Template:• Pößneck Template:• Rudolstadt Template:• Saalfeld Template:• Schleiz Template:• Stadtroda Template:• Zeulenroda
Halle Urban districts: Halle Template:• Dessau Template:• Halle-Neustadt (since 12 May 1967)
Rural districts: Artern Template:• Aschersleben Template:• Bernburg Template:• Bitterfeld Template:• Eisleben Template:• Gräfenhainichen Template:• Hettstedt Template:• Hohenmölsen Template:• Köthen Template:• Merseburg Template:• Naumburg Template:• Nebra Template:• Quedlinburg Template:• Querfurt Template:• Roßlau Template:• Saalkreis Template:• Sangerhausen Template:• Weißenfels Template:• Wittenberg Template:• Zeitz
Karl-Marx-Stadt Urban districts: Karl-Marx-Stadt Template:• Plauen Template:• Zwickau Template:• Johanngeorgenstadt (until 1957) Template:• Schneeberg (until 1958)
Rural districts: Annaberg Template:• Aue Template:• Auerbach Template:• Brand-Erbisdorf Template:• Flöha Template:• Freiberg Template:• Glauchau Template:• Hainichen Template:• Hohenstein-Ernstthal Template:• Karl-Marx-Stadt-Land Template:• Klingenthal Template:• Marienberg Template:• Oelsnitz Template:• Plauen-Land Template:• Reichenbach Template:• Rochlitz Template:• Schwarzenberg Template:• Stollberg Template:• Werdau Template:• Zschopau Template:• Zwickau-Land
Leipzig Urban districts: Leipzig
Rural districts: Altenburg Template:• Borna Template:• Delitzsch Template:• Döbeln Template:• Eilenburg Template:• Geithain Template:• Grimma Template:• Leipzig-Land Template:• Oschatz Template:• Schmölln Template:• Torgau Template:• Wurzen
Magdeburg Urban districts: Magdeburg
Rural districts: Burg Template:• Gardelegen Template:• Genthin Template:• Halberstadt Template:• Haldensleben Template:• Havelberg Template:• Kalbe (Milde) (until December 1987) Template:• Klötze Template:• Loburg (until June 1957) Template:• Oschersleben Template:• Osterburg Template:• Salzwedel Template:• Schönebeck Template:• Seehausen (until July 1965) Template:• Staßfurt Template:• Stendal Template:• Tangerhütte (until December 1987) Template:• Wanzleben Template:• Wernigerode Template:• Wolmirstedt Template:• Zerbst
Neubrandenburg Urban districts: Neubrandenburg (from January 1969)
Rural districts: Altentreptow Template:• Anklam Template:• Demmin Template:• Malchin Template:• Neubrandenburg-Land Template:• Neustrelitz Template:• Pasewalk Template:• Prenzlau Template:• Röbel/Müritz Template:• Strasburg Template:• Templin Template:• Teterow Template:• Ueckermünde Template:• Waren
Potsdam Urban districts: Potsdam Template:• Brandenburg an der Havel
Rural districts: Belzig Template:• Brandenburg Template:• Gransee Template:• Jüterbog Template:• Königs-Wusterhausen Template:• Kyritz Template:• Luckenwalde Template:• Nauen Template:• Neuruppin Template:• Oranienburg Template:• Potsdam Template:• Pritzwalk Template:• Rathenow Template:• Wittstock Template:• Zossen
Rostock Urban districts: Rostock Template:• Greifswald (from January 1974) Template:• Stralsund Template:• Wismar
Rural districts: Bad Doberan Template:• Greifswald Land Template:• Grevesmühlen Template:• Grimmen Template:• Ribnitz-Damgarten Template:• Rostock-Land Template:• Rügen Template:• Stralsund Template:• Wismar Template:• Wolgast
Schwerin Urban districts: Schwerin
Rural districts: Bützow Template:• Gadebusch Template:• Güstrow Template:• Hagenow Template:• Ludwigslust Template:• Lübz Template:• Parchim Template:• Perleberg Template:• Schwerin-Land Template:• Sternberg
Suhl Urban districts: Suhl
Rural districts: Bad Salzungen Template:• Hildburghausen Template:• Ilmenau Template:• Meiningen Template:• Neuhaus Template:• Schmalkalden Template:• Sonneberg Template:• Suhl-Land

Restoration of the Länder

File:Germany Laender 1947 1990
The restored Länder in 1990, with borders in red. The grey borders show the situation of 1952.

Immediately before German reunification on 3 October 1990, the restoration of the old Länder was declared. In theory, it was the Länder which then acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany.

In effect the restored Länder did not constitute themselves until after the reunification: on 14 October 1990, eletions to the Landtag (state parliament) were held in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, initiating the formation of state governments.

Since changes to the boundaries of municipal districts were not reversed, and also due to considerations of expediency, the territorial make-up of the restored Länder differed somewhat from the borders prior to 1952.

Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt initially retained the districts remained as administrative entities (Regierungsbezirke). Saxony-Anhalt abolished them in 2003, while Saxony transformed them into directorates in 2008.

External links


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