|Type||Public (NASDAQ: ADBE)|
|Founded||Mountain View, California (1982)|
|Headquarters||San Jose, California, U.S.|
|Key people||Charles Geschke, Founder
John Warnock, Founder
Shantanu Narayen, President & CEO
|Products||See List of Adobe products|
|Revenue||▲ $ 3.579 billion (2008)|
|Operating income||▲ $ 1.028 billion (2008)|
|Net income||▲ $ 871.8 million (2008)|
|Total assets||▲ $ 5.821 billion (2008)|
|Total equity||▲ $ 4.410 billion (2008)|
|Employees||8,660 (December 2009)|
Adobe Systems Incorporated (pronounced /əˈdoʊbiː/ ə-DOE-bee) (NASDAQ: ADBE) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. The company has historically focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more-recent foray towards rich Internet application software development.
Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution. The company name Adobe comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind the house of one of the company's founders. Adobe acquired its former competitor, Macromedia, in December 2005, which added newer software products and platforms such as Adobe ColdFusion, Adobe Dreamweaver, Adobe Flash and Adobe Flex to its product portfolio.
As of August 2009, Adobe Systems has 7,564 employees, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe also has major development operations in Orlando, FL; Seattle, WA; San Francisco, CA; Ottawa, Ontario; Minneapolis, MN; Newton, MA; San Luis Obispo, CA; Hamburg, Germany; Noida, India; Bangalore, India; Bucharest, Romania; Beijing, China.
Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, and licensed it to Microsoft. Adobe responded by publishing the Type 1 specification and releasing Adobe Type Manager, software that allowed WYSIWYG scaling of Type 1 fonts on screen, like TrueType, although without the precise pixel-level control. But these moves were too late to stop the rise of TrueType. Although Type 1 remained the standard in the graphics/publishing market, TrueType became the standard for business and the average Windows user. In 1996, Adobe and Microsoft announced the OpenType font format, and in 2003 Adobe completed converting its Type 1 font library to OpenType.
In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Adobe Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh. Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Unlike MacDraw, then the standard Macintosh vector drawing program, Illustrator described shapes with more flexible Bézier curves, providing unprecedented accuracy. Font rendering in Illustrator, however, was left to the Macintosh's QuickDraw libraries and would not be superseded by a PostScript-like approach until Adobe released Adobe Type Manager.
In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably marketed by Adobe and soon dominated the market.
Arguably, one of Adobe's few missteps on the Macintosh platform was their failure to develop their own desktop publishing (DTP) program. Instead, Aldus with PageMaker in 1985 and Quark with QuarkXPress in 1987 gained early leads in the DTP market. Adobe was also slow to address the emerging Windows DTP market. However, Adobe made great strides in that market with release of InDesign and its bundled Creative Suite offering. In a failure to predict the direction of computing, Adobe released a complete version of Illustrator for Steve Jobs' ill-fated NeXT system, but a poorly-produced version for Windows.
Despite these missteps, licensing fees from the PostScript interpreter allowed Adobe to outlast or acquire many of its rivals in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded to Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added Adobe PageMaker and Adobe After Effects to its production line later in the year; it also controls the TIFF file format. In 1995, Adobe added Adobe FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its production line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp. In 1999, Adobe introduced Adobe InCopy as a direct competitor to QuarkCopyDesk.
According to Hoovers Adobe's top competitors are:
|Charles M. Geschke||Co-Chairman of the Board|
|John E. Warnock||Co-Chairman of the Board|
|Shantanu Narayen||President & Chief Executive Officer|
|Karen Cottle||Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary|
|Mark Garrett||Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer|
|Donna Morris||Senior Vice President, Human Resources|
|Kevin Lynch||Senior Vice President: Experience & Technology Group, Chief Technology Officer|
Adobe's products include:
As of February 2007, Adobe's market capitalization was roughly $23 billion USD; as of August 2007, its shares were trading on the NASDAQ for around $40 USD, with a P/E ratio of about 49 and EPS of about $0.82.
As of March 2008, Adobe's market capitalization was roughly $18 billion USD; its shares were trading on the NASDAQ for around $33 USD, with a P/E ratio of about 27 and EPS of about $1.21.
Adobe's fiscal years run from December through November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007.
Since 1995, Fortune has ranked Adobe as an outstanding place to work. Adobe was rated the fifth-best U.S. company to work for in 2003, sixth in 2004, 31st in 2007, 40th in 2008, and eleventh in 2009. In May 2008, Adobe Systems India was ranked 19th of great places to work in India. In October 2008, Adobe Systems Canada Inc. was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine.
Adobe has been criticized for its pricing practices, with retail prices being as much as twice as high in foreign countries than in the domestic market. In June 2009, Adobe increased its prices in the UK by 10%.
Adobe is an American software company. Usually all of the programs they make are for creative uses, such as Adobe Flash, Adobe Dreamweaver and Adobe Photoshop. All Adobe products on their website are allowed to be downloaded, but for a limited time only.