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Theodor Adrian von Renteln (September 15, 1897 - 1946) was a Nazi politician in Germany and General Commissioner of Lithuania.

Born in Khodz, South Ossetia, Russian Empire, von Renteln studied law and economics, but became a journalist. In 1928, he joined the NSDAP and the following year, he became the head of the National Socialist Secondary School Students' League. In 1931, he was appointed the head of the Hitler Youth, but he gave up leadership of the two organizations upon his election to the Reichstag.

In 1932-1933 he led the NS-Kampfbund für den Gewerblichen Mittelstand an organisation allegedly "Deflecting Jewish Atrocity and Boycott-Mongering", participating in the boycott of Jewish businesses and other forms of persecution. In June 1933, he was appointed President of the Nationalsozialistische Handwerks-, Handels-, und Gewerbeorganisation (NS-HAGO), the National Socialist Council of Industry and Trade, holding this position until 1935, when this organisation was merged with the DAF (German Labor Front)).[1] Von Renteln became a staff leader of the German Labor Front, acquiring a reputation as the prime defender of the middle class in Nazi Germany. In 1940, he was appointed the Reich Leader of the Trade and Artisanship Section of the NSDAP. (Hauptamtsleiter Handel und Handwerk in der Reichsleitung der NSDAP). He was also the head of the Supreme Court of the Reich Labor Front.

In 1941, he was appointed the Generalkommissar of Lithuania, where he took harsh measures against the Jewish population. On August 26, 1941, he ordered that all telephones and lines were to be stripped, postal service be cut off, and bridges to the Kaunas Ghetto (also known as the Kovno Ghetto) be surrounded with barbed wire fences to prevent people from jumping off. This order also forbade the Jews of the Kovno ghetto to use doors, window frames, or houses for fuel. In 1943, he was implicated in the clearing of the Vilna Ghetto, deporting 20,000 Jews to concentration or death camps, as well as in plundering.

After the war, he was captured by the Russians, tried, and hanged for his crimes in 1946.

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