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(Advanced Idea Mechanics)
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Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Strange Tales #146 (July 1966), first previously mentioned, as THEM, in Strange Tales #142 (March 1966)
Created by Stan Lee
Jack Kirby
In-story information
Type of organization Terrorist
Leader(s) Baron Strucker
Agent(s) Doomsday Man
Monica Rappaccini
Head Case
Allesandro Brannex

A.I.M. (Advanced Idea Mechanics) is a fictional terrorist organization in the Marvel Comics Universe. The organization first appeared in Strange Tales #146 (July 1966) and was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.


Publication history


A.I.M. is an organization of brilliant scientists and their hirelings dedicated to the acquisition of power and the overthrow of all world governments by technological means. Its leadership traditionally consisted of the seven-member Board of Directors (formerly known as the Imperial Council) with a rotating chairperson. Under the Directors are various division supervisors, and under them are the technicians and salesmen/dealers.

The organization supplies arms and technology to various terrorist and subversive organizations both to foster a violent technological revolution and to make a profit. A.I.M. operatives are usually involved in research, development, manufacturing, and sales of high technology. Members of A.I.M. are required to at least have a Master's degree, if not a Ph.D, in some area of science, mathematics, or business.

A.I.M.'s reach is worldwide, including various front organizations such as Targo Corporation, International Data Integration and Control, and Cadenza Industries. A.I.M. has also operated under some other fronts including Koenig and Strey, Pacific Vista Laboratories, and Omnitech.

A.I.M. has had a number of bases of operations, including a nuclear submarine mobile in the Atlantic Ocean; a base in the Bronx, New York; Black Mesa, Colorado; West Caldwell, New Jersey; Asia, Canada, Europe, Haiti, India, Sudan and Boca Caliente (also known as AIM Island), an island republic in the Caribbean.


A.I.M. has created three major implements of deadly potential which stand far above the rest of their accomplishments. The greatest of these was the Cosmic Cube, a device capable of altering reality. A.I.M. did not realize that they had only manufactured the cubical containment device; the real power was an entity accidentally drawn into this dimension. The Cosmic Cube eventually evolved into Kubik. The second was the Super-Adaptoid, an android capable of mimicking the appearance and superpowers of other beings. The Super-Adaptoid's powers were made possible by incorporating a sliver of the Cosmic Cube into its form. When Kubik repossessed the sliver after defeating the Adaptoid, the android was rendered inanimate. A.I.M.'s third achievement was the creation of MODOK (Mental Organism Designed Only for Killing), an artificially mutated human with an enormous head and psionic abilities.[1] MODOK was originally an ordinary AIM scientist who was selected by A.I.M.'s leader at the time, the Scientist Supreme, to be the subject of the bionic and genetic experiments that turned him into MODOK.[2] After his transformation, MODOK killed the Scientist Supreme and took control of A.I.M., and later took advantage of the organizational chaos following the destruction of HYDRA Island and the deaths of Baron Strucker and most of HYDRA's leading members to sever A.I.M.'s ties with HYDRA.

A.I.M.'s level of technology is as highly advanced as any on Earth, and its scientists have also built various cyborgs, robots, and androids; its agents utilize a variety of submarines, hovercraft, jets, etc. A.I.M. has also attempted to recreate versions of MODOK, including transforming Dr. Katherine Waynesboro into Ms. MODOK [3] and creating SODAM[4] (later revamped as MODAM).[5] Since A.I.M's redirection as an exotic arms dealer[5], its members have access to whatever exotic weaponry is available in its warehouses.

A.I.M.'s leaders traditionally wear yellow three-piece business suits. Technical supervisors wear yellow jumpsuits, skull-caps, and goggles. However, the organization is renowned for the 'beekeeper'-looking helmets and NBC suit uniform of its underlings since the first appearance. As revealed by the mysterious entity Fantomex, the uniform's helmets can bring a profit on eBay.

However, as a result of the "Scorpion: Poison Tomorrow" arc of Amazing Fantasy, A.I.M. has gained a new costume, which tends towards insectoid armor and large guns.

A.I.M. may be connected in some way to the Livewires, as one of their members, Cornfed, wears an A.I.M. uniform. He also wears a button referencing "The Real A.I.M".

Fictional organization history

A.I.M.'s origins began late in World War II with Baron Wolfgang von Strucker's creation of his subversive organization HYDRA. Under the code name of THEM, he created two HYDRA branches called Advanced Idea Mechanics, and the Secret Empire. A.I.M.'s purpose was to develop advanced weaponry for HYDRA. They were close to developing and attaining nuclear weapons when HYDRA Island was invaded by American and Japanese troops. Although HYDRA suffered a major setback, it survived and grew in secret over the following decades.

A.I.M. has had numerous encounters with various superheroes and supervillains, and is the subject of ongoing undercover investigations by S.H.I.E.L.D.. An A.I.M. android factory in a Florida swamp was once raided by S.H.I.E.L.D., which also involved Count Bornag Royale in a weapons deal negotiation with S.H.I.E.L.D.[6] A.I.M. then raided S.H.I.E.L.D.'s New York City headquarters.[7] As a result of these events, Royale was discredited, and A.I.M.'s headquarters was destroyed.[8]

A.I.M. employed Batroc the Leaper to recover an explosive compound called Inferno 42[9] and dispatched a chemical android against Nick Fury and Captain America.[10] A.I.M. also dispatched their special agent the Cyborg against Captain America.[11] A.I.M. was involved in a skirmish with the Maggia and its "Big M".[12] A.I.M. has also captured Iron Man in an attempt to analyze and replicate his armor.[13] A.I.M. was responsible for transforming Betty Ross Banner briefly into the gamma-irradiated Harpy.[14] A.I.M. dispatched their special agent the Destructor to capture Ms. Marvel.[15]

For a time, a schism developed within A.I.M., causing it to split into the Blue and Yellow factions. These factions battled each other, employing Deathbird as an operative.[16] A.I.M. captured the Thing and Namor to test the Virus X on them.[17] The Blue faction later made an attempt to recapture the Cosmic Cube.[18 ] A second battle occurred between the rival factions[19], but factions no longer seem to be active within A.I.M.

A.I.M. eventually hired the Serpent Society to kill MODOK, which they did.[20] A.I.M. was responsible for a jet attack on the West Coast Avengers compound[21] and then took over Boca Caliente[22] and unleashed a microbe aboard the Stark space satellite.[23] A.I.M. also sent an agent to attempt to confiscate the quantum-bands given to Quasar.[24]

The organization was revealed to have become a 'techno-anarchist' group, with no connection to HYDRA, and even a hatred for fascism. With the introduction of the Death's Head 3.0 character, a pacifist future version of the organization is promised, with a surprise character as leader.[25]

It is later revealed that A.I.M. helped General Thunderbolt Ross and Doc Samson create the Red Hulk.[26]

Splinter groups

Over time, some AIM splinter cells have appeared:

  • Advanced Ideas in Destruction (AID)[27]
    • Michael Friedman[28]
  • Radically Advanced Ideas in Destruction (RAID)[29] - AIM-like company, designed exoskeleton, forced to help Captain America track the Cosmic Cube
  • Advanced Genocide Mechanics (AGM) - Located in the Congo. Led by MODOG (Mental Organism Designed Only for Genocide).[30]


  • Adarco Corporation (Advanced Robotic Company)[31] - company that developed Annex and BREW technology
    • Dr. Hillman Barto[32] - ally of Annex; currently deceased[33]
    • Brace[34] - cyborg; destroyed by Annex[33]
    • Abner Dunson
    • Janet Galloway
  • Advanced Corporation
  • Alden's Department Store
  • Cadence Industries[35] - Entertainment Media company that collected the corpse of MODOK
  • IDIC (International Data Integration and Control)[36]
    • Diadem (Lucieane D'Hiven)[37]
    • Shintaro Kuramoto
    • Dr. Zach Lugash
    • Kenjiro Tanaka[38] - former S.H.I.E.L.D. agent who trained alongside Wendell Vaughn; infiltrated IDIC and stayed on as employee after the break-up of SHIELD. He later left to join Vaughn Securities, and was promoted to partner and eventual CEO due to Vaughan spending less time on Earth.
  • Koenig and Strey[39] - based in Manhattan, invaded by Bullseye, Deadpool, Juggernaut, Sabretooth, and Vulture on behalf of Valeria Jessup
  • Omnitech[40]
  • Target Technologies
  • Targo Corporation



  • Allesandro Brannex (Super-Adaptoid)[41] - An android and Chairman of the Board
  • Grand Imperator
  • Monica Rappaccini[42 ] - Mother of Carmilla Black; Italian national; has a PhD in biochemistry from the University of Padua; became a radical, developed poisons for the Black Orchestra and AIM, sought to reestablish contact with daughter
  • George Tarleton (MODOK)[43] - Former A.I.M. scientist, was mutated by George Clinton and driven insane by energies present at the creation of Earth's first Cosmic Cube. Current leader. Also known as Mental Organism Designed Only for Killing, MODOC, Mental Organism Designed Only for Computation. Father of Head Case (Sean Madigan)


  • George Clinton[44] - Former Scientist Supreme; Involved in creation of MODOC/MODOK and the Cosmic Cube; his mind was eventually drained by the Red Skull (Schmidt), Arnim Zola and the Hate-Monger (Hitler) in attempt to recreate the Cosmic Cube
  • Lyle Getz[44] - former Scientist Supreme; currently deceased
  • Chet Madden[45] - Former head of AIM and former client of Connie Ferrari
  • Head Case (Sean Madigan)[46] - The son of MODOK.
  • Maxwell Mordius[13] - Currently deceased
  • Valdemar Tykkio[21] - Scientist Supreme; instituted takeover of Boca Caliente; brother of Yorgon Tykkio
  • Wolfgang von Strucker (Baron Strucker)[47] - A Nazi and also the founder of HYDRA

Members & agents

  • AD-45 Riot-Bots[48 ]
  • Paul Allen[49] - infiltrated S.H.I.E.L.D.; current whereabouts unknown
  • Theron Atlanta
  • B'Tumba[50] - Wakandan, son of N'Baza, old friend of T'Challa, allied with AIM to sell Vibranium, eventually sacrificed life to save T'Challa from AIM
  • Daniel Bannion (Sonic)
  • Herb Bannion (Grasp)
  • Thomas Bannion (Chain)
  • Olinka Barankova (MODAM)[41] - also known as Mobile Organism Designed for Aggressive Maneuvers, "Maria Pym", SODAM. Killed by MODOK[51]
  • Erika Benson (Harness)[52] - mother of Piecemeal; forced him to locate and absorb the energy of Proteus; wore an armored exo-skeleton
  • Clete Billups[53] - Infiltrated S.H.I.E.L.D.; revealed himself and killed his "partners" in order to steal the body of Protocide, he was duped by Captain America and Sharon Carter into leading them to the AIM headquarters.
  • Julia Black[42 ] - adoptive mother of Carmilla Black, former ties to Symbionese Liberation Army, currently deceased[42 ]
  • Timothy Black[42 ] - adoptive father of Carmilla Black, former ties to Symbionese Liberation Army, currently deceased[42 ]
  • Brace[34]
  • Lars Branco[54] - Waker agent; currently deceased.
  • Ellen Brandt
  • Solemne Brannex[55] - Possibly the sister of Allesandro Brannex, sought aid from S.H.I.E.L.D. when AIM obtained a Shi'ar vessel
  • Cache[56] - artificial intelligence.
  • Delia Childress
  • Victor Conrad (Victorius)[57]
  • Alexandre Copernicus[58]
  • Brice Courtland
  • Cyborg[11] - hired assassin
  • Commander Robert Cypher[59 ] - Sought technology to take control of nuclear missiles
  • Njeri Damphousse[60 ] - currently still with AIM
  • Anthony "Tony" Davis (Strikeback) - also known as Ringer
  • Harry Daze
  • Doomsday Man[61] - virtually indestructible robot created by Dr. Kronton in order to steal cobalt bomb and blackmail the USA, initially defeated by Silver Surfer, later revived by Kree Psyche-Magnitron, battled and destroyed by Ms. Marvel, rebuilt by AIM and merged with Kerwin Korman, whom it used as a power source, battled Avengers, sought Warbird as replacement when Kerwin began to weaken, destroyed by Justice, remnants used as life support for Korman.
  • Paul Norbert Ebersol (Fixer)[62]
  • Clytemnestra Erwin[63] - infiltrated Stark Enterprises.
  • Ian Fitzpatrick (Mr. Jinx)[64]
  • Marvin Flumm (Mentallo)[62]
  • Janet Galloway
  • David Garrett[65 ] - ally of AIM, funded Gilbert Wiles to monitoring his tracking of the Uni-Power, slain by Lombardi after outliving usefulness[65 ]
  • Grizzly[66] - AIM agent R-1, used by MODOK in a plot to capture atomic scientist Paul Fosgrave; not to be confused with the Spider-Man enemy or Cable's deceased teammate.
  • James Hendrickson[59 ]
  • Highwayman[67] - English criminal, agent of AIM, attempted to steal the Cognium Steel from Oracle INC. but was defeated by Iron Fist
  • Lance Kepler[58]
  • Kerwin Korman (Destructor)[15] - former premier weapons-maker, stumbled on and unleashed the power core of Kree Psyche-Magnitron, later built into Doomsday Man by AIM technicians and used as its power source, discovered and freed by Avengers, required continued connection to remnants of Doomsday Man for life support
  • Carl Alexis Lombardi[65 ] - AIM agent, sought Uni-Power, slew David Garrett when he had outlived his usefulness, confessed after captured by Daredevil
  • Clinton McIntyre (Protocide)
  • Mechanic
  • Mindstorm
  • Evelyn Necker[68] - Earth-8410 liaison
  • Brendon Newton[58]
  • Peggy Park[69]
  • Marc Planck[58]
  • Drake Previn
  • George Prufrock (Lifeform)[70] - was mutated into a progressively larger carnivorous creature by exposure to experimental virus developed by his father, Jethro Prufock, at AIM
  • Jethro Prufrock[70] - father of George and Martha Prufock, was a perennial right-wing Libertarian candidate for President and a staunch advocate of arms-stockpiling; he was slain by a mutated George[70]
  • Hyun Rahman[71]
  • Jason Rilker[48 ]
  • Andrew Ritter[59 ]
  • Abu-Jamal Rodriguez[72 ]
  • Count Bornag Royale[73]
  • Dr. Cristiano Ryder[74] - posed as a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent to regain control of Android X-4
  • Dr. Ralph Rider[75] - brother of Charles Rider, uncle of Rich and Robert Rider, leading research scientist until killed by Photon (Jason Dean)[75]
  • Baron Rolando Samedi[76] - created pseudo-zuvembies.
  • Red Skull (Johann Schmidt)[77]
  • Arthur Shaman[78] - hypnotist, kidnapped Michael Barnett and attempted to force the Hulk to kill Ms. Marvel
  • Ramona Starr[79] - shot Ka-Zar in the head and then forced him to perform a mission for AIM; also known as Ramona Courtland
  • Karl Steiner
  • Michael Craig Stockton (Dr. Nemesis)[80]
  • Stryke[81]
  • Betty Sumitro[72 ]
  • Timekeeper[82] - scientist and leader of an AIM outpost in Venture Ridge, Wyoming; he attempted to tap into the power of Holly-Ann Ember
  • Yorgon Tykkio[21] - brother of Valdemar; became a cyborg and led a revolt against his brother's rule; controlled the body of MODOK and destroyed it after he was defeated in battle against Iron Man; allied with Clytemnestra Erwin against Tony Stark/Iron Man; was killed by Clytemnestra when she was attempting to flee from him[83]
  • Ultra-Adaptoid[84]
  • Kseniya Vladitch
  • Wakers[60 ] - AIM deep penetration agents under the leadership of Scorpion (Carmilla Black) and 4 others, genetically-engineered to resist all chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons
  • Warbot[78] - AIM weapon, used by Arthur Shaman to capture the Hulk to use against Ms. Marvel, destroyed by her
  • Professor Aaron Whyte[64]
  • Bernard Worrell[18 ] - Member of AIM's Blue Faction; former apprentice of George Clinton; led capture of Cosmic Cube/Kubik but was unable to control it once it began its metamorphosis into Kubik
  • Dr. Stanley Aldo Zane

Other versions

A.I.M. has outposts active in several other universes in the Marvel Multiverse, including the universes for Ultimate Marvel, Marvel 1602, and Age of Apocalypse.

2020 Death's Head Future

A future (2020) version of A.I.M was featured heavily in the Marvel UK limited series Death's Head II. This future organisation created the cyborg Minion, which was later taken over by the personality of Death's Head. A.I.M's representative Evelyn Necker became a popular character in the ongoing series that followed.

In Amazing Fantasy ##16-20, set further in the same future, A.I.M is on the point of making peace with the UN, when a renegade AIM scientist unleashes Death's Head 3.0 on the peace conference.

Avengers UTS

Members of AIM appear in The Avengers: United They Stand #5.

House of M

In the House of M, Advanced Idea Mechanics is re-imagined as a human resistance movement.

Marvel Adventures

In the Marvel Adventures version of Iron Man, AIM, through the use of dummy companies, acquired Stark International's hover platform and uni-beam technology in their invasion of Madripoor, a third world country. Gia-Bao Yinsen tried to tell the world about AIM's terrorist attacks on his country. However, his message is dismissed. During Tony Stark's test of his new solar-powered glider, AIM causes Tony to crash on their artificial island. Tony's heart is damaged, and AIM force him to build an EMP weapon to allow AIM's forces to finish their conquest of Madripoor. In exchange, AIM will repair his heart. Tony learns that Yinsen was also kidnapped, as AIM wanted to prevent him from telling the world about their attacks on his country and to use his intellect to build technology for AIM. Similar to Iron Man's origin, Yinsen and Tony both build armor to escape. However, Yinsen destroys the generator powering the island in order to save his homeland. The explosion kills Yinsen, but Tony Stark lives. Tony becomes Iron Man to prevent people like AIM from committing evil against innocents. Here, the Supreme Scientist is a black-haired woman who is extremely brilliant. In addition, the uniforms that AIM uses are basically NBC orange suits. However, the Supreme Scientist wears black clothing in a style similar to Darth Vader.

Ultimate Marvel

In the Ultimate Marvel world, the AIM commissioned the Ultimate Mad Thinker to steal Cerebro from the Ultimate X-Men and frame the Ultimate Fantastic Four, as seen in the Ultimate X4 mini-series. Ultimate AIM's full purpose and function has yet to be revealed. The mini-series Ultimate Vision introduces AIM as composed of several directorates spread across the globe, with George Tarleton as an AIM leader on an orbital research facility. Tarleton and his team attempted to take control of a Gah Lak Tus module that was left behind in orbit after the swarm was driven away. Being unable to do so on their own, they lured Vision to the station to help them by claiming they would use the knowledge to order the Gah Lak Tus swarm to self-destruct. Once the cyborg Tarleton had connected to the module using Vision, he had the module fire an energy beam at her. Tarleton then incorporated the Gah Lak Tus' circuitry into his own body, but it has seemingly taken him over, transforming him more into a machine, with a monstrous appearance. He has since taken over the entire station remotely and has set it to plummet out of orbit, along with the Gah Lak Tus module, which he says has "unfinished business on Earth." Ultimately Tarleton was broken free of the module's control and helped the Vision and the Ultimate Falcon in destroying the module.

In Ultimate Comics: Avengers, a group of A.I.M. terrorists stole advance technology from the Baxter Building and have some associations with the Ultimate Red Skull. It was recently revealed that the technology stolen is used to create a new Cosmic Cube.

In other media


  • A.I.M. also appear in some episodes of the 1994 Iron Man animated series' second season, during which the sabotage that killed Tony Stark's father, Howard Stark in the first season episode "The Origin of Iron Man". Although it was hinted to be caused by Justin Hammer, it is later revealed as having been caused by A.I.M.
  • A.I.M. is the main focus of the Iron Man: Armored Adventures episode "Ready, A.I.M., Fire." They are shown working on the MODOK project at the time when Basil Sandhurst had Tony Stark enhance the Controller Disks. In "Panther's Prey," Moses Magnum meets up with A.I.M. to obtain the Vibranium needed for the MODOK's harness. Iron Man and Black Panther managed to prevent the exchange. In "Designed Only For Chaos," A.I.M. hires Ghost to spring Living Laser from the S.H.I.E.L.D. Helicarrier in order to be a power source for MODOK. When MODOK is activated, he outs Controller for a plan to go against A.I.M. to improve his Controller Disk. MODOK then ursurps the Scientist Supreme and becomes the head of A.I.M. After Iron Man and Living Laser defeat MODOK, S.H.I.E.L.D. storms the A.I.M headquarters.

Video games

  • A.I.M. Troopers and A.I.M. Attack Bots appear in the video game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance with the A.I.M. Troopers voiced by Steven Blum. They are one of the foot soldiers of Doctor Doom's Masters of Evil where they assist MODOK, Crimson Dynamo, and Mysterio in the attack upon the S.H.I.E.L.D. Omega Base.
  • A.I.M. agents appear in the Iron Man video game.
  • A.I.M. appears in the PlayStation 2 and PSP version of Spider-Man: Web of Shadows. They are shown in alliance with Spencer Smythe who hired them to capture J. Jonah Jameson. Some A.I.M. soldiers were seen when Spider-Man heads up Fisk Tower.

Notable appearances

  • Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #7-12, 16-20
  • Avengers vol. 1 #87, 387-388
  • Avengers vol. 3 #13, 56
  • Cable & Deadpool #11
  • Captain America vol. 1 #124, 127, 133, 313, 410-414, 440-441
  • Captain America vol. 3 #13, 20, 25-31, 33-35, 38-40, 50
  • Captain America vol. 5 #3, 15
  • Captain America Annual #7, 2000
  • Captain America and the Falcon #7-11
  • Captain Universe/Daredevil #1
  • Captain Universe/Hulk #1
  • Captain Universe/X-23 #1
  • Citizen V & the V-Battalion #1-2
  • ClanDestine #9-12
  • Deadpool vol. 3 #26
  • Death's Head II ltd. series from Marvel UK.
  • Defenders vol. 1 #57
  • Defenders vol. 2 #9-10
  • Fantastic Four: World's Greatest Comic Magazine #4
  • Fantastic Force #4
  • GLX-MAS Special #1
  • Identity Disc #1-6
  • Incredible Hulk vol. 2 #289-290
  • Incredible Hulk Annual vol. 2 #16
  • Infinity Abyss #1
  • Iron Man/Captain America Annual 1998
  • Iron Man & the Sub-Mariner #1
  • Iron Man vol. 1 #1, 201, 207-208, 215
  • Iron Man vol. 3 #1, 42-45
  • Marvel Comics Presents #125-126, 152-155, 174
  • Marvel Knights vol. 1 #4
  • Marvel Two-In-One #81,82
  • Marvel Adventures: Iron Man #1
  • Maverick vol. 2 #10-12
  • Ms. Marvel vol. 1 #2, 7-10
  • Punisher Annual vol. 2 #3
  • Quasar #1, 8
  • Sabretooth & Mystique #1-4
  • Solo Avengers #14-16
  • Strange Tales vol. 1 #146, 147, 149
  • Tales of Suspense vol. 1 #75, 76, 78-79, 93-94
  • Uncanny X-Men #352
  • Venom: Sinner Takes All #1
  • Weapon X vol. 2 #5, 23
  • Wolverine vol. 2 #142-143
  • Wolverine vol. 3 #22, 28, 30
  • Wolverine/Captain America #4
  • X-23 #3-4
  • X-51 #7, 10-12
  • X-Men vol. 2 #143
  • X-Men Unlimited vol. 2 #6


  1. ^ Tales of Suspense #93-94
  2. ^ origin revealed in Captain America #133
  3. ^ Hulk #190
  4. ^ Solo Avengers #14-16
  5. ^ a b Quasar #8
  6. ^ Strange Tales #146
  7. ^ Strange Tales #147
  8. ^ Strange Tales #149
  9. ^ Tales of Suspense #75-76
  10. ^ Tales of Suspense #78
  11. ^ a b Captain America #124
  12. ^ Iron Man and Sub-Mariner #1
  13. ^ a b Iron Man #1
  14. ^ Hulk #167-168
  15. ^ a b Ms. Marvel #2
  16. ^ Ms. Marvel #7-10
  17. ^ Marvel Two-In-One #81-82
  18. ^ a b Captain America Annual #7
  19. ^ Hulk #289
  20. ^ Captain America #313
  21. ^ a b c Iron Man #201
  22. ^ Iron Man #207-208
  23. ^ Iron Man #215
  24. ^ Quasar #1
  25. ^ the Scorpion: Poison Tomorrow arc of Amazing Fantasy
  26. ^ Incredible Hulk #600
  27. ^ Captain America vol. 5
  28. ^ Captain America vol. 5 #13
  29. ^ Captain America vol. 5 #17
  30. ^ Invincible Iron Man #1
  31. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Annual #27
  32. ^ Amazing Spider-Man Annual #26
  33. ^ a b Annex #4
  34. ^ a b Annex #1
  35. ^ Captain America #315
  36. ^ Master of Kung Fun #102
  37. ^ Master of Kung Fu #102
  38. ^ Quasar #5
  39. ^ Identity Disc #2
  40. ^ Iron Man vol. 3 #44
  41. ^ a b Quasar #9
  42. ^ a b c d e Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #7
  43. ^ Tales of Suspense #93
  44. ^ a b Captain America #133
  45. ^ Captain America vol. 3 #35
  46. ^ Ms. Marvel vol. 2 #13
  47. ^ ''Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos #5
  48. ^ a b Captain America vol. 3 #13
  49. ^ Astonishing Tales #8
  50. ^ Avengers #87
  51. ^ Captain America vol.3 #3
  52. ^ New Mutants Annual #7
  53. ^ Captain America vol. 3 #25
  54. ^ Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #10
  55. ^ Marvel Comics Presents #174
  56. ^ Captain America vol. 3 #33
  57. ^ Astonishing Tales #18 (Jun 1973)
  58. ^ a b c d Uncanny X-Men #352
  59. ^ a b c Sabretooth & Mystique #1
  60. ^ a b Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #11
  61. ^ Ms Marvel #3
  62. ^ a b Strange Tales #141
  63. ^ Iron Man #171
  64. ^ a b ClanDestine #9
  65. ^ a b c Captain Universe/Hulk #1
  66. ^ Captain America #120
  67. ^ Marvel Comics Presents #137
  68. ^ Death's Head II #1
  69. ^ Marvel Holiday Special 2006
  70. ^ a b c Punisher Annual #3
  71. ^ Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #11
  72. ^ a b Amazing Fantasy vol. 2 #8
  73. ^ Strange Tales vol. 1 #146
  74. ^ Captain America #127
  75. ^ a b Nova #12
  76. ^ Strange Tales #171
  77. ^ Captain America Comics #1
  78. ^ a b Defenders #57
  79. ^ Ka-Zar the Savage #18
  80. ^ Marvel Feature #9
  81. ^ Iron Man Annual #4
  82. ^ Marvel Graphic Novel #16: Aladdin Effect
  83. ^ Iron Man #216
  84. ^ Super-Villain Team-Up: MODOK's 11 #2

External links


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