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Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان
(Persian: Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Afġānistān)

د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت
(Pashto: Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat)
Flag Emblem
AnthemMilli Surood
Capital
(and largest city)
Kabul
34°31′N 69°08′E / 34.517°N 69.133°E / 34.517; 69.133
Official language(s) Dari Persian and Pashto[1]
Demonym Afghan[alternatives]
Government Islamic Republic
 -  President Hamid Karzai
 -  Vice President Mohammad Fahim
 -  Vice President Karim Khalili
 -  Chief Justice Abdul Salam Azimi
Establishment
 -  First Afghan state[1] October 1747 
 -  Independence from the United Kingdom August 19, 1919 
Area
 -  Total 647,500 km2 (41st)
251,772 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 28,150,000[2] (37th)
 -  1979 census 13,051,358 
 -  Density 43.5/km2 (150th)
111.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $21.388 billion[3] (96th)
 -  Per capita $760[3] (172nd)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $11.709 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $416[3] 
HDI (2007) 0.345 (low) (174)
Currency Afghani (AFN)
Time zone D† (UTC+4:30)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .af
Calling code 93
.The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country in South-Central Asia.^ The Hepthalites (or White Huns) swept out of Central Asia around the fourth century into Bactria and to the south, overwhelming the last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, pp 195-204.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A partitioning of Afghanistan would also greatly increase the difficulty of Pakistan's avowed goal of political, cultural, and logistical connections with the newly independent Central Asian Republics.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[4] .It is variously described as being located within South Asia[1][5], Central Asia[6][7], and sometimes Western Asia (or the Middle East).^ The Hepthalites (or White Huns) swept out of Central Asia around the fourth century into Bactria and to the south, overwhelming the last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Middle East and South Asia , by Malcolm B. Russell.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the split, within centuries Islam reached far into Africa, eastward to the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia, as well as northward into Central Asia.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[8] .It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast.^ Uzbek also reside north of the Afghan border in Uzbekistan, Tajikstan and Turkmenistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan is completely landlocked, bordered by Iran to the west (925 kilometers), by the Central Asian States of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north and northeast (2,380 kilometers), by China at the easternmost top of the Wakhan Corridor (96 kilometers), and by Pakistan to the east and south (2,432 kilometers).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These roads connected major cities with the principal border crossings: from Herat to Iran and Turkmenistan in the west; from Kandahar to Pakistan in the south; from Kabul through Jalalabad to Pakistan in the east; from Balkh to Uzbekistan in the north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Afghanistan has a long history, and has been an ancient focal point of the Silk Road and migration. .It is an important geostrategic location, connecting East, South, West and Central Asia.^ The first important frontier dispute was the Panjdeh crisis of 1885, precipitated by Russian encroachment into Central Asia.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hepthalites (or White Huns) swept out of Central Asia around the fourth century into Bactria and to the south, overwhelming the last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2007, about 81 percent of the opium production was located in the south and south-west regions of Afghanistan, where anti-government elements are most active.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The land has been a target of various invaders, as well as a source from which local powers invaded neighboring regions to form their own empires.^ Builders of empires, traders and pilgrims as well as those seeking haven from upheavals in their own societies have come to this land throughout the centuries.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Denied power and control over Afghanistan's material resources--which are mostly concentrated in the minority regions--the frustrations of Afghanistan's Pushtuns could threaten Pakistan's own stability.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The area that is now Afghanistan seems in prehistory--as well as ancient and modern times--to have been closely connected by culture and trade with the neighboring regions to the east, west, and north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Ahmad Shah Durrani created the Durrani Empire in 1747, which is considered the beginning of modern Afghanistan.^ Ahmad Shah Durrani's Empire, 1762).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From their capital at Pune, the Marathas, Hindus who controlled much of western and central India, were beginning to look northward to the decaying Mughal empire, which Ahmad Shah now claimed by conquest.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1818 until Dost Mohammad's ascendancy in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmad Shah Durrani's empire as various sons of Painda Khan struggled for supremacy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Its capital was shifted in 1776 from Kandahar to Kabul and most of its territories ceded to neighboring empires.^ The city of Kabul has drawn members of all ethnic groups in growing numbers since 1776 when it was declared the capital in favor of Kandahar; generations of intermarriages have also taken place.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in "The Great Game" played between the British Empire and Russian Empire.^ In the nineteenth century, Afghanistan lay between the expanding might of the Russian and British empires.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great Game set in motion the confrontation of the British and Russian empires--whose spheres of influence moved steadily closer to one another until they met in Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Like all foreign policy developments of this period affecting Afghanistan, the conclusion of the "Great Game" between Russia and Britain occurred without the Afghan ruler's participation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[10] .On August 19, 1919, following the third Anglo-Afghan war, the country regained independence from the United Kingdom over its foreign affairs.^ Starting in May 1919 when he won complete independence in the month-long Third Anglo-Afghan War with Britain, Amanullah altered foreign policy in his new relations with external powers and transformed domestic politics with his social, political, and economic reforms.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the third century A.D., Kushan control fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms that became easy targets for conquest by the rising Iranian dynasty, the Sassanians (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russians advanced steadily southward toward Afghanistan in the three decades after the First Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Since the late 1970s Afghanistan has experienced a continuous state of civil war punctuated by foreign occupations in the forms of the 1979 Soviet invasion and the October 2001 US-led invasion that overthrew the Taliban government.^ Afghanistan: Progress since the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Taliban government that had supposedly been eliminated by the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan was alive and thriving.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The effects of the civil war and Soviet invasion had an impact well beyond Afghanistan's boundaries.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In December 2001, the United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to help maintain security and assist the Karzai administration.^ He has been in Kabul, Afghanistan, since NATO took responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force in August 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer confirmed on 10 February that NATO is to expand the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission into the west of Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Action by the United Nations (UN) Security Council was impossible because the Soviets were armed with veto power, but the UN General Assembly regularly passed resolutions opposing the Soviet occupation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The country is being rebuilt slowly with support from the international community and dealing with a strong Taliban insurgency.^ The claims were angrily denied by the Afghan leader, who claimed that the international community had not done enough to help his country."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The shooting is the latest in a string of such incidents, at a time when Western countries are pouring resources into training Afghan soldiers and police to fight the Taliban insurgency.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[11]

Contents

Etymology

The name Afghānistān, Persian: افغانستان [avɣɒnestɒn],[12] means "Land of Afghans", from the word Afghan.

Origin of the name

.The first part of the name, "Afghan", is an alternative name for the Pashtuns who are the founders and the largest ethnic group of the country.^ Typically, it is men from dominant groups who will seek to marry with females outside their own ethnic group.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Some would say that these conflicts are evidence that Afghan society must now be fragmented between groups identified by religious, ethnic, or regional labels.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, 11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.They probably began using the term Afghan as a name for themselves since at least the Islamic period and onwards.^ Tragically, on the day the Peshawar parties reached a tentative agreement on how they would establish their Islamic republic, a new war for Kabul began.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The groups reject the term and refer to themselves by specific names.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Senior Afghan officials said that they didn't support the injection of more troops, since previous troop increases haven't successful in pushing back the insurgency.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.According to W. K. Frazier Tyler, M. C. Gillet and several other scholars "the word Afghan first appears in history in the Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam in 982 AD." Al-Biruni referred to Afghans as various tribes living on the western frontier mountains of the Indus River, which would be the Sulaiman Mountains.^ According to The Guardian, "Hamid Ghodse, the INCB's president, said the British-led attempt to persuade Afghan farmers to grow other cash crops had failed.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In other words, we need a surge of Afghan security forces.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the Associated Press, the Pakistani government "blamed militants seeking to avenge an army offensive against al-Qaida and Taliban close to the Afghan border."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[13]
A Moroccan traveller, Ibn Battuta, visiting Kabul in 1333 writes:[14]
We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans.
In this regard the Encyclopædia Iranica states:[15]
.
From a more limited, ethnological point of view, "Afghān" is the term by which the Persian-speakers of Afghanistan (and the non-Paštō-speaking ethnic groups generally) designate the Paštūn.^ Many analysts say Pakistan is more critical than Afghanistan to long-term U.S. plans for Central Asia, as NPR's Jackie Northam reports : .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ There is a tendency of some non-Tajik groups to classify any Dari speaker as a member of this group.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes of northern Afghanistan (see Ethnic Groups , ch.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The equation [of] Afghan [and] Paštūn has been propagated all the more, both in and beyond Afghanistan, because the Paštūn tribal confederation is by far the most important in the country, numerically and politically.
It further explains:
The term "Afghān" has probably designated the Paštūn since ancient times. Under the form Avagānā, this ethnic group is first mentioned by the Indian astronomer Varāha Mihira in the beginning of the 6th century CE in his Brihat-samhita.
This information is supported by traditional Pashto literature, for example, in the writings of the 17th-century Pashto poet Khushal Khan Khattak:[16]
.
Pull out your sword and slay any one, that says Pashtun and Afghan are not one!^ Stanley McChrystal, would likely be be seen by many Afghans and Pakistanis as a sign that "the U.S. is on the verge of pulling out," Neumann said.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Arabs know this and so do Romans: Afghans are Pashtuns, Pashtuns are Afghans!
.The last part of the name, -stān is an ancient Iranian languages suffix for "place", prominent in many languages of the region.^ They speak Indo-Iranian dialects of Nuristani and Dardic called by village and valley names; many are mutually unintelligible from valley to valley.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The term "Afghanistan", meaning the "Land of Afghans", was mentioned by the 16th century Mughal Emperor Babur in his memoirs, referring to the territories south of Kabul that were inhabited by Pashtuns (called "Afghans" by Babur).^ Britain, for its part, would not occupy or annex Afghan territory, or interfere in Afghanistan's internal affairs.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Provides information from the British policy in the nineteenth century to the U.S. policies toward South Asia during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, and the Soviet-Afghan agreements.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghan soldiers gather as smoke rises from a U.N. guest house after it was attacked by gunmen in Kabul, Afghanistan, Wednesday, Oct.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[17]
Until the 19th century the name was only used for the traditional lands of the Pashtuns, while the kingdom as a whole was known as the Kingdom of Kabul, as mentioned by the British statesman and historian Mountstuart Elphinstone.[18] .Other parts of the country were at certain periods recognized as independent kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of Balkh in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.^ In the third century A.D., Kushan control fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms that became easy targets for conquest by the rising Iranian dynasty, the Sassanians (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In early July, however, the Khalqi purge of Parchamis began with Karmal dispatched to Czechoslovakia as ambassador (along with others shipped out of the country).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.With the expansion and centralization of the country, Afghan authorities adopted and extended the name "Afghanistan" to the entire kingdom, after its English translation had already appeared in various treaties between the British Raj and Qajarid Persia, referring to the lands subject to the Pashtun Barakzai Dynasty of Kabul.^ Which means that training the Afghan army won't be as easy as translating the U.S.'s English-language training materials into the Pasto or Dari anguages spoken in Afghanistan and telling Afghan recruits to study them.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ In the nineteenth century, Afghanistan lay between the expanding might of the Russian and British empires.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ With British forces occupying much of the country, Sher Ali's son and successor, Yaqub, signed the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879 to prevent a British invasion of the rest of the country.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[20] "Afghanistan" as the name for the entire kingdom was mentioned in 1857 by Friedrich Engels.[21] .It became the official name when the country was recognized by the world community in 1919, after regaining full independence over its foreign affairs from the British,[22] and was confirmed as such in the nation's 1923 constitution.^ The British official said there were some 22,000 hectares of opium poppies in the target area.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this agreement and in return for an annual subsidy and vague assurances of assistance in case of foreign aggression, Yaqub relinquished control of Afghan foreign affairs to the British.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[23]

Geography

Topography
.Afghanistan is landlocked and mountainous, with plains in the north and southwest.^ The remaining five--Turkistan Plains, Herat-Farah Lowlands, Sistan Basin-Hilmand Valley, Western Stony Desert, and Southwestern Sandy Desert--comprise deserts and plains "which surround the Mountains in the north, west and southwest."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The highest point is Nowshak, at 7,485 m (24,557 ft) above sea level.^ The highest of these is Nowshak at 7,485 meters.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The climate varies by region and tends to change quite rapidly. .Large parts of the country are dry, and fresh water supplies are limited.^ If Afghans in large part come to believe their country is being occupied by Americans, resistance to the U.S. efforts there will grow.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

The endorheic Sistan Basin is one of the driest regions in the world.[24]
.Afghanistan has a continental climate with very harsh winters in the central highlands, the glacierized northeast (around Nuristan) and the Wakhan Corridor, where the average temperature in January is below −15°C, and hot summers in the low-lying areas of Sistan Basin of the southwest, the Jalalabad basin of the east, and the Turkistan plains along the Amu River of the north, where temperature averages over 35°C in July.^ Afghanistan is completely landlocked, bordered by Iran to the west (925 kilometers), by the Central Asian States of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north and northeast (2,380 kilometers), by China at the easternmost top of the Wakhan Corridor (96 kilometers), and by Pakistan to the east and south (2,432 kilometers).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The remaining five--Turkistan Plains, Herat-Farah Lowlands, Sistan Basin-Hilmand Valley, Western Stony Desert, and Southwestern Sandy Desert--comprise deserts and plains "which surround the Mountains in the north, west and southwest."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wakhan Corridor, however, which has temperatures ranging from 9 C in the summer to below -21 C in the winter, receives fewer than ten centimeters of rainfall annually.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The country is frequently subject to minor earthquakes, mainly in the northeast of Hindu Kush mountain areas.^ "In the winter of 1838, an adventurer, surrounded by native troops and mounted on an elephant, raised the American flag on the summit of the Hindu Kush in the mountainous wilds of Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are found primarily in and near the eastern Hazarajat, in the Baghlan area north of the Hindu Kush, among the mountain Tajik of Badakhshan, and amongst the Wakhi in the Wakhan Corridor.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Hindu Kush area, three short-lived, local dynasties ascended to power.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some 125 villages were damaged and 4000 people killed by the May 31, 1998 earthquake.^ The death toll continues to rise in Indonesia, where it's thought that more than 1,000 people were killed during yesterday's earthquake off West Sumatra.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ "A powerful earthquake in Indonesia has killed at least 11 people and injured dozens of others," the Associated Press writes .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.At 249,984 sq mi (647,500 km²), Afghanistan is the world's 41st-largest country (after Burma).^ In Badakshan, northern Afghanistan, a maternal mortality rate of 6,500 per 100,000 is the "highest ever recorded in any part of the world", the report says.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Pakistan is the world's second largest Muslim country, it has the fastest-growing nuclear arsenal in the world today, and it has more terrorists per square kilometer than any other country in the world.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ As a result, Afghanistan has become the worlds largest opium producer, with its share of the total world supply increasing from 52 percent in 1995 to 93 percent in 2007.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan border Afghanistan to the north, Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and the People's Republic of China to the east.^ Tajik are also found north of Afghanistan's border in their own state of Tajikistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Uzbek also reside north of the Afghan border in Uzbekistan, Tajikstan and Turkmenistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan is completely landlocked, bordered by Iran to the west (925 kilometers), by the Central Asian States of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north and northeast (2,380 kilometers), by China at the easternmost top of the Wakhan Corridor (96 kilometers), and by Pakistan to the east and south (2,432 kilometers).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The country's natural resources include gold, silver, copper, zinc, and iron ore in the Southeast; precious and semi-precious stones (such as lapis, emerald, and azure) in the Northeast; and potentially significant petroleum and natural gas reserves in the North.^ This stretched the resources of towns and rural areas throughout the country, especially south and north of Kabul and in the Hazarajat.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The country also has uranium, coal, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, and salt.[1][25][26][27] .However, these significant mineral and energy resources remain largely untapped, due to the effects of the Soviet invasion and the subsequent civil war.^ The effects of the civil war and Soviet invasion had an impact well beyond Afghanistan's boundaries.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 .
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently during the post-Soviet civil war, this particular peak was controlled by Abdul Rashid Dostum -- one of the heaviest warlords.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Plans are under way to begin extracting them in the near future.[28][29]

History

History of Afghanistan
Emblem of Afghanistan
This article is part of a series
Timeline
Pre-Islamic Period
Achaemenids (550-330 BC)
Seleucids (330-150 BC)
Greco-Bactrians (256-125 BC)
Sakas (145 BC - )
Kushans (30 CE - 248 CE)
Indo-Sassanid (248 - 410)
Kidarites (320-465)
Hephthalites (410-557)
Sassanids (224-579)
Kabul Shahi (565-670)
Islamic Conquest
Umayyads (661-750)
Abbasids (750-821)
Tahirids (821-873)
Saffarids (863-900)[30]
Samanids (875-999)
Ghaznavids (963-1187)
Seljukids (1037-1194)
Khwarezmids (1077-1231)
Ghurids (1149-1212)
Ilkhanate (1258-1353)
Timurids (1370-1506)
Mughals (1501-1738)
Safavids (1510-1709)
Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738)
Afsharids (1738-1747)
Durrani Empire (1747-1823)
Emirate (1823-1926)
Kingdom (1926-1973)
Republic (1973-1978)
Democratic Republic (1978-1992)
Islamic State (1992-1996)
Islamic Emirate (1996-2001)
Islamic Republic (2001-)
Afghan Civil War
1979–1989
1989–1992
1992–1996
1996–2001
2001–present

Afghanistan Portal
 v • d • e 
.Though the modern nation state of Afghanistan was founded or created in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani,[9] the land has an ancient history and various timelines of different civilizations.^ Ahmad Shah Durrani's Empire, 1762).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Analyzes the United States' position in Afghanistan, the history of its involvement with Afghanistan and Pakistan back to the Cold War, and the U.S. policy toward the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1818 until Dost Mohammad's ascendancy in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmad Shah Durrani's empire as various sons of Painda Khan struggled for supremacy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Excavation of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree, the University of Pennsylvania, the Smithsonian Institution and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities of the area were among the earliest in the world.^ The absence of law enforcement facilities makes these one of the least controlled narcotics trafficking areas in the world.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, Afghanistan provides about 95 percent of the world's supply of heroin.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ They are now displaced in cities inside Afghanistan, living as refugees in Pakistan or resettled abroad.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[31][32]
.Afghanistan is a country at a unique nexus point where numerous Indo-European civilizations have interacted and often fought, and was an important site of early historical activity.^ The Afghanistan profile offers brief, summarized information on the countrys historical background, geography, society, economy, transportation and telecommunications, government and politics, and national security.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Available online at: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/afghanistan.html Country, city, historical, thematic maps, e.g.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The region has been home to various people through the ages, among them the Aryan tribes, such as the Pactyans, Arians, Scythians, Bactrians, and etc.^ Ahmad Shah declared an Islamic holy war against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, as well as other tribes such as the Baloch, answered his call.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Tajik are not organized by tribe and refer to themselves most often by the name of the valley or region they inhabit, such as Panjsheri, Andarabi, Samangani, and Badakhshi.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It also has been conquered by a host of people, including the Medes, Achaemenids, Alexander the Great, Seleucids, Indo-Greeks, Samanids, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and others.^ Nadir Shah conquered Qandahar and Kabul in 1738 along with defeating a great Mughal army in India, plundering Delhi, and massacring thousands of its people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians accompanying Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC described this group as differing culturally and religiously from other peoples in the area.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Seleucids, as under Alexander, Greek colonists and soldiers entered the region of the Hindu Kush, and many are believed to have remained.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, native entities such as Kushans, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Timurids, Mughals, Hotakis, Durranis and others have risin to power in what is now Afghanistan and invaded the surrounding regions to form empires of their own.^ It took Alexander only three years (from about 330-327 B.C.) to subdue the area that is now Afghanistan and the adjacent regions of the former Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In Afghanistan, Marines have launched a major operation in the south as they aim to take control of villages now in the hands of the Taliban.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Denied power and control over Afghanistan's material resources--which are mostly concentrated in the minority regions--the frustrations of Afghanistan's Pushtuns could threaten Pakistan's own stability.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Pre-Islamic period

Arachosia, Aria and Bactria were the ancient satraps of the Persian Achaemenid Empire that made up most of what is now Afghanistan during 500 B.C. The inhabitants of Arachosia were known as Pactyans, possibly today's Pashtun people.
.After 2000 BC, waves of Indo-European-speaking Aryans from Central Asia moved south into the area of Afghanistan.^ The first important frontier dispute was the Panjdeh crisis of 1885, precipitated by Russian encroachment into Central Asia.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Many analysts say Pakistan is more critical than Afghanistan to long-term U.S. plans for Central Asia, as NPR's Jackie Northam reports : .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The disunited Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms were in a poor position to meet the threat of a new wave of nomadic, Indo-European invaders from the north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[31] .These Indo-Iranians later migrated further south to India, west to what is now Iran, and towards Europe via north of the Caspian.^ Large-scale trading, money lending and casual labor opportunities are often more important than herding to the eastern Ghilzai whose caravans once reached deep into India (later Pakistan) as far as what is now Bangladesh, as well as north to Bokhara, east to China, and west to Iran.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hindukush system stretches about 966 kilometers laterally, and its median north-south measurement is about 240 kilometers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The area that is now Afghanistan seems in prehistory--as well as ancient and modern times--to have been closely connected by culture and trade with the neighboring regions to the east, west, and north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[33] .They set up a nation which became known as Airyānem Vāejah.^ In September he set up the National Compromise Commission to contact counterrevolutionaries "in order to complete the Saur Revolution in its new phase."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

During the rule of the Parthian, Sasanian and later, it was called Erānshahr (Persian: ايرانشهرĪrānšahr) meaning "Dominion of the Aryans".
.The ancient Zoroastrianism religion is believed to have originated in what is now Afghanistan between 1800 to 800 BC, as Zoroaster lived and died in Balkh.^ They are now displaced in cities inside Afghanistan, living as refugees in Pakistan or resettled abroad.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ KABUL, Afghanistan -- U.S. Marines in southern Afghanistan this month lived and died with a calm understanding of these kinds of sounds: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The area that is now Afghanistan seems in prehistory--as well as ancient and modern times--to have been closely connected by culture and trade with the neighboring regions to the east, west, and north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[34][35] .Ancient Eastern Iranian languages, such as Avestan, may have been spoken in the region around the time of the rise of Zoroastrianism.^ The area that is now Afghanistan seems in prehistory--as well as ancient and modern times--to have been closely connected by culture and trade with the neighboring regions to the east, west, and north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ That led to headlines such as this one by The New York Times : " 'Public Option' In Health Plan May Be Dropped."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.By the middle of the sixth century BC, the Achaemenid Persian Empire overthrew the Medes and incorporated Afghanistan (known as Arachosia Aria, and Bactria to the Greeks) within its boundaries.^ The area that is present-day Afghanistan comprised several satrapies (provinces) of the Achaemenid Empire when it was at its most extensive, under Darius the Great (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the middle of the third century B.C., an independent, Greek-ruled state was declared in Bactria.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By the middle of the ninth century, Abbasid rule had faltered, and semi-independent states began to emerge throughout the empire.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander the Great entered and conquered Afghanistan in 330 BCE. Following Alexander's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the area until 305 BCE, when they gave most of the area to the Hindu Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty.^ They were defeated by Alexander the Great.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It took control, thirty years after Alexander's death, of the southeasternmost areas of the Seleucid domains, including parts of present-day Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Urban civilization in the Iranian plateau, which includes most of Iran and Afghanistan, may have begun as early as 3000 to 2000 B.C. About the middle of the second millennium B.C. people speaking an Indo-European language may have entered the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but little is known about the area until the middle of the first millennium B.C., when its history began to be recorded during the Achaemenid Empire.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.During the Mauryan rule, Hinduism and Buddhism was widely practiced in the area.^ The Mauryans introduced Indian culture, including Buddhism, to the area.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the Hindu Kush area was hotly contested between the Mughals of India and the powerful Safavids of Iran.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It was during his reign that Mahayana Buddhism, imported to northern India earlier by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Mauryans were overthrown in about 185 BCE, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest of Afghanistan by the Greco-Bactrians by 180 BCE. Much of Afghanistan soon broke away from the Greco-Bactrians and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.^ Poppy growing for subsistence consumption had been traditional in parts of Afghanistan, but since the late 1980s it became Afghanistan's most valuable commercial export.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The Indo-Greeks were defeated by the Indo-Scythians and expelled from most of Afghanistan by the end of the 2nd century BCE.
.During the first century, the Parthian Empire subjugated Afghanistan, but lost it to their Indo-Parthian vassals.^ In the nineteenth century, Afghanistan lay between the expanding might of the Russian and British empires.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, it was under the leadership of the first Pashtun ruler, Ahmad Shah, that the nation of Afghanistan began to take shape following centuries of fragmentation and exploitation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it was the scene of great empires and flourishing trade for over two millennia, Afghanistan did not become a truly independent nation until the twentieth century.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In the mid to late 1st century AD the vast Kushan Empire, centered in modern Afghanistan, became great patrons of Buddhist culture.^ In the third century A.D., Kushan control fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms that became easy targets for conquest by the rising Iranian dynasty, the Sassanians (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the nineteenth century, Afghanistan lay between the expanding might of the Russian and British empires.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From his capital of Samarkand, Timur created an empire that, by the late fourteenth century, extended from India to Turkey.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Kushans were defeated by the Sassanids in the third century.^ In the third century A.D., Kushan control fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms that became easy targets for conquest by the rising Iranian dynasty, the Sassanians (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Although various rulers calling themselves Kushanshas (generally known as Indo-Sassanids) continued to rule at least parts of the region, they were probably more or less subject to the Sassanids.^ There is general agreement that Daoud had been meeting with what he called various "friends" for more than a year.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although many may now call for the UN to find solutions, others are equally convinced that as Afghans they cannot wait for others, that peace cannot be brought by outsiders.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Habibullah was probably the first Tajik to rule this region since before the Greeks arrived (although some historians believe the Ghorids of the twelfth century to have been Tajiks).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[36] .The late Kushans were followed by the Kidarite Huns[37] who, in turn, were replaced by the short-lived but powerful Hephthalites, as rulers of the region in the first half of the fifth century.^ The Hepthalites (or White Huns) swept out of Central Asia around the fourth century into Bactria and to the south, overwhelming the last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, it was under the leadership of the first Pashtun ruler, Ahmad Shah, that the nation of Afghanistan began to take shape following centuries of fragmentation and exploitation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Hindu Kush area, three short-lived, local dynasties ascended to power.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[38]
The Hephthalites were defeated by the Sasanian king Khosrau I in AD 557, who re-established Sassanid power in Persia. .However, the successors of Kushans and Hepthalites established a small dynasty in Kabulistan called Kushano-Hephthalites or Kabul-Shahan, who were defeated by the Muslim Arab armies in the 7th century and conquered later by the Ghaznavids.^ Nadir Shah conquered Qandahar and Kabul in 1738 along with defeating a great Mughal army in India, plundering Delhi, and massacring thousands of its people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hepthalites (or White Huns) swept out of Central Asia around the fourth century into Bactria and to the south, overwhelming the last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Panipat in 1761 between Muslim and Hindu armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each was fought along a twelve-kilometer front.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Islamic conquests and Mongol invasion

Islam arrived to Afghanistan in the 7th century from Khorasan in the west
.In the Middle Ages, upto the 19th century, part of Afghanistan was known as Khorasan.^ The report shows that Afghanistan now accounts for 93 per cent of world opium production and is the biggest narcotics producer since 19th-century China.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghanistan is part of a larger pattern of harrassment based on his age and sexual orientation."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[39][40] .Several important centers of Khorāsān are thus located in modern Afghanistan, such as Balkh, Herat, Ghazni[citation needed] and Kabul[citation needed].^ Their membership was recruited from university faculties and from secondary schools in several cities such as Mazar-i-Sharif and Herat.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Imami Shia are also found in urban centers such as Kabul, Kandahar, Ghazni, and Mazar-i-Sharif where numbers of Qizilbash and Hazara reside.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan reports located by keyword searches such as "Afghanistan conflict".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was during the 7th century to the 9th century that Islam was introduced and spread in the area.^ The modern educational system was introduced at the end of the nineteenth century by the government which used it as a means to convince traditionalists of the compatibility of Islam with modernization.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The first systematic employment of Islam as an instrument for state-building was introduced by Amir Abdur Rahman (1880-1901) during his drive toward centralization.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the Hindu Kush area was hotly contested between the Mughals of India and the powerful Safavids of Iran.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Prior to the arrival of Islam, the area was inhabited by people of multi-religions, which included Zoroastrians, Hindus, Buddhists, possibly Jews, shamanists and others.^ Historians accompanying Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC described this group as differing culturally and religiously from other peoples in the area.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It faces no competition from other religions as only scattered minorities of Hindus and Sikhs, who came originally as traders from India, and Jews, lived in urban centers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Of this great Buddhist culture and earlier Zoroastrian influence there remain few, if any, traces in the life of Afghan people today.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

 
.The region of Afghanistan became the center of various important empires, including that of the Samanids (875–999), Ghaznavids (977–1187), Seljukids (1037–1194), Ghurids (1149–1212), Ilkhanate (1225–1335), and Timurids (1370–1506).^ An often unacknowledged event that nevertheless played an important role in Afghan history (and in the politics of Afghanistan's neighbors and the entire region up to the present) was the rise in the tenth century of a strong Sunni dynasty--the Ghaznavids.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. has sent federal workers from various agencies, including the U.S. AID and the Agriculture Department, to help development efforts in Afghanistan, a critical part of the effort to stabilize the troubled country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghan Uzbek originally came from Central Asia and their rise as the dominant political force in north Afghanistan followed the demise in 1506 of the Timurid dynasty centered at Herat.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Among them, the periods of the Ghaznavids and Timurids are considered as some of the most brilliant eras of the region's history.^ (Essential Field Guides to Humanitarian and Conflict Zones) "Compiled by some of the region's most experienced journalists ..
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41][42]
.Afghanistan was overrun in 1219 by Genghis Khan and his Mongols army, who devastated much of the land.^ In 1220, the Islamic lands of Central Asia were overrun by the armies of the Mongol invader Genghis Khan (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ An interim government might connect with the commanders who already exercised control over much of Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan's rugged terrain and seasonally harsh climate have not deterred foreign invaders who coveted this land or sought to cross it on the road to further conquests.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

For example, his troops are said to have exterminated or annihilated all living creatures in the ancient Khorāsānian cities of Herat and Balkh.[43] .The destruction caused by the Mongols depopulated major cities and caused much of the population to revert to an agrarian rural society.^ Less publicized, but equally disruptive, was the displacement of internal populations, from war affected rural areas to cities, and from bombed out cities to rural areas.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ As the rural population became increasingly aware of the concentration of modern facilities and industry in Kabul and a few other cities, signs of resentment assumed political importance.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of major cities such as Kabul, Ghazni, Jalalabad, and Mazar-e Sharif absorbed IDPs in great numbers, causing overcrowding and rising demands for city-provided services.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[44] Their rule continued with the Ilkhanate, and was extended further following the invasion of Timur (Tamerlane).
.In 1504, Babur, a descendant of both Timur and Genghis Khan, established the Mughal Empire with its capital at Kabul.^ From his capital of Samarkand, Timur created an empire that, by the late fourteenth century, extended from India to Turkey.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From the death of Genghis Khan in 1227 until the rise of Timur (Tamerlane) in the 1380s, Central Asia went through a period of fragmentation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in the sixteenth century, Babur, who was descended from Timur on his father's side and from Genghis Khan on his mother's, was driven out of his father's kingdom in the Ferghana Valley (which straddles contemporary Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) by the Shaybani Uzbeks, who had wrested Samarkand from the Timurids.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.By the early 1700s, Afghanistan was controlled by several ruling groups: Uzbeks to the north, Safavid Persians to the west and the remaining larger area by the Mughals or self-ruled by local Afghan tribes.^ The Parthians established control in most of what is Iran as early as the middle of the third century B.C.; about 100 years later another Indo-European group from the north--the Kushans (a subgroup of the tribe called the Yuezhi by the Chinese)--entered Afghanistan and established an empire lasting almost four centuries.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Since 1992, the Uzbek General Abdul Rashid Dostom, principal leader of the coalition opposing the Taliban, has controlled the predominant centers of power in the north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1901 the British had created a new administrative area, the North-West Frontier Province, which they detached from the Punjab.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some Urdu-speaking Muhajir and Indian Muslims claim descent from Pashtun soldiers who settled in India and married local Muslim women during the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.^ From their capital at Pune, the Marathas, Hindus who controlled much of western and central India, were beginning to look northward to the decaying Mughal empire, which Ahmad Shah now claimed by conquest.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Speaking Thursday at the U.S. Institute of Peace , Said Tayeb Jawad said a runoff would be the only way to definitively settle the question of who will be Afghanistan's next leader.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Among most settled rural families, women participate in agricultural work only during light harvesting periods, and are responsible for the production of milk products.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[45] Notably, the Rohilla Pashtuns are known to have settled in parts of northern India.

Hotaki dynasty

.In 1709, Mir Wais Hotak, a local Afghan (Pashtun) from the Ghilzai clan, overthrew and killed Gurgin Khan, the Safavid governor of Kandahar.^ Ahmad Shah began by capturing Ghazni from the Ghilzai Pashtuns, and then wresting Kabul from the local ruler.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, 11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Irregular forces led by a local Pashtun leader crossed the border in 1950 and 1951 to back Afghan claims.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Mir Wais successfully defeated a Safavid army sent for retaliation and held the region of Kandahar until his death in 1715. He was succeeded by his son Mir Mahmud Hotaki.^ By the time of his death, Mahmud ruled the entire Hindu Kush region as far east as the Punjab as well as territories far north of the Amu Darya.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ At his death in 1901 he was succeeded by his son without the usual violent upheavals.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

In 1722, Mir Mahmud led an Afghan army to Isfahan (Iran), sacked the city and proclaimed himself King of Persia. .However, the great majority still rejected the Afghan regime as usurping, and after the massacre of thousands of civilians in Isfahan by the Afghans – including more than three thousand religious scholars, nobles, and members of the Safavid family – the Hotaki dynasty was eventually removed from power by a new ruler, Nadir Shah of Persia.^ Internal objectives of the new Afghan government focused on strengthening the army and shoring up the economy, including transport and communications.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghans have had slightly more than a generation to make such an adjustment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Nadir Shah conquered Qandahar and Kabul in 1738 along with defeating a great Mughal army in India, plundering Delhi, and massacring thousands of its people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[46][47]

Durrani Empire: beginning of the Afghan state

Afghan soldiers of the Durrani Empire
.In 1738, Nadir Shah and his army, which included Ahmad Khan and four thousand of his Pashtun soldiers of the Abdali tribe,[48] conquered the region of Kandahar from the Hotak Ghilzais; in the same year he occupied Ghazni, Kabul and Lahore.^ Ahmad Shah began by capturing Ghazni from the Ghilzai Pashtuns, and then wresting Kabul from the local ruler.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the territories conquered with the help of Ahmad Shah's military skill fell to others in this half century.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Nadir Shah conquered Qandahar and Kabul in 1738 along with defeating a great Mughal army in India, plundering Delhi, and massacring thousands of its people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.On June 19, 1747, Nadir Shah was assassinated by the Persians[49] and Ahmad Shah Abdali called for a loya jirga ("grand assembly") to select a leader among his people.^ Nadir Shah conquered Qandahar and Kabul in 1738 along with defeating a great Mughal army in India, plundering Delhi, and massacring thousands of its people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This one-time general in Nadir Shah's Persian army was elected to power in 1747 at a tribal jirgah , an assembly which takes decisions by consensus.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1747 Ahmad Shah and his Abdali horsemen joined the chiefs of the Abdali tribes and clans near Qandahar to choose a leader.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Afghans gathered near Kandahar in October 1747 and chose him as their new head of state.^ Islamic state," the Afghan Taliban says in a new statement posted online, Reuters reports .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ This state has been challenged since the October 1994 takeover of Kandahar by the Pushtun Taliban.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States delivered a new plan to curb Afghan opium production on Thursday August 9.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Ahmad Shah Durrani is often regarded as the founder of modern Afghanistan.^ Ahmad Shah Durrani's Empire, 1762).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ahmad Shah's successors governed so ineptly during a period of profound unrest that within fifty years of his death, Afghanistan was embroiled in a civil war.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the many analytical studies of the jihad period since 1978, Asta Olesen in Islam and Politics in Afghanistan provides a clear picture of tribal ideologies and their relationships with ruling authorities since Ahmad Shah Durrani in the eighteenth century.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[1][4][50] .After the inauguration, Ahmad Shah adopted the title padshah durr-i dawran ('King, "pearl of the age")[51] and the Abdali tribe became known as the Durrani tribe there after.^ Ahmad Shah Durrani's Empire, 1762).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ahmad Khan assumed the title of Durr-i-Durran (Pearl of Pearls) and was henceforth known as Ahmad Shah Durrani and his tribe, the Pushtun Abdali tribe, as the Durrani.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Abdali Pashtuns were known thereafter as the Durrani.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.By 1751, Ahmad Shah Durrani and his Afghan army conquered the entire present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, Khorasan and Kohistan provinces of Iran, along with Delhi in India.^ It's been another deadly day in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Ahmad Shah Durrani's Empire, 1762).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the territories conquered with the help of Ahmad Shah's military skill fell to others in this half century.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[21] .He defeated the Sikhs of the Maratha Empire in the Punjab region nine times, one of the biggest battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat.^ By the time of his death, Mahmud ruled the entire Hindu Kush region as far east as the Punjab as well as territories far north of the Amu Darya.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of 1761, the Sikhs had gained power and taken control of much of the Punjab.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Panipat in 1761 between Muslim and Hindu armies who numbered as many as 100,000 troops each was fought along a twelve-kilometer front.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

In October 1772, Ahmad Shah retired to his home in Kandahar where he died peacefully and was buried there at a site that is now adjacent to the Mosque of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed. .He was succeeded by his son, Timur Shah Durrani, who transferred the capital of their Afghan Empire from Kandahar to Kabul.^ Ahmad Shah Durrani's Empire, 1762).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From their capital at Pune, the Marathas, Hindus who controlled much of western and central India, were beginning to look northward to the decaying Mughal empire, which Ahmad Shah now claimed by conquest.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1818 until Dost Mohammad's ascendancy in 1826, chaos reigned in the domains of Ahmad Shah Durrani's empire as various sons of Painda Khan struggled for supremacy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Timur died in 1793 and was finally succeeded by his son Zaman Shah Durrani.^ After the death of Ahmad Shah's successor, Timur, the three strongest contenders for the position of shah were Timur's sons, the governors of Qandahar, Herat, and Kabul.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Zahir Shah, Nadir Shan's son and successor, became Afghanistan's final king.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Tajik migrated to the cities, especially to Kabul, which was primarily a Tajik town until Timur, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani, moved his court to Kabul in 1776 and declared it to be the Pushtun capital.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Zaman Shah and his brothers had a weak hold on the legacy left to them by their famous ancestor. .They sorted out their differences through a "round robin of expulsions, blindings and executions", which resulted in the deterioration of the Afghan hold over far-flung territories, such as Attock and Kashmir.^ Many Afghans, and Kabulis in particular, believe that these leaders history of abuse makes them unsuitable to hold such positions".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I mean while they do have barbed wire and you do have guards in front, you have a lot of Afghan officials who live in that sort of environment as well.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[52] .Durrani's other grandson, Shuja Shah Durrani, fled the wrath of his brother and sought refuge with the Sikhs.^ This upset the delicate balance of Durrani tribal politics that Ahmad Shah had established and may have prompted Painda Khan and other Durrani chiefs to plot against the shah.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1834 Dost Mohammad defeated an invasion by the former ruler, Shah Shuja, but his absence from Kabul gave the Sikhs the opportunity to expand westward.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Not only had Durrani and his Afghans invaded the Punjab region many times, but have destroyed the holiest shrine of the Sikhs – the Golden Temple in Amritsar, defiling its sarowar with the blood of cows and then killing Baba Deep Singh in 1757.[53]
.The Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, rebelled in 1809 and eventually wrest a large part of the Kingdom of Kabul (present day Pakistan, but not including Sindh) from the Afghans.^ The Sikhs too, were particularly troublesome, and after several unsuccessful efforts to subdue them, Zeman made the mistake of appointing a forceful young Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh, as his governor in the Punjab.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The area that is present-day Afghanistan comprised several satrapies (provinces) of the Achaemenid Empire when it was at its most extensive, under Darius the Great (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It took control, thirty years after Alexander's death, of the southeasternmost areas of the Seleucid domains, including parts of present-day Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[54] .Hari Singh Nalwa, the Commander-in-Chief of the Sikh Empire along its Afghan frontier, invaded the Afghan territory as far as the city of Jalalabad.^ And if new troops are added, they believe it should be along the border with Pakistan, not in Afghan cities in the country's interior.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Sikhs too, were particularly troublesome, and after several unsuccessful efforts to subdue them, Zeman made the mistake of appointing a forceful young Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh, as his governor in the Punjab.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[55] .In 1837, the Afghan Army descended through the Khyber Pass on Sikh forces at Jamrud.^ A new Afghan National Army was created through presidential decree.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the many problems he faced was repelling Sikh encroachment on the Pashtun areas east of the Khyber Pass.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The mission was turned back as it approached the eastern entrance of the Khyber Pass, thus triggering the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Hari Singh Nalwa's forces held off the Afghan offensive for over a week – the time it took reinforcements to reach Jamrud from Lahore.^ They'll be in Afghanistan about five weeks and are set to spend part of the time embedded with U.S. forces in southern Afghanistan.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Every trip around Afghanistan reinforces my confidence in the coalition and Afghan forces we stand alongside in this effort.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Early skirmishes ended in victory for the Afghans, and by 1759 Ahmad and his army had reached Lahore.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[56]

European influence

.
First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42).
^ The Russians advanced steadily southward toward Afghanistan in the three decades after the First Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ From the British point of view, the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-42) (often called "Auckland's Folly") was an unmitigated disaster, despite the ease with which Dost Mohammad was deposed and Shuja enthroned.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This created resentment among the dominant Pushtun which hardened over the years, especially after the Qizilbash openly allied themselves with the British during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

William Brydon was the sole survivor of the invading British army of 16,500 soldiers and civilian camp followers.
.During the nineteenth century, following the Anglo-Afghan wars (fought 1839–42, 1878–80, and lastly in 1919) and the ascension of the Barakzai dynasty, Afghanistan saw much of its territory and autonomy ceded to the United Kingdom.^ The remainder of the nineteenth century saw greater European involvement in Afghanistan and her surrounding territories and heightened conflict among the ambitious local rulers as Afghanistan's fate played out globally.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Britain, for its part, would not occupy or annex Afghan territory, or interfere in Afghanistan's internal affairs.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Following a quarter century-long military strife, a large segment of the Afghan population has become addicted to opium and heroin.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The UK exercised a great deal of influence, and it was not until King Amanullah Khan acceded to the throne in 1919 that Afghanistan re-gained complete independence over its foreign affairs (see "The Great Game").^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Like all foreign policy developments of this period affecting Afghanistan, the conclusion of the "Great Game" between Russia and Britain occurred without the Afghan ruler's participation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it was the scene of great empires and flourishing trade for over two millennia, Afghanistan did not become a truly independent nation until the twentieth century.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.During the period of British intervention in Afghanistan, ethnic Pashtun territories were divided by the Durand Line.^ During the war in Afghanistan, allied forces, particularly British forces, targeted production, storage and transportation facilities for heroin and other drugs that flood European markets.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.This would lead to strained relations between Afghanistan and British India – and later the new state of Pakistan – over what came to be known as the Pashtunistan debate.^ The line laid the foundation, not for peace between the border regions, but for heated disagreement between the governments of Afghanistan and British India, and later, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Pakistan's petroleum cutoff over the Pashtunistan issue and the resulting trade agreement between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union were major watersheds in bilateral relations.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Analyzes the United States' position in Afghanistan, the history of its involvement with Afghanistan and Pakistan back to the Cold War, and the U.S. policy toward the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kingdom of Afghanistan

King Amanullah Khan on a royal trip to Berlin. This trip initiated an alliance between Afghanistan and Germany.
.King Amanullah Khan moved to end his country's traditional isolation in the years following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.^ The Russians advanced steadily southward toward Afghanistan in the three decades after the First Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This reflected the physical destruction caused by the war, the refugee exodus, and the scarcity of teachers, a high proportion of whom, male and female, settled in third countries.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.He established diplomatic relations with most major countries and, following a 1927 tour of Europe and Turkey (during which he noted the modernization and secularization advanced by Atatürk), introduced several reforms intended to modernize Afghanistan.^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Before final negotiations were concluded in 1921, however, Afghanistan had already begun to establish its own foreign policy, including diplomatic relations with the new government in the Soviet Union in 1919.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Traffic between the two countries came to a halt, just as two of Afghanistan's major export crops, grapes and pomegranates, were ready to be shipped to India.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.A key force behind these reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, Amanullah's Foreign Minister and father-in-law – and an ardent supporter of the education of women.^ However, the foreign aid community would do well to examine carefully their recent aggressive campaign to assure rights for Afghan women in education and employment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of these women lived in urban centers, and the majority were professionals, technicians and administrators employed by the government which continued its strong support.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Amanullah's domestic reforms were no less dramatic than his foreign policy initiatives, but those reforms could not match his achievement of complete, lasting independence.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.He fought for Article 68 of Afghanistan's first constitution (declared through a Loya Jirga), which made elementary education compulsory.^ Documents section contains: An unofficial translation of the Afghan Constitution; the Afghanistan Compact (roadmap through 2010 with the international community for the nation-building of Afghanistan).
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1977 Constitution, declared Islam the religion of Afghanistan, but made no mention that the state ritual should be Hanafi.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1935, education was declared universal, compulsory and free.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[57] .Some of the reforms that were actually put in place, such as the abolition of the traditional Muslim veil for women and the opening of a number of co-educational schools, quickly alienated many tribal and religious leaders.^ In many cases freedom of expression among women (for instance on issues concerning women's issues and rights of dressing according to one's choice) remain minimal given the extent of intimidation by armed factions and political or religious leaders.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Afghans, and Kabulis in particular, believe that these leaders history of abuse makes them unsuitable to hold such positions".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is expected that they will involve short-term relocations for some staff while additional security is being put in place."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Faced with overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah was forced to abdicate in January 1929 after Kabul fell to forces led by Habibullah Kalakani.^ Habibullah fled Kabul, was captured in Kohistan, and executed on November 3, 1929.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While most of the armed forces stood aside, Marxist collaborators in the army and the air force launched an assault on Daud's palace that overwhelmed his Republican Guards.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Amanullah's efforts to recover power by leading a small, ill-equipped force toward Kabul failed.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, a cousin of Amanullah's, in turn defeated and killed Habibullah Kalakani in October of the same year, and with considerable Pashtun tribal support he was declared King Nadir Shah.^ Nadir Shah conquered Qandahar and Kabul in 1738 along with defeating a great Mughal army in India, plundering Delhi, and massacring thousands of its people.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This one-time general in Nadir Shah's Persian army was elected to power in 1747 at a tribal jirgah , an assembly which takes decisions by consensus.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ With the king's refusal to act on the bill, Shafiq had good reason to believe that Zahir Shah had turned to other political options.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

He began consolidating power and regenerating the country. He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favour of a more gradual approach to modernisation. In 1933, however, he was assassinated in a revenge killing by a Kabul student.
King Zahir Shah and his wife with US President John F. Kennedy and his wife Jacqueline in the United States
.Mohammed Zahir Shah, Nadir Shah's 19-year-old son, succeeded to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973. The longest period of stability in Afghanistan was when the country was under the rule of King Zahir Shah.^ Zahir Shah, Nadir Shan's son and successor, became Afghanistan's final king.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ MOHAMMAD ZAHIR SHAH, 1933-73 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Zahir Shah and His Uncles, 1933-53 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Until 1946 Zahir Shah ruled with the assistance of his uncle, who held the post of Prime Minister and continued the policies of Nadir Shah.^ Zahir Shah and His Uncles, 1933-53 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ And only in the last decade of his sovereignty did Zahir Shah rule as well as reign unencumbered.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Zahir Shah, Nadir Shan's son and successor, became Afghanistan's final king.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In 1946, another of Zahir Shah's uncles, Shah Mahmud Khan, became Prime Minister and began an experiment allowing greater political freedom, but reversed the policy when it went further than he expected.^ But the liberalization went farther than the prime minister had intended.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Zahir Shah and His Uncles, 1933-53 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the constitutional monarchy that was introduced in 1964 came to an end with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by the then Prime Minister (later President) Mohammad Daoud in a coup in 1973.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1953, he was replaced as Prime Minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and brother-in-law.^ Daoud as Prime Minister, 1953-63 .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The rift became public in September 1953 when the king's cousin and brother-in-law, Mohammad Daoud, became prime minister.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Still personally popular, the king nevertheless came under increasing criticism for not supporting his own prime ministers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Daoud sought a closer relationship with the Soviet Union and a more distant one towards Pakistan.^ As Gorbachev opened up the country's system, it became more clear that the Soviet Union wished to find a face-saving way to withdraw from Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While Pakistan, the Soviet Union and the DRA haggled over a timetable for the Soviet withdrawal, Cordovez worked on a formula for an Afghan government that would reconcile the combatants.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1963 it became clear that neither Daoud of Afghanistan nor Ayub Khan of Pakistan would yield; to settle the issue one of them would have to be removed from power.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

During this period Afghanistan remained neutral. .It was not a participant in World War II, nor aligned with either power bloc in the Cold War.^ The third major policy focus of the immediate post-World War II period was Shah Mahmud's experiment in greater political tolerance and liberalization.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded promisingly until the Soviet invasion disrupted it in December of 1979.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During World War I, Afghanistan remained neutral despite pressure to support Turkey when its sultan proclaimed his nation's participation in what it considered a holy war.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, it was a beneficiary of the latter rivalry as both the Soviet Union and the U.S. vied for influence by building such works as hotels and sewer systems.^ As Gorbachev opened up the country's system, it became more clear that the Soviet Union wished to find a face-saving way to withdraw from Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This system was subsequently expanded with the continued assistance of France, Germany, Turkey, India, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While Pakistan, the Soviet Union and the DRA haggled over a timetable for the Soviet withdrawal, Cordovez worked on a formula for an Afghan government that would reconcile the combatants.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

A good two lane road was constructed from Iran. .Running through Herat, Kandahar, and Kabul, it ended at the Pakistani border.^ The end of the communist regime yielded the discovery of three common graves, at Pol-i-charkhi in the suburbs of Kabul next to the central prison, and in the provinces of Bamyan and Herat.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Higher level madrassa located in Herat, Kunduz, Ghazni, Kandahar and Kabul were known as important learning centers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These roads connected major cities with the principal border crossings: from Herat to Iran and Turkmenistan in the west; from Kandahar to Pakistan in the south; from Kabul through Jalalabad to Pakistan in the east; from Balkh to Uzbekistan in the north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

By the late 1960s large numbers of travelers were using it as part of the hippie trail.

Republic of Afghanistan

.In 1973, Zahir Shah's brother-in-law, Mohammed Daoud Khan, launched a bloodless coup and became the first President of Afghanistan while Zahir Shah was on an official overseas visit.^ However, the constitutional monarchy that was introduced in 1964 came to an end with the overthrow of King Zahir Shah by the then Prime Minister (later President) Mohammad Daoud in a coup in 1973.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Daoud was himself overthrown by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), a small Marxist-Leninist party which took power in a coup supported by the Soviet Union in April 1978.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the king was out of the country for medical treatment, Daoud and a small military group seized power in an almost bloodless coup.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Mohammed Daoud Khan jammed Afghan radio with anti-Pakistani broadcasts and looked to the Soviet Union and the United States for aid for development.^ The United States and the Soviet Union would act as guarantors of the agreement.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time, Afghan government interest shifted to offers of aid from the Soviet Union and in July 1950 it signed a major agreement with the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "He said they accused the United States of pressuring the Afghan government to institute the poppy ban.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In 1978 a prominent member of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), Mir Akbar Khyber (or "Kaibar"), was killed by the government.^ By 1978, the government of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) openly expressed its aversion to the religious establishment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These erstwhile allies were members of the Parcham faction of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Policy generation was the primary function of the executive level of the party, which was to be carried out by its members serving throughout the government.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The leaders of PDPA apparently feared that Daoud was planning to exterminate them all, especially since most of them were arrested by the government shortly after.^ The divided PDPA succeeded the Daoud regime with a new government under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki of the Khalq faction.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Shocked by this demonstration of communist unity, Daoud ordered the arrest of PDPA leaders, but he reacted too slowly.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ For the government there was one compensation: Sayyaf, the most consistent ideologue of the party leaders, maintained his alliance with the government in order to pursue his sectarian struggle with the Shias .
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Hafizullah Amin and a number of military wing officers of the PDPA managed to remain at large and organised an uprising.^ Few leftists remained in the new parliament, although Karmal and Hafizullah Amin had been elected from districts in and near Kabul.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Confident that his military officers were reliable, Daud must have discounted the diligence of Taraki's lieutenant, Hafizullah Amin, who had sought out dissident Pushtun officers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The PDPA, led by Nur Mohammad Taraki, Babrak Karmal and Amin overthrew the regime of Mohammad Daoud, who was killed along with his family.^ The divided PDPA succeeded the Daoud regime with a new government under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki of the Khalq faction.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Future Marxist leaders of Afghanistan, Nur Muhammad Taraki, Babrak Karmal, and Hafizullah Amin were all involved.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The final attempt backfired, however, and it was Taraki who was eliminated and Amin, who assumed power in Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The uprising was known as the Khalq, or Great Saur Revolution ('Saur' means 'April' in Pashto). On May 1, 1978, Taraki became President, Prime Minister and General Secretary of the PDPA. The country was then renamed the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA), and the PDPA regime lasted, in some form or another, until April 1992.
.The 1978 Khalq uprising against the government of Daoud Khan was essentially a resurgence by the Ghilzai tribe of the Pashtun against the Durrani (the tribe of Daoud Khan and the previous monarchy).^ They not only lost the outlying territories but also alienated other tribes and lineages among the Durrani Pashtuns.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The divided PDPA succeeded the Daoud regime with a new government under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki of the Khalq faction.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ahmad Shah declared an Islamic holy war against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, as well as other tribes such as the Baloch, answered his call.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[58]
Kabul's Queens Palace before the Soviet invasion, as the headquarters of the PDPA.
.Once in power, the PDPA moved to permit freedom of religion and carried out an ambitious land reform, waiving farmers' debts countrywide.^ As the government broke into several factions the issue had become how to carry out a transfer of power.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Once again Afghanistan provided a stage on which the great powers played out their schemes against one another.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This month's eradication move is being carried out by the Kabul government, with the provincial administration having no say.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.They also made a number of statements on women's rights and introduced women to political life.^ In numbers of Muslim societies, women may also worship at mosques where they are provided segregated areas, although most prefer to pray at home.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.A prominent example was Anahita Ratebzad, who was a major Marxist leader and a member of the Revolutionary Council.^ In 1978, war broke out between the Soviet backed Revolutionary Council and the oppressed Islamic majority.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ratebzad wrote the famous May 28, 1978 New Kabul Times editorial which declared: "Privileges which women, by right, must have are equal education, job security, health services, and free time to rear a healthy generation for building the future of the country ...^ Last year 13 provinces across the country were declared free of opium cultivation - largely in the relatively secure north.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Protracted conflict since 1978 worsened the inequitable distribution of health manpower and services.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the foreign aid community would do well to examine carefully their recent aggressive campaign to assure rights for Afghan women in education and employment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Educating and enlightening women is now the subject of close government attention."[59]
.Many people in the cities including Kabul either welcomed or were ambivalent to these policies.^ "'Unfortunately many of these women who are paid in return for opium debts either end up addicted to the drug or commit suicide.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Renee adds that the emotional rallies held for Abdullah in recent days signal that he's struck a chord with many voters, including many young people.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.However, the secular nature of the government made it unpopular with religiously conservative Afghans in the villages and the countryside, who favoured traditionalist 'Islamic' law.^ Qazi , religious judges, are part of the government judicial system responsible for the application of Shariah laws.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet each was a prominent religious leader who exemplified dedication to the jihad and a strong infusion of traditional Islamic values, for example, enforcement of the Sharia , in a post-Marxist government.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Soviet-Afghan war a costly effort was made by private, often religious, Arab agencies to provide educational opportunities for Afghan refugees encamped in Pakistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The U.S. saw the situation as a prime opportunity to weaken the Soviet Union.^ As prime minister, Daoud had obtained large supplies of modern arms from the Soviet Union and he had been a former army officer himself.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union, always interested in establishing a cordon sanitaire of subservient or neutral states on its frontiers, was increasingly alarmed at the unstable, unpredictable situation on its southern border.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.As part of a Cold War strategy, in 1979 the United States government (under President Jimmy Carter) began to covertly fund forces ranged against the pro-Soviet government, although warned that this might prompt a Soviet intervention, according to President Carter's National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski.^ According to UNAMA report (2003) Community Development Councils (CDCs) have been set up in 34 provinces as a part of the National Solidarity Programme (NSP) aimed towards the promotion of good local governance.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this occupation the United States began to covertly and overtly support an opposition to the regime which consisted of Islamist groups, through military and financial aid to fight against the Soviet and Afghan governmental forces.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States and the Soviet Union would act as guarantors of the agreement.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Brzezinski described the U.S. activities as the successful setting of a trap that drew the Soviet Union into "its Vietnam War" and brought about the breakup of the Soviet empire.^ The 1978 coup d'etat deposed the Mohammadzai and the Soviet-Afghan War introduced political parties which brought new leadership patterns into being, altering tribal structures and reshaping ethnic identities.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These parties and their leaders persevered throughout the Soviet and civil wars into the post-Marxist period as political rivals.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout the war their commanders had jockeyed for turf and supply routes, especially in the strategic Shomali region with its control over the northern highway between Kabul and the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Regarding U.S. support for Islamic fundamentalism, Brzezinski said, "What is most important to the history of the world?^ Ghazni, until then an insignificant fort-town, became one of the most brilliant capitals of the Islamic world.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Holbrooke, who has been at the center of some of the most important international stories of recent decades, said this is the "best support ...
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

The Taliban or the collapse of the Soviet empire? Some stirred-up Moslems or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the cold war?"[60] The Mujahideen belonged to various different factions, but all shared, to varying degrees, a similarly conservative 'Islamic' ideology.
.In March 1979 Hafizullah Amin took over as prime minister, retaining the position of field marshal and becoming vice-president of the Supreme Defence Council.^ Massive summary executions regularly took place and when, in September 1979, the President of the time, Nur Mohammed Taraki, was ousted by his deputy, Hafizullah Amin, a list of 12,000 persons who had been executed in prison was posted on the walls of the Ministry of the Interior.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karzai took his position after reports of a mystery spraying of opium fields in an eastern province last year."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ President Barack Obama and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh held a joint news conference at the White House today.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Taraki remained President and in control of the Army. .On September 14, Amin overthrew Taraki, who died or was killed.^ The 10 deaths were among 14 Americans who died in helicopter crashes Monday.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The final attempt backfired, however, and it was Taraki who was eliminated and Amin, who assumed power in Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Confident that his military officers were reliable, Daud must have discounted the diligence of Taraki's lieutenant, Hafizullah Amin, who had sought out dissident Pushtun officers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Amin's tenure as prime minister lasted only a few months.^ Taraki became president, prime minister and General Secretary of the PDPA. Parcham's leader, Babrak Karmal, and Amin were named deputy prime ministers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ His British protectors gone, Shuja remained in power only a few months before being assassinated in April 1842.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Only a few weeks after signing the agreement, Shuja was deposed by his predecessor, Mahmud, whose second reign lasted nine years, until 1818.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Soviet invasion and civil war

.In order to bolster the Parcham faction, the Soviet Union – citing the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighborliness that had been signed between the two countries – intervened on December 24, 1979. Over 100,000 Soviet troops took part in the invasion backed by another one hundred thousand and by members of the Parcham faction.^ Indeed, the decimation of their members forced the Soviets to insist on reconciliation between the two factions.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets began their invasion of Afghanistan on December 25, 1979.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet invasion resulted in the establishment of a puppet communist regime in Kabul and ushered in years of further conflict which persisted until the Soviet Union withdrew its troops from the country in 1989 following the Geneva Agreement of 1988.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amin was killed and replaced by Babrak Karmal.^ Future Marxist leaders of Afghanistan, Nur Muhammad Taraki, Babrak Karmal, and Hafizullah Amin were all involved.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Babrak Karmal (with Durrani connections) was replaced by Najibullah, one of the few Parchamis with Ghilzai roots.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Taraki became president, prime minister and General Secretary of the PDPA. Parcham's leader, Babrak Karmal, and Amin were named deputy prime ministers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Soviet troops withdrawing from Afghanistan in 1988.
.In response to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and part of its overall Cold War strategy, the United States responded by arming and otherwise supporting the Afghan mujahideen, which had taken up arms against the Soviet occupiers.^ Explores the causes of Pakistan's involvement in the Afghanistan war and the United States' support to prevent Soviet adventurism.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Modelled on Savak, the Iranian security agency and, like it, trained by the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) and the SDECE, France's external intelligence service, the ISI 'ran' the mujahideen in their decade-long fight against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in the 1980s.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Britain, for its part, would not occupy or annex Afghan territory, or interfere in Afghanistan's internal affairs.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.U.S. support began during the Carter administration, but increased substantially during the Reagan administration, in which it became a centerpiece of the so-called Reagan Doctrine under which the U.S. provided support to anti-communist resistance movements in Afghanistan and also in Angola, Nicaragua, and other nations.^ "Contemptuous of nation building and wary of mission creep, the Bush administration entered Afghanistan determined to strike al Qaeda, unseat the Taliban, and then move on, providing only basic humanitarian aid and support for a new Afghan army.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provides information from the British policy in the nineteenth century to the U.S. policies toward South Asia during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, and the Soviet-Afghan agreements.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The New York Times reported that the Reagan administration delivered several hundred FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles to Afghan resistance groups, including the Taliban.^ The New York Times summarizes the news with this : .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Internal objectives of the new Afghan government focused on strengthening the army and shoring up the economy, including transport and communications.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, other news reports raise questions about whether the Afghan population has noticed the assistance.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[61] .In addition to U.S. support, the mujahideen received support from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and other nations.^ At the same time a sharp increase in military support for the mujahidin from the United States and Saudi Arabia allowed it to regain the guerilla war initiative.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Daoud also turned to other oil-rich Muslim nations, such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait, for financial assistance.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states (except Iraq) had severely criticized Soviet behavior in Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviet occupation resulted in the killings of between 600,000 and two million Afghan civilians.^ The flow ebbed and surged in response to Soviet offenses, so that by the fall of 1989, the number of Afghan refugees was estimated at 3.2 million in Pakistan, 2.2.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This week in Nimroz, three police officers were killed by a suicide car bomber, and two Afghan soldiers died in attacks in the south.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Even when results are known, if no one has 50% or more there will be a runoff between the top two vote-getters on Oct.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Over 5 million fled as Afghan refugees, mostly to Pakistan and Iran.^ Presumably this included over five million refugees in Pakistan and Iran.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The flow ebbed and surged in response to Soviet offenses, so that by the fall of 1989, the number of Afghan refugees was estimated at 3.2 million in Pakistan, 2.2.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Other principal functions of the parties included articulating the resistance cause and representing the three million refugees stranded in Pakistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Over 38,000 made it to the United States[62] and many more to the European Union.^ The United States and the Soviet Union would act as guarantors of the agreement.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Right now the approach of the United States is more emphasis on eradication,' Jawad said in an interview, Afghanistan?s?
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ This system was subsequently expanded with the continued assistance of France, Germany, Turkey, India, Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Faced with mounting international pressure and great number of casualties on both sides, the Soviets withdrew in 1989.
.The Soviet withdrawal from the DRA was seen as an ideological victory in the U.S., which had backed the Mujahideen through three U.S. presidential administrations in order to counter Soviet influence in the vicinity of the oil-rich Persian Gulf.^ While Pakistan, the Soviet Union and the DRA haggled over a timetable for the Soviet withdrawal, Cordovez worked on a formula for an Afghan government that would reconcile the combatants.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1985 these guerilla groups were unified and retrained, and then forced the Soviets to withdraw in 1989, without a decisive victory and with more than 14,000 casualties.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to top Holbrooke Claims Victory for New Afghan Counter-Narcotics Strategy .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Following the removal of the Soviet forces, the U.S. and its allies lost interest in Afghanistan and did little to help rebuild the war-ravaged country or influence events there.^ Mr Ghani has described the pledge as very generous, and essential to help rebuild the war-ravaged nation.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ And that, in turn, would make it much more difficult to recruit people in those countries to help in making Afghanistan and Pakistan safer places: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. has sent federal workers from various agencies, including the U.S. AID and the Agriculture Department, to help development efforts in Afghanistan, a critical part of the effort to stabilize the troubled country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The USSR continued to support President Mohammad Najibullah (former head of the Afghan secret service, KHAD) until 1992 when the new Russian government refused to sell oil products to the Najibullah regime.^ He continued Bhutto's support of the Afghan emigres.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian support of the Tajikistan government has brought Russians back to the Afghan border.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under intense pressure the Najibullah's regime finally collapsed when Dostum and his Uzbek militia switched allegiance from the Kabul regime to the Mujahideen, who entered Kabul in April 1992.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
Because of the fighting, a number of elites and intellectuals fled to take refuge abroad. This led to a leadership imbalance in Afghanistan. Fighting continued among the victorious Mujahideen factions, which gave rise to a state of warlordism. .The most serious fighting during this period occurred in 1994, when over 10,000 people were killed in Kabul alone.^ The death toll continues to rise in Indonesia, where it's thought that more than 1,000 people were killed during yesterday's earthquake off West Sumatra.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Between April 1992 and August 1994, according to the International Committee of the Red Cross, 13,500 people were killed and 80,000 wounded in Kabul alone.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With an average of killing 2-3 people a day, in 2008 mines and other explosives claimed the lives of 752 people, most of them children.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was at this time that the Taliban developed as a politico-religious force, eventually seizing Kabul in 1996 and establishing the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.^ Tragically, on the day the Peshawar parties reached a tentative agreement on how they would establish their Islamic republic, a new war for Kabul began.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Taliban the sanctity of the family, with secluded women at its core, is a paramount requisite in their crusade to establish a fully Islamic society.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Assured adequate supplies, Kabul's air force, which had developed tactics minimizing the threat from Stinger missiles, now deterred mass attacks against the cities.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

By the end of 2000 the Taliban had captured 95% of the country.
.During the Taliban's seven-year rule, much of the population experienced restrictions on their freedom and violations of their human rights.^ Branding the Rabbani government as corrupt and venal as the rest of the Mujahidin leaders, the Taliban claimed the exclusive right to rule.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Human Development Report, 1996 estimates that the population will rise to 26.7 million in the year 2000, using, however, a high growth rate of 6.1 percent.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Provides overviews on aid and recovery, security and keeping the peace, human rights, landmines, ethnic and tribal composition, twenty years of U.S. policy, and the situation of women.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women were banned from jobs, girls forbidden to attend schools or universities.^ In areas administered by the Taliban, emphasis is placed on maximizing religious subjects, schools for girls are closed and female teachers are forbidden to teach.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[64] Communists were systematically eradicated and thieves were punished by amputating one of their hands or feet.[65] Opium production was nearly wiped out by the Taliban by 2001.[66]

War in Afghanistan 2001–present

2007-2008 map showing regional security risks and levels of opium poppy cultivation
.Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, the U.S. and British air forces began bombing Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom.^ A separate bibliography addresses Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan).
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Refers to Afghanistan and Operation Enduring Freedom throughout the report.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operation Enduring Freedom Deaths at 284.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .On the ground, American and British special forces along with CIA Special Activities Division teams worked with the Tajik-dominated Northern Alliance to begin a military offensive to overthrow the Taliban.^ A British force of about 40,000 fighting men were distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ All told, 45 U.S. troops have died in Afghanistan in August as the U.S. has surged its military forces into the country with the aim of driving back the Taliban and insurgents.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The US-backed Northern Alliance forces entered and captured Kabul.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .These attacks led to the fall of Mazar-i-Sharif and then Kabul in November 2001, as the Taliban retreated from most of northern Afghanistan.^ If profits fall, these sinister forces have the most to lose.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The brotherhoods in Kabul and around Mazar-i-Sharif are mostly associated with the Naqshbandiya.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It discusses his rise to power, his continued success after becoming the most wanted man in the world, the numerous terrorist attacks to which he was linked before 9/11, and the U.S.-led wars against Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established by the UN Security Council in December 2001 to secure Kabul and the surrounding areas.^ Focuses on four areas - the continuing success of the Provincial Reconstruction Teams, the development and expansion of the Afghan National Army, the continuing expansion of the role of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), and the institution-building and coordination efforts of the OEF, ISAF, the Afghan Ministry of Defense, the National Directorate of Security, and police forces in Kabul.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has been in Kabul, Afghanistan, since NATO took responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force in August 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer confirmed on 10 February that NATO is to expand the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission into the west of Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[69] In the same month the Karzai administration was also established to run the country.
.As more coalition troops entered the war and the Northern Alliance forces fought their way southwards, the Taliban and al-Qaida retreated toward the mountainous Durand Line border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan.^ Competing ambitions between Iran, Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics are more likely to escalate toward annexation of contiguous regions of Afghanistan if there is no progress toward national unity.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Senior White House officials have begun to make the case for a policy shift in Afghanistan that would send few, if any, new combat troops to the country and instead focus on faster military training of Afghan forces, continued assassinations of al-Qaida leaders and support for the government of neighboring Pakistan in its fight against the Taliban.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ On Morning Edition , NPR's Dina Temple-Raston reported that the increased pressure being put on al-Qaida in the border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan has spurred the organization to reach out to sympathetic groups in other parts of the the world to carry out attacks for it.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[70] From 2002 onward, the Taliban focused on survival and on rebuilding its forces. .Meanwhile NATO assumed control of ISAF in 2003.[71] From 2003 onwards, the Taliban increased its attacks using insurgency tactics.^ Examines Afghanistan's narcotics problem; increases in opium poppy production and price after the fall of the Taliban; and the relationship between drug trafficking, the insurgency, government control of poppy cultivating areas".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many analysts have thought that the Taliban were using Pakistan as a safe haven, swinging across the border into Afghanistan to attack U.S. and NATO troops, then retreating across the border into Pakistan where Western troops can't follow them.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Examines Afghanistan's narcotics problem; increases in opium poppy production and price after the fall of the Taliban; and the relationship between drug trafficking, the insurgency, and government control of poppy cultivating areas.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Firmly entrenched in the borders between Pakistan and Afghanistan the Taliban enjoyed a resurgence, showing it could launch large, coordinated and effective attacks on coalition and Afghan forces.^ It recommends Pakistan's effective engagement with Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On Morning Edition , NPR's Dina Temple-Raston reported that the increased pressure being put on al-Qaida in the border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan has spurred the organization to reach out to sympathetic groups in other parts of the the world to carry out attacks for it.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Many analysts have thought that the Taliban were using Pakistan as a safe haven, swinging across the border into Afghanistan to attack U.S. and NATO troops, then retreating across the border into Pakistan where Western troops can't follow them.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[72] .Over the course of the years, NATO-lead troops lead several offensives against the entrenched Taliban, but proved unable to completely dislodge their presence.^ According to the Associated Press, the Pakistani government "blamed militants seeking to avenge an army offensive against al-Qaida and Taliban close to the Afghan border."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Casualties began climbing after President Obama assigned another 21,000 troops to the war this year to counter the resurgent Taliban.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ "After a dreadful year in Afghanistan, a newly confident NATO is preparing itself to take on the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 2009, a Taliban lead shadow government began to form complete with their own verson of mediation court.^ He reacted by attempting to form a government party, and when this failed, he began cracking down.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.On December 1, 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that he would escalate U.S. military involvement by deploying an additional 30,000 soldiers over a period of six months.^ It offered a six-month cease-fire and discussions leading to a possible coalition government in which the PDPA would give up its government monopoly.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ When Gorbachev announced a Soviet withdrawal without a peace settlement at his Washington meeting with President Reagan on December 10, 1987, the chance for a political agreement was lost.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The worst affected province is Helmand, where 7,000 British soldiers are deployed.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[74] .He also proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date.^ Gates says that is the month when the administration expects the handover will begin and that the date is not "conditions-based."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ ET: So will the U.S. begin withdrawing on an "arbitrary date?"
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[75][76] .On January 26, 2010, at the International Conference on Afghanistan in London which brought together some 70 countries and organizations,[77] Afghan President Hamid Karzai told world leaders that he intends to reach out to the top echelons of the Taliban within a few weeks with a peace initiative.^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai greets supporters on Friday.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai "needs to seize this opportunity in a very clear and tangible way" to institute reforms and improve Afghanistan's government, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman John Kerry, D-Mass., told host Renee Montagne: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Senior White House officials have begun to make the case for a policy shift in Afghanistan that would send few, if any, new combat troops to the country and instead focus on faster military training of Afghan forces, continued assassinations of al-Qaida leaders and support for the government of neighboring Pakistan in its fight against the Taliban.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[78] .Karzai set the framework for dialogue with Taliban leaders when he called on the group's leadership to take part in a "loya jirga" -- or large assembly of elders—to initiate peace talks.^ A constitutional Loya Jirga (a type of traditional assembly that consisted a representation of the various ethnic groups within the state) (CLJ) was held within 18 months of the establishment of the ATA, in order to adopt a new constitution.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ET in Pittsburgh, where he and other leaders of the so-called G-20 nations are meeting to talk about global economic issues.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Despite his distinctly authoritarian personality, Abdur Rahman called for a loya jirgah ( jirgah --see Glossary), an assemblage of royal princes, important notables, and religious leaders.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[79]

Government and politics

.
Hamid Karzai standing next to Faisal Ahmad Shinwari and others after winning the 2004 presidential election.
^ "Afghan election commission chairman declares President Hamid Karzai election victor."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Discusses the inaugural address of President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan laying out his priorities for the next five years - one of which is to stop the growing drug trade.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBC News -- "Karzai Vows To Battle Corruption": "Afghan President Hamid Karzai has vowed to remove the 'stigma' of corruption , a day after winning a new five-year term.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

The last king of Afghanistan, Mohammed Zahir Shah is sitting at the right.
Afghan Parliament in 2006
.Politics in Afghanistan has historically consisted of power struggles, bloody coups and unstable transfers of power.^ The complete destruction of the garrison prompted brutal retaliation by the British against the Afghans and touched off yet another power struggle for dominance of Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile UN mediators tried to find a political solution that would assure a transfer of power acceptable to all sides.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Amin's emergence from the power struggle within the small divided communist party in Afghanistan alarmed the Soviet and would usher in the series of events which lead to the Soviet invasion.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.With the exception of a military junta, the country has been governed by nearly every system of government over the past century, including a monarchy, republic, theocracy and communist state.^ The modern educational system was introduced at the end of the nineteenth century by the government which used it as a means to convince traditionalists of the compatibility of Islam with modernization.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Guardian states, "targeting individuals in a deliberate assassination policy is regarded by many Nato countries, and by many lawyers and military advisers in Britain, as unlawful."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Joint councils or shuras were immediately established for local government in which civil and military officials of the former government were usually included.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The constitution ratified by the 2003 Loya jirga restructured the government as an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, executive, legislative and judicial.^ A constitutional Loya Jirga (a type of traditional assembly that consisted a representation of the various ethnic groups within the state) (CLJ) was held within 18 months of the establishment of the ATA, in order to adopt a new constitution.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until 1985 it was governed by a provisional constitution, "The Fundamental Principles of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan."
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Progress was made toward establishing a central Government through the Bonn Conference and the two Loya jirgas (grand councils).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nation is currently led by the Karzai administration with Hamid Karzai as the President and leader since December 20, 2001. The current parliament was elected in 2005. Among the elected officials were former mujahadeen, Taliban members, communists, reformists, and Islamic fundamentalists.^ Whether the Taliban will return the favor is of course an open question, but the Associated Press says that Afghan President Hamid Karzai has ordered his nation's security forces to observe a cease-fire one week from day when the nation holds its presidential election.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai may have unwittingly shot himself in the foot in his effort to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan and all because he mistakenly read U.S. intentions.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Since 1992, the Uzbek General Abdul Rashid Dostom, principal leader of the coalition opposing the Taliban, has controlled the predominant centers of power in the north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.28% of the delegates elected were women, three points more than the 25% minimum guaranteed under the constitution.^ Under Pakistani pressure Rabbani agreed to a cease-fire which brought general peace to the city for more than three months.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1964 Constitution automatically enfranchised women and guaranteed them the right to education and freedom to work.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Except in Kabul where women under the PDPA were encouraged to assume more assertive public roles, this evolutionary movement came to a halt in 1978.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This made Afghanistan, long known under the Taliban for its oppression of women, 30th amongst nations in terms of female representation.^ Many analysts say Pakistan is more critical than Afghanistan to long-term U.S. plans for Central Asia, as NPR's Jackie Northam reports : .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ A documentary chronicling the struggle for women's rights in Post-Taliban Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the Taliban the sanctity of the family, with secluded women at its core, is a paramount requisite in their crusade to establish a fully Islamic society.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[80] Construction for a new parliament building began on August 29, 2005.
.The Supreme Court of Afghanistan is currently led by Chief Justice Abdul Salam Azimi, a former university professor who had been legal advisor to the president.^ Burhanuddin Rabbani who served as President of The Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992-1996 is a Tajik from Badakhshan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[81] .The previous court, appointed during the time of the interim government, had been dominated by fundamentalist religious figures, including Chief Justice Faisal Ahmad Shinwari.^ Ahmad Shah's successors governed so ineptly during a period of profound unrest that within fifty years of his death, Afghanistan was embroiled in a civil war.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This movement, identified with religious students was centered among the Durrani Pushtuns who had been politically passive during the previous fifteen years of war and tumult.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Mujaddidi had little chance to organize a government during his two months as interim president.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The court issued several rulings, such as banning cable television, seeking to ban a candidate in the 2004 presidential election and limiting the rights of women, as well as overstepping its constitutional authority by issuing rulings on subjects not yet brought before the court.^ In practice, women are often denied their rightful inheritance, again causing tensions not only within nuclear families, but among kin groups of the wife as well.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the foreign aid community would do well to examine carefully their recent aggressive campaign to assure rights for Afghan women in education and employment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1964 Constitution automatically enfranchised women and guaranteed them the right to education and freedom to work.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The current court is seen as more moderate and led by more technocrats than the previous court.^ Another split, engineered by Yunus Khales, resulted in a second group using the name Hizb-e-Islami--a group that was somewhat more moderate than Hikmatyar's.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The 2004 Afghan presidential election went relatively smooth in which Hamid Karzai won in the first round with 55.4% of the votes.^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai on Tuesday made life somewhat easier for President Barack Obama by accepting the results an international review that he received less than 50 percent of the votes in Afghanistan's presidential election, requiring a runoff.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Associated Press -- "Karzai, Abdullah Teams Claim Wins In Afghan Vote": "Campaign teams for President Hamid Karzai and top challenger Abdullah Abdullah each positioned themselves Friday as the winner of Afghanistan's presidential election, one day after millions of Afghans braved dozens of militant attacks to cast ballots.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Whether the Taliban will return the favor is of course an open question, but the Associated Press says that Afghan President Hamid Karzai has ordered his nation's security forces to observe a cease-fire one week from day when the nation holds its presidential election.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.However, the 2009 presidential election was characterized by lack of security, low voter turnout and widespread electoral fraud.^ Discusses the Bonn Agreement, the U.S.-Mujahideen Synergy, the new constitution, elections, presidential powers, security concerns, etc.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Share Monday, September 21, 2009 Afghan Election Fraud Favoring Karzai May Have Boomeranged .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[82][83][84] .The vote, along with elections for 420 provincial council seats, took place in August 2009, but remained unresolved during a lengthy period of vote counting and fraud investigation.^ In August, Karzai won the most votes -- but his total fell below 50% when more than a million were tossed out because of widespread evidence of fraud.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ In this post, Graham describes the helicopter ride they took from Kandahar to Helmand province, the scenery along the way and the remote place they're visiting: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ So Obama had only positive things to say about Karzai, the leader of a government widely viewed as corrupt who also benefited from widespread vote fraud in the August election.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[85] .Two months later, under U.S. and ally pressure, a second round run-off vote between Karzai and remaining challenger Abdullah was announced for November 7, 2009, but on the 1st of November Abdullah announced that he would no longer be participating in the run-off because his demands for changes in the electoral commission had not been met, and claiming a transparent election would not be possible.^ That "sets the stage for a runoff" between President Hamid Karzai and his top challenger because Karzai would no longer have 50% or more of the votes cast.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Associated Press -- "Karzai, Abdullah Teams Claim Wins In Afghan Vote": "Campaign teams for President Hamid Karzai and top challenger Abdullah Abdullah each positioned themselves Friday as the winner of Afghanistan's presidential election, one day after millions of Afghans braved dozens of militant attacks to cast ballots.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ It's looking more and more like there will be an election run-off in Afghanistan between incumbent President Hamid Karzai and his main challenger, former foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.A day later, officials of the election commission cancelled the run-off and declared Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan for another 5 year term.^ "Afghan election commission chairman declares President Hamid Karzai election victor."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ It's been another deadly day in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Reuters says: "Afghanistan's election commission declares Karzai as elected president."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[83][84]
.Corruption is many Afghans’ chief grievance against their leaders, pervading nearly all aspects of daily life.^ Many Afghans, and Kabulis in particular, believe that these leaders history of abuse makes them unsuitable to hold such positions".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For many Afghans, NPR's Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson just told us, life has not been getting better in the past few years.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Amanullah's reforms touched on many areas of Afghan life.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[86] .A number of government ministries are believed to be rife with corruption, including Interior, Education and Health.^ Additional refinements authorized Hekmatyar to chair a commission governing the Interior ministry, with two commissioners appointed from every province.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The system was, and is, administered centrally through the Ministry of Education which is solely responsible for policy, management and administration, including curriculum and textbooks.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Hekmatyar now demanded the removal of Massoud from the government and the setting up of commissions representing all parties in the ministries of Defense, Interior and Foreign Affairs.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

They either tolerate widespread malfeasance or have been powerless to stop it.[87] .A January 2010 report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime revealed that bribery consumes an amount equal to 23 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Afghanistan.^ The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime released its 2007 Afghanistan Opium Survey in mid-November 2007.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime released its Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007 in late August 2007.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime reports that in Afghanistan bribery is as big a money maker as opium.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Afghans are forced by corrupt government culture to pay more than a third of their income in bribes.^ They will increase our ability to train competent Afghan Security Forces, and to partner with them so that more Afghans can get into the fight.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghans have had slightly more than a generation to make such an adjustment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Times states that the ramped up program intends to target "trafficking networks that officials say are increasingly feuling the Taliban insurgency and corrupting the Afghan government."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[88]
.Women in public life in many parts of the country are subject to routine threats and intimidation, according to a December, 2009 report by Human Rights Watch.^ In 2009, Afghan citizens had to pay approximately US$ 2,490 million in bribes, which is equivalent to 23 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP), according to the report.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ New York, Human Rights Watch, 2005.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's A List: "Medical leaders across the country announced they will not heed the recommendations to stop routine mammograms for low-risk women in their 40s."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Several high profile women have been assassinated, but their killers have not been brought to justice.^ The party also gave affiliated organizations that enrolled women, youth and city workers high profile exposure in national radio, television, and government publications.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.When Sitara Achakzai, an outspoken and courageous human rights defender and politician, was murdered by the Taliban in April 2009, her death was seen as another warning to all women who are active in public life.^ To the Taliban, all past legislation touching upon women and the family threatened to undermine the society's values.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The April 19, 1978, funeral for Mir Akbar Khyber, a prominent Parchami ideologue who had been murdered, served as a rallying point for Afghan communists.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A Loya Jirgah (grand council of notables) had debated, modified and approved its innovations, which included a bill or rights for all Afghans, explicitly including women.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[89]
.In the aftermath of the election, Peter Galbraith – a senior UN official in Kabul who was fired after pushing for the UN to reveal the extent of the preparation for fraud before the first vote – wrote that before the election, Karzai was seen as ineffectual and corrupt, and that now he was ineffectual, corrupt and illegitimate.^ Abdullah, who was foreign minister in the earlier years following the 2001 toppling of the Taliban, told his supporters today that he was dropping out because President Hamid Karzai refused to fire the top elections official who oversaw the August presidential voting that was marred by massive fraud.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Independent Election Commission chairman Azizullah Lodin announced Karzai as the victor during a news conference in Kabul on Monday.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Reveals how the tribal strongmen who have regained power - after years of being displaced by the Taliban - have renewed a plague of corruption and violence on the Afghan people."
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90] .Later that month, the U.S. ambassador in Kabul sent two classified cables to Washington expressing deep concerns about sending more U.S. troops to Afghanistan until President Hamid Karzai's government demonstrates that it is willing to tackle the corruption and mismanagement that has fueled the Taliban's rise.^ McChrystal has urged that more troops be sent to Afghanistan .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ U.S. troops to Afghanistan until the U.S. has trained more Afghan military and police.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ In advance of Abdullah's announcement, The Washington Post wrote that his withdrawal "could make it more difficult for Obama to send additional U.S. combat troops to Afghanistan if the next government is not accepted by the Afghan electorate as a result."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[91]
.In November 2009, Afghanistan slipped three places in Transparency International's annual index of corruption perceptions, becoming the world's second most-corrupt country ahead of Somalia.^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It discusses his rise to power, his continued success after becoming the most wanted man in the world, the numerous terrorist attacks to which he was linked before 9/11, and the U.S.-led wars against Afghanistan and Iraq.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'We will work toward improved security for afghanistan,' the statement read, and the responsibility of security the country would take place as rapidly as conditions allow."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[92][93]
.In January 2010, President Karzai reinstated Abdul Rashid Dostum to a high ranking army post despite Western demands for sweeping reform.^ Apparently during the post-Soviet civil war, this particular peak was controlled by Abdul Rashid Dostum -- one of the heaviest warlords.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghanistan, and today's declaration that President Hamid Karzai has been re-elected despite the massive fraud during the August election, was topic No.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The President raised Dostam's rank from militia chief to senior army general.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Dostum is among Afghanistan's most notorious warlords, accused of widespread abuses including the massacre of thousands of Taliban prisoners[94][95], something he denies.^ Relations have been soured recently between America and Afghanistan after a US military investigation found that US personnel were responsible for widespread and horrific abuse of prisoners at the Bagram detention centre near Kabul.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Police

.Afghanistan currently has more than 90,000 national police officers, with plans to recruit more so that the total number can reach 160,000. They are being trained by and through the Afghanistan Police Program.^ U.S. troops to Afghanistan until the U.S. has trained more Afghan military and police.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ It says less than a quarter of the total aid to Afghanistan currently goes through the Afghan national budget, and also criticises the military forces in Afghanistan for not sourcing goods and products from within Afghanistan.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ They will increase our ability to train competent Afghan Security Forces, and to partner with them so that more Afghans can get into the fight.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.In many areas, crimes have gone uninvestigated because of insufficient police or lack of equipment.^ Helmand Province police chief Asadullah Sherzad says "because of the remoteness of the area we did not have accurate information in the morning."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Schools are still without buildings in many areas and sustainability is questionable because of insufficient coordination, underutilized trained teachers, inattention to quality improvement, inadequate teaching materials, monitoring, and evaluation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By the 1960s the levirate had all but ceased to function in many areas, but it was increasingly employed after 1978 because of the unprecedented number of war widows.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Afghan National Army soldiers have been sent to quell fighting in some regions lacking police protection.^ This week in Nimroz, three police officers were killed by a suicide car bomber, and two Afghan soldiers died in attacks in the south.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ An American Army instructor speaks with an Afghan soldier instructor after a graduation ceremony in Kabul on October 18, 2008.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Some would say that these conflicts are evidence that Afghan society must now be fragmented between groups identified by religious, ethnic, or regional labels.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[96] .Many of the police officers are illiterate due to the 30 years of civil unrest in the country.^ Ahmad Shah's successors governed so ineptly during a period of profound unrest that within fifty years of his death, Afghanistan was embroiled in a civil war.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Approximately 17 percent of them test positive for illegal drugs. They are widely accused of demanding bribes, which is not surprising to see in most developing countries.[97] .Every year many Afghan police officers are killed by militants, and in some cases by NATO forces due to friendly fire incidents.^ One of the enduring controversies in the case of Pat Tillman, the former pro football star turned soldier killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan, is whether he should have been posthumously awarded the Silver Star.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ This week in Nimroz, three police officers were killed by a suicide car bomber, and two Afghan soldiers died in attacks in the south.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ NPR's Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson reports from Kabul: The Afghan police officer ran from the scene, and "the feeling is that he's crossed over and joined the Taliban."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

See List of Afghan security forces fatality reports in Afghanistan
.Attempts to build a credible Afghan police force are faltering badly, according to NATO officials, even as they acknowledge that the force will be a crucial piece of the effort to have Afghans manage their own security so American forces can begin leaving.^ Explains the continuing OEF coalition efforts of the American forces.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has been in Kabul, Afghanistan, since NATO took responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force in August 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Guardian, "Highlighting the lack of coordination in the current aid effort, the report warns: "The result of weak Afghan leadership and poor donor adherence ...
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[98] Taliban infiltration is a constant worry; incompetence an even bigger one.[99] .A quarter of the officers quit every year, making the Afghan government's goals of substantially building up the police force even harder to achieve.^ Internal objectives of the new Afghan government focused on strengthening the army and shoring up the economy, including transport and communications.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But if the mission is "building a stable democratic government in Afghanistan" -- or nation-building -- then support for having U.S. troops there evaporates: 39% said that is a worthy goal, vs. .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ By 1935 German experts and businessmen had set up factories and hydroelectric projects at the invitation of the Afghan government.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[100]
.Helmand is the most dangerous place in Afghanistan due to its distance from Kabul as well as the drug trade that flourishes there.^ Discusses the inaugural address of President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan laying out his priorities for the next five years - one of which is to stop the growing drug trade.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through mid-1995 these local arrangements have generally remained in place in most of Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Since then, according to the United States Geological Survey, there have been ten earthquakes in Afghanistan which have registered above 6.0; the most severe, both registering at 6.4, occurred in January and July 1991.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Other turbulent provinces in Afghanistan include Kandahar and Oruzgan, although security in the latter has improved recently due to Dutch and Afghan counter offensives.^ Helmand Province, in southern Afghanistan, has been a Taliban stronghold and is where U.S. forces have faced some of the strongest resistance in recent months.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ 'We will work toward improved security for afghanistan,' the statement read, and the responsibility of security the country would take place as rapidly as conditions allow."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ BBC News reported on March 27, 2005 ( "Fall In Afghan Poppy Cultivation" ) that "A new survey on drugs in Afghanistan indicates the recent increase in poppy cultivation has been reversed.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The Afghan Border Police are responsible for protecing the nation's borders, especially the Durand Line border which is often used by criminals and terrorists.^ In response, the Afghan government called a loya jirgah, which promptly declared that it recognized "neither the imaginary Durand nor any similar line" and that all agreements--from the 1893 Durand agreement onward--pertaining to the issue were void.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "Building a professional Afghan National Police force is considered key to the war against the Taliban," Tom writes.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Once on the other side, however, they were not allowed back and forth across the border to use British territory as a sanctuary, nor were they allowed to gather together a tribal army on the British side of the Durand Line.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Women and girls in Afghanistan suffer high levels of violence and discrimination and have poor access to justice and education, Human Rights Watch concluded in a December, 2009 report.^ Offers recommendations for donors to assist in human rights, democracy, peace-building, and stability of Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A documentary chronicling the struggle for women's rights in Post-Taliban Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the foreign aid community would do well to examine carefully their recent aggressive campaign to assure rights for Afghan women in education and employment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[101] .One recent nationwide survey of levels of violence against Afghan women found that 52 percent of respondents experienced physical violence and 17 percent reported sexual violence.^ The BBC, quoting "sources" who are familiar with McChrystal's report, says the general now views "protecting the Afghan people against the Taliban as the top priority."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ However, the foreign aid community would do well to examine carefully their recent aggressive campaign to assure rights for Afghan women in education and employment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Only 12 percent of pregnant women have access to maternal and emergency obstetric care; only 38 percent of children under one year are fully immunized.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Yet because of social and legal obstacles to accessing justice, few women and girls report violence to the authorities. These barriers are particularly formidable in rape cases.[89]
.The Afghan government rates 121 out of 160 countries in terms of corruption.^ BBC News -- "Karzai Vows To Battle Corruption": "Afghan President Hamid Karzai has vowed to remove the 'stigma' of corruption , a day after winning a new five-year term.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Times states that the ramped up program intends to target "trafficking networks that officials say are increasingly feuling the Taliban insurgency and corrupting the Afghan government."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ But it will be clear to the Afghan government -- and, more importantly, to the Afghan people -- that they will ultimately be responsible for their own country."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[102] .In 2009, President Hamid Karzai created two anti-corruption units within the Afghan Interior Ministry at the insistence of the United States, Europe and Iran.^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai greets supporters on Friday.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai may have unwittingly shot himself in the foot in his effort to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan and all because he mistakenly read U.S. intentions.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ According to The Guardian, "Hamid Ghodse, the INCB's president, said the British-led attempt to persuade Afghan farmers to grow other cash crops had failed.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[103] .Afghan Interior Minister Hanif Atmar told reporters in Kabul on November 16, 2009 that security officials from the U.S. (FBI), Britain (Scotland Yard) and the European Union (ELOPE) will train prosecutors in the unit.^ November 16, 2009 .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ But in Afghanistan you have to be pragmatic and consider different solutions given the precarious security situation, said Hanif Atmar, minister of rural rehabilitation and development.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "Afghan officials say a suicide bomber targeting an Afghan security forces convoy in the south of the country has killed 10 civilians and wounded another 13," the Associated Press reports.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[104]

Military

.The Afghan National Army currently has about 100,000 soldiers, with plans to increase this number to 260,000 in the coming years.^ President Barack Obama plans to tell the nation tonight that he's sending 30,000 more U.S. troops to Afghanistan and has asked allies to contribute more soldiers as well because that will "allow us to accelerate handing over responsibility to Afghan forces and allow us to begin the transfer of our forces out of Afghanistan in July of 2011."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ He said he has cleared $100,000 in profits in three years' work.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The United States currently has 62,000 troops in Afghanistan and that figure is expected to rise to 68,000 by the end of the year.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

It is plagued by inefficiency and endemic corruption.[105] U.S. training efforts have been drastically slowed by the corruption, widespread illiteracy, vanishing supplies, and lack of discipline.[106] .U.S. trainers report missing vehicles, weapons and other military equipment, and outright theft of fuel provided by the U.S.[107] Death threats have been leveled against U.S. officers who try to stop Afghan soldiers from stealing.^ The BBC, quoting "sources" who are familiar with McChrystal's report, says the general now views "protecting the Afghan people against the Taliban as the top priority."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Besides the DEA agents, who weren't identified, the others killed during this particular operation were uniformed members of the U.S. military, according to U.S. officials.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ This week in Nimroz, three police officers were killed by a suicide car bomber, and two Afghan soldiers died in attacks in the south.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Afghan soldiers often find improvised explosive devices and snip the command wires instead of marking them and waiting for U.S. forces to come to detonate them.^ The soldiers were training Afghan forces, he said.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ "A group of Somali extremists was reported to be coming across the border from Canada to detonate explosives as the new president took the oath of office."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Five Canadians, four soldiers and a journalist, were killed Wednesday in the southern Afghanistan city of Kandahar by an improvised explosive device.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

The Americans say this just allows the insurgents to return and reconnect them.[107] .U.S. trainers frequently must remove the cell phones of Afghan soldiers hours before a mission for fear that the operation will be compromised.^ U.S. soldiers stand atop their armored MRAP vehicles before a mission in Afghanistan's Wardak Province.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[108] .American trainers often spend large amounts of time verifying that Afghan rosters are accurate – that they are not padded with "ghosts" being "paid" by Afghan commanders who quietly collect the bogus wages.^ Most Afghans, Soraya says, are still willing to give the new American president some time.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ An effort was made also to centralize budgeting, but the parties continued to operate as they had before, with little attention being paid the AIG by early 1990.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean while they do have barbed wire and you do have guards in front, you have a lot of Afghan officials who live in that sort of environment as well.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[109]
The Afghan Army has severely limited fighting capacity.[107] .Even the best Afghan units lack training, discipline and adequate reinforcements.^ Even so, the basic units of mujahidin organization and action continued to reflect the highly segmented nature of Afghan society.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In one new unit in Baghlan Province, soldiers have been found cowering in ditches rather than fighting.^ A new nomad family is thus born, although the process may take more than one generation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as it had in the 1980s, the United States picked Afghan allies based exclusively on their willingness to get rid of U.S. enemies, rather than on their capacity to bring stability and security to the state."
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110] .Some are suspected of collaborating with the Taliban against the Americans.^ The US effort against the Osama bin Laden and Afghanistan's Taliban regime is resulting in some intriguing alliances.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[107] "They don’t have the basics, so they lay down," said Capt. .Michael Bell, who is one of a team of U.S. and Hungarian mentors tasked with training Afghan soldiers.^ The soldiers were training Afghan forces, he said.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The shooting is the latest in a string of such incidents, at a time when Western countries are pouring resources into training Afghan soldiers and police to fight the Taliban insurgency.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ He saved the life of one soldier who had been wounded by gunfire, before he was killed."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

"I ran around for an hour trying to get them to shoot, getting fired on. I couldn’t get them to shoot their weapons."[107] .In addition, 9 out of 10 soldiers in the Afghan National Army cannot read.^ Afghan army recruit Shahidullah Ahmadi can't read -- and neither can nine out of 10 soldiers in the Afghan National Army...
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ An American Army instructor speaks with an Afghan soldier instructor after a graduation ceremony in Kabul on October 18, 2008.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ In addition to forging a nation from the splintered regions comprising Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman tried to modernize his kingdom by forging a regular army and the first institutionalized bureaucracy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[111] .In multiple firefights during the February, 2010 NATO offensive in Helmand Province, many Afghan soldiers did not aim — they pointed their American-issued M-16 rifles in the rough direction of the incoming small-arms fire and pulled their triggers without putting rifle sights to their eyes.^ Just as the Taliban have benefited from money produced by the drug trade, so have many officials in the Karzai government, according to American and Afghan officials.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "The soldier opened fire on the two Italians and one American in a joint Afghan and foreign base," General Khair Mohammad Khawari, a senior officer in western Afghanistan, told Reuters.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ An American Army instructor speaks with an Afghan soldier instructor after a graduation ceremony in Kabul on October 18, 2008.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Their rifle muzzles were often elevated several degrees high.[112]
Desertion is a significant problem in the Afghan Army. .One in every four combat soldiers quit the Afghan Army during the 12-month period ending in September, 2009, according to data from the U.S. Defense Department and the Inspector General for Reconstruction in Afghanistan.^ U.S. military have died in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan as a result of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in late 2001, according to the Defense Department.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examines warlordism as the principal impediment to Afghanistan and offers a shift in strategy that address the war of ideas, the counternarcotics initiative, and the incorporation of the Afghan National Army into the provincial reconstruction teams.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the western and southern regions a northerly wind, known as the "wind of 120 days," blows during the summer months of June to September.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[113]

Provinces

.Afghanistan is administratively divided into thirty-four (34) provinces (welayats), and for each province there is a capital.^ Within a week, the Taliban were forced back into Logar and Wardak provinces and the capital was freed from rocketing.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ About 1.3 million Uzbek live mingled with the Tajik all across the northern plains of Afghanistan, from Faryab Province to Faizabad, capital of Badakhshan Province.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He divides Afghanistan into eleven geographic zones.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Each province is then divided into many provincial districts, and each district normally covers a city or several townships.^ Afghanistan is still largely a tribal society, divided into many tribes, clans and smaller groups.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sovereign territory of Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces ( Welayat) with more than 300 districts ( Woleswali ).
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This new province was divided into Settled Districts and Tribal Agencies, with the latter ruled by a British political agent who reported directly to Delhi.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Governor of the province is appointed by the Ministry of Interior, and the Prefects for the districts of the province will be appointed by the provincial Governor.^ Army officers were frequently appointed governors of sensitive provinces.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Additional refinements authorized Hekmatyar to chair a commission governing the Interior ministry, with two commissioners appointed from every province.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The Governor is the representative of the central government of Afghanistan, and is responsible for all administrative and formal issues.^ In October British and Soviet governments demanded that Afghanistan expel all nondiplomatic personnel from the Axis nations.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Washington, which had previously earmarked cash for aerial spraying programmes, and the British government, which leads the international counter-narcotics effort in Afghanistan, denied responsibility."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ This morning, All Things Considered 's Melissa Block spoke with Richard Holbrooke, the Obama team's special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.The provincial Chief of Police is appointed by the Ministry of Interior, who works together with the Governor on law enforcement for all the cities or districts of that province.^ Police chiefs, governors and other government officials profit from the trade, Costa said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Additional refinements authorized Hekmatyar to chair a commission governing the Interior ministry, with two commissioners appointed from every province.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Helmand Province police chief Asadullah Sherzad says "because of the remoteness of the area we did not have accurate information in the morning."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.There is an exception in the capital city (Kabul) where the Mayor is selected by the President of Afghanistan, and is completely independent from the prefecture of Kabul Province.^ When it comes to Afghanistan and how many troops to have there, how much confidence do you have that the president will make a good decision?
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ President Obama ordered an additional 21,000 troops to Afghanistan this year, raising the total number of U.S. forces there to about 64,000.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ There will be runoff election in Afghanistan between incumbent President Hamid Karzai and former foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Map showing the 34 provinces of Afghanistan.
  1. Badakhshan
  2. Badghis
  3. Baghlan
  4. Balkh
  5. Bamyan
  6. Daykundi
  7. Farah
  8. Faryab
  9. Ghazni
  10. Ghor
  11. Helmand
  12. Herat
  13. Jowzjan
  14. Kabul
  15. Kandahar
  16. Kapisa
  17. Khost
  1. Konar
  2. Kunduz
  3. Laghman
  4. Logar
  5. Nangarhar
  6. Nimruz
  7. Nurestan
  8. Oruzgan
  9. Paktia
  10. Paktika
  11. Panjshir
  12. Parvan
  13. Samangan
  14. Sare Pol
  15. Takhar
  16. Wardak
  17. Zabol

Foreign relations

Afghan President Hamid Karzai in Germany, with Franz Josef Jung to his right and James L. Jones to his left.
.Since the overthrow of the Taliban regime, Afghanistan's new government has maintained strong relations with the United States and other members of NATO.^ Afghanistan: Progress since the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other news involving Afghanistan: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Focuses on developments made in Afghanistan since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than 22 NATO nations deploy thousands of troops in Afghanistan as a part of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).^ He has been in Kabul, Afghanistan, since NATO took responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force in August 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer confirmed on 10 February that NATO is to expand the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission into the west of Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three years after taking responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), NATO is focusing on three areas: continued ISAF expansion; enhanced assistance to security sector reform efforts, such as the training of Afghan security forces; and perfecting the coordination mechanisms between NATO/ISAF and other international organisations and missions operating in Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apart from close military links, Afghanistan also enjoys strong economic relations with NATO members and other allies.^ Besides the DEA agents, who weren't identified, the others killed during this particular operation were uniformed members of the U.S. military, according to U.S. officials.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Associated Press -- Four U.S. Military Personnel Killed In Afgahnistan: In the past 24 hours four U.S. service members died in Afghanistan, NATO officials said today .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Others participated in the military and political arrangements linking fighting units to the expatriate parties.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The United States is the largest donor to Afghanistan, followed by Japan, United Kingdom, Germany and India.^ The United States has become the biggest donor to help Afghanistan in the drought."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The United States currently has 62,000 troops in Afghanistan and that figure is expected to rise to 68,000 by the end of the year.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ 'Right now the approach of the United States is more emphasis on eradication,' Jawad said in an interview, Afghanistan?s?
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[114]
.Relations between Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan often fluctuate.^ Takes a firsthand look at the results and implications of the escalating tensions between Afghanistan and its neighbors.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan and Pakistan severed relations on September 6, 1961.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Historical review of foreign/security relations between U.S. and Pakistan during the Soviet Afghanistan War.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Taliban regime, Pakistan had strong influence in Afghanistan due to close links with most Taliban leaders.^ Analyzes the United States' position in Afghanistan, the history of its involvement with Afghanistan and Pakistan back to the Cold War, and the U.S. policy toward the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's it like for a Westerner to live in Kandahar, Afghanistan, the traditional seat of power and influence for the Taliban?
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Pakistan's interests in Afghanistan are closely tied to the creation of an effective, united and popular Afghan government.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[115] .However, Pakistan's influence has gradually waned since the overthrow of the Taliban.^ Focuses on developments made in Afghanistan since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Taliban were students or recent graduates of a network of traditional madrasas in southern Afghanistan and adjacent areas of Pakistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Though Pakistan maintains strong security and economic links with Afghanistan, dispute between the two countries remain due to Pakistani concerns over growing influence of rival India in Afghanistan and the continuing border dispute over the Durand Line.^ He did two tours in Afghanistan, though.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghanistan's economic situation continued to deteriorate.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The line laid the foundation, not for peace between the border regions, but for heated disagreement between the governments of Afghanistan and British India, and later, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[116] .Since 2007, Afghan and Pakistani forces have been involved in a number of border skirmishes.^ According to the Associated Press, the Pakistani government "blamed militants seeking to avenge an army offensive against al-Qaida and Taliban close to the Afghan border."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghan forces achieved success in the early days of the war as Pashtun tribesmen on both sides of the border joined forces with them.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Still, the number of Afghans involved in cultivation grew to 2.9 million from 2 million in 2005, equivalent to an eighth of the population.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Relations between the two strained further after Afghan officials alleged that Pakistani intelligence agencies were involved in some terrorist attacks on Afghanistan.^ Some of Obama's advisers see a more concerted crackdown by Pakistan on militants on its side of the border as key to turning the tide in Afghanistan, but U.S. intelligence agencies see little correlation, citing the Afghan insurgency's autonomy and increasing home-grown sophistication, officials said...
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Washington Post -- "In Afghanistan, Taliban Surpasses Al-Qaida": "As violence rises in Afghanistan, the power balance between insurgent groups has shifted, with a weakened al-Qaida relying increasingly on the emboldened Taliban for protection and the manpower to carry out deadly attacks, according to U.S. military and intelligence officials ."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The Journal further reports, "U.N. officials hesitate to guess which side has been making more from the drug trade in Afghanistan, which produces about 75% of the world's heroin.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[117][118]
.Afghanistan has strong historical and cultural links with neighboring Iran as both the countries were a part of Greater Persia.^ The Ghorids controlled most of what is now Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Pakistan, while parts of central and western Iran were ruled by the Seljuk Turks.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The area that is now Afghanistan seems in prehistory--as well as ancient and modern times--to have been closely connected by culture and trade with the neighboring regions to the east, west, and north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. has sent federal workers from various agencies, including the U.S. AID and the Agriculture Department, to help development efforts in Afghanistan, a critical part of the effort to stabilize the troubled country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Relations between the two, which had previously soured after the rise of radical Sunni Islamist Taliban regime in Afghanistan, rebounded after the establishment of Hamid Karzai government.^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai may have unwittingly shot himself in the foot in his effort to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan and all because he mistakenly read U.S. intentions.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ During the 1920s, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with most major countries, and Amanullah became king in 1923.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as the Taliban have benefited from money produced by the drug trade, so have many officials in the Karzai government, according to American and Afghan officials.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[119] .Iran has also actively participated in Afghan reconstruction efforts.^ Educated Afghan women are standing fast in their determination to find ways in which they may participate in the nation's reconstruction according to their interpretations of Islam's tenets.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[120] .Afghanistan also enjoys good relations with Russia and neighboring Central Asian nations, especially Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.^ Meanwhile, in news from that Central Asian nation: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghanistan is completely landlocked, bordered by Iran to the west (925 kilometers), by the Central Asian States of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north and northeast (2,380 kilometers), by China at the easternmost top of the Wakhan Corridor (96 kilometers), and by Pakistan to the east and south (2,432 kilometers).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan forms the collegial and logistical link through which Arab influence can compete with Iran's in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

India is often regarded as one of Afghanistan's most influential allies.[121] .India is the largest regional donor to Afghanistan and has extensively participated in several Afghan reconstruction efforts, including power, agricultural and educational projects.^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai may have unwittingly shot himself in the foot in his effort to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan and all because he mistakenly read U.S. intentions.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the Guardian, "Highlighting the lack of coordination in the current aid effort, the report warns: "The result of weak Afghan leadership and poor donor adherence ...
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. has sent federal workers from various agencies, including the U.S. AID and the Agriculture Department, to help development efforts in Afghanistan, a critical part of the effort to stabilize the troubled country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[122][123] .Since 2002, India has extended more than US$1.2 billion in aid to Afghanistan.^ Many analysts say Pakistan is more critical than Afghanistan to long-term U.S. plans for Central Asia, as NPR's Jackie Northam reports : .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Also on Morning Edition , a former U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan said forming a unity government may be a more practical option than a run-off election.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Karzai's decision to submit to a runoff at least makes a potential decision to send significantly more U.S. troops to Afghanistan less unpalatable than it would have been otherwise.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[124] .Strong military ties also exist – Afghan security forces regularly get counter-insurgency training in India[125] and India is also considering the deployment of troops in Afghanistan.^ U.S. troops to Afghanistan until the U.S. has trained more Afghan military and police.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The soldiers were training Afghan forces, he said.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Senior White House officials have begun to make the case for a policy shift in Afghanistan that would send few, if any, new combat troops to the country and instead focus on faster military training of Afghan forces, continued assassinations of al-Qaida leaders and support for the government of neighboring Pakistan in its fight against the Taliban.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[126]

Demographics

Boys and girls of Kabul dressed in local traditional clothes

Population

.A 2009 UN estimate shows that the Afghan population is 28,150,000[2], with about 2.7 million Afghan refugees currently staying in neighoboring Pakistan and Iran.^ Estimated population in 1995 was one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Presumably this included over five million refugees in Pakistan and Iran.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Afghan Turkmen population in the 1990s is estimated at around 200,000.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[127] .A partial census conducted in 1979 showed around 13,051,358 people living in the country.^ An official census was later hurriedly taken over a three-week period in June 1979 after the establishment of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), with UN assistance.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.By 2050, the population is estimated to increase to 82 million.^ Estimated population in 1995 was one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Human Development Report, 1996 estimates that the population will rise to 26.7 million in the year 2000, using, however, a high growth rate of 6.1 percent.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Varying estimates (no authentic census was taken) put Kabul's population at more than 2 million by the late 1980s.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[128]

Largest cities

.The only city in Afghanistan with over one million residents is its capital, Kabul.^ About 1.3 million Uzbek live mingled with the Tajik all across the northern plains of Afghanistan, from Faryab Province to Faizabad, capital of Badakhshan Province.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the scarcity of water, only 10-12 percent of the surface of Afghanistan is cultivated, and of this only one-quarter is irrigated.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The latest Associated Press report from Afghanistan's capital, Kabul, leads with this summary of how the day has gone: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.The other major cities in the country are, in order of population size, Herat, Kandahar, Mazar-e Sharif, Jalalabad, Ghazni and Kunduz.^ UNHCR, ICRC and NGO-assisted camps were established in and around Jalalabad in the east, at Pul-i-Khumri, Mazar-i- Sharif and Kunduz in the north, and in Herat in the west.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ As the rural population became increasingly aware of the concentration of modern facilities and industry in Kabul and a few other cities, signs of resentment assumed political importance.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Their membership was recruited from university faculties and from secondary schools in several cities such as Mazar-i-Sharif and Herat.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Urban areas are experiencing rapid population growth following the establishment of the Islamic Republic in 2002.

Ethnic groups

.The population of Afghanistan is divided into a wide variety of ethnic groups.^ In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes of northern Afghanistan (see Ethnic Groups , ch.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By the 1880s they were, with the Uzbek with whom they established close ties, the second most populous ethnic group in present day Kunduz, Takhar and Baghlan provinces.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Soviet war Iran made a concerted effort to train and support Hazara groups for the purpose of introducing extensions of its own revolution into Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Because a systematic census has not been held in the country in decades, exact figures about the size and composition of the various ethnic groups are not available.^ Like a number of other Afghan ethnic groups, the Pushtun extend beyond Afghanistan into Pakistan where they constitute a major ethnic group of about 14 million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Various tribal and ethnic groups follow practices which are not strictly consistent with Islamic law.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[129] Therefore most figures are approximations only:
.
Ethnic groups of Afghanistan (largest ethnic group of each district)      36.4% to 42.0% Pashtun      27% to 38.0% Tajik      8.0% to 10.0% Hazara      6.0% to 9.2% Uzbek      1.7 to 3% Turkmen      0.5% to 4% Baloch      0.1% to 4% Aimak      1.9% to 9.2% other (Pashai, Hindki, Nuristani, Brahui, Hindkowans, etc.^ In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes of northern Afghanistan (see Ethnic Groups , ch.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By the 1880s they were, with the Uzbek with whom they established close ties, the second most populous ethnic group in present day Kunduz, Takhar and Baghlan provinces.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Ahmad Shah declared an Islamic holy war against the Marathas, and warriors from various Pashtun tribes, as well as other tribes such as the Baloch, answered his call.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

)
(1) Based on official census numbers from the 1960s to the 1980s, as well as information found in mainly scholarly sources, the Encyclopædia Iranica[130] gives the following list:
  • 39.4% Pashtun
  • 33.7% Tajik, Farsiwan, and Qezelbash
  • 8.0% Hazara
  • 8.0% Uzbek
  • 4.1% Aimak
  • 3.3% Turkmen
  • 1.6% Baloch
  • 1.9% other
(2) An approximate distribution of ethnic groups based on the CIA World Factbook[1] is as following:
  • 42% Pashtun
  • 27% Tajik
  • 9% Hazara
  • 9% Uzbek
  • 4% Aimak
  • 3% Turkmen
  • 2% Baloch
  • 4% Other
(3) According to a representative survey, named "A survey of the Afghan people – Afghanistan in 2006", a combined project of The Asia Foundation, the Indian Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) and the Afghan Center for Socio-economic and Opinion Research (ACSOR), the distribution of the ethnic groups is:[131]
  • 40.9% Pashtun
  • 37.1% Tajik
  • 9.2% Hazara
  • 9.2% Uzbek
  • 1.7% Turkmen
  • 0.5% Baloch
  • 0.1% Aimak
  • 1.3% other
(4) According to another representative survey, named "Afghanistan: Where Things Stand", a combined effort by the American broadcasting channel ABC News, the British BBC, and the German ARD (from the years 2004 to 2009), and released on February 9, 2009, the ethnic composition of the country is (average numbers):[132]
  • 41% Pashtun
  • 38% Tajik
  • 10% Hazara
  • 6% Uzbek
  • 2% Turkmen
  • 1% Nuristani
  • 1% Baloch
  • 1% other

Languages

.
Languages of Afghanistan (percentages are from CIA World Factbook)[1]      50% Dari (Eastern Persian)      35% Pashto      8% Uzbek      3% Turkmen      4% Balochi      2% other (Nuristani, Pashai, Brahui, etc.^ In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes of northern Afghanistan (see Ethnic Groups , ch.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Its strenuous effort to impose Pushtu as the working language of government on the Persian- (Dari-) speaking bureaucrats was an indication of the monarchy's anxiety to be identified with Pushtun roots and sentiment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Available online at: http://www.voanews.com/english/portal.cfm Links to websites in languages of which it broadcasts, some of the 48 languages spoken in Afghanistan are Dari, Azerbaijani, Pashto.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.The most common languages spoken in Afghanistan are Dari (also known as Eastern Persian; roughly 50%) and Pashto (roughly 35%).^ The poetry of the Sufis is considered the best in the Persian language, and among the most notable of all poetic styles.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Which means that training the Afghan army won't be as easy as translating the U.S.'s English-language training materials into the Pasto or Dari anguages spoken in Afghanistan and telling Afghan recruits to study them.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Afghanistan's rugged central mountainous core of approximately 50,000 square kilometers is known as the Hazarajat, Land of the Hazara.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Both are Indo-European languages from the Iranian languages sub-family, and the official languages of the country.^ Both Pashtu and Dari belong to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Baluch speak Baluchi, an Iranian branch in the Indo-European language family; most speak Dari and Pashto as well.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the third and second centuries B.C., the Parthians, a nomadic people speaking Indo-European languages, arrived on the Iranian Plateau.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

An approximate distribution of first languages based on the CIA World Factbook is as following:[1]
.Other minor languages include Nuristani (Ashkunu, Kamkata-viri, Vasi-vari, Tregami and Kalasha-ala), Pamiri (Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi and Wakhi), Brahui, Hindko, Kyrgyz, etc.^ Pashtu and Dari are recognized as the official languages of the state, but mention is made of nine other languages, these are: Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (Alsana) and Arabic.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to older numbers in the Encyclopædia Iranica,[133] the Persian language is the most widely used language of the country, spoken by most of the population (although ca.^ The poetry of the Sufis is considered the best in the Persian language, and among the most notable of all poetic styles.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sections on languages spoken in country, military, Tier rank for trafficking of persons, exchange rates, maps, etc.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In numbers of Muslim societies, women may also worship at mosques where they are provided segregated areas, although most prefer to pray at home.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

25% native), while Pashto is spoken and understood by around 60% of the population (50–55% native). .According to "A survey of the Afghan people – Afghanistan in 2006",[131] Persian is the first language of 49% of the population, while additional 37% speak the language as a second language (combined 86%).^ Urban civilization in the Iranian plateau, which includes most of Iran and Afghanistan, may have begun as early as 3000 to 2000 B.C. About the middle of the second millennium B.C. people speaking an Indo-European language may have entered the eastern part of the Iranian Plateau, but little is known about the area until the middle of the first millennium B.C., when its history began to be recorded during the Achaemenid Empire.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russians advanced steadily southward toward Afghanistan in the three decades after the First Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This agreement, the first Afghan pact with a European power, stipulated joint action in case of Franco-Persian aggression against Afghan or British dominions.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Pashto is the first language of 40% of the population, while additional 27% know the language (combined 67%). .Uzbek is spoken or understood by 6% of the population, Turkmen by 3%.^ Tajiks make up the second largest ethnic group with 25.3 percent of the population, followed by Hazaras, 18 percent; Uzbeks, 6.3 percent; Turkmen, 2.5 percent; Qizilbash, 1.0; 6.9 percent other.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

In the survey "Afghanistan: Where Things Stand" (average numbers from 2005 to 2009), 69% of the interviewed people preferred Persian, while 31% preferred Pashto. .Additionally, 45% of the polled people said that they can read Persian, while 36% said that they can read Pashto.^ 'The poppy fields have not been destroyed as people said they would be, so those farmers who didn't plant poppies were very sad,' said Nasrullah, another Balkh farmer.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Afghanistan Update 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[132]

Culture

Girls in Kabul, wearing their traditional clothes, sing at a celebration of International Women's Day in 2002.
.Afghans display pride in their religion, country, ancestry, and above all, their independence.^ As had happened in the past, all the Afghan protagonists in the struggle to control their country were beholden to outside forces whose agendas had major implications for the political outcome.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite Afghans' pride in independence, during the past two centuries their politics have been greatly influenced by foreign involvements.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Like other highlanders, Afghans are regarded with mingled apprehension and condescension, for their high regard for personal honor, for their clan loyalty and for their readiness to carry and use arms to settle disputes.^ Like a number of other Afghan ethnic groups, the Pushtun extend beyond Afghanistan into Pakistan where they constitute a major ethnic group of about 14 million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[134] As clan warfare and internecine feuding has been one of their chief occupations since time immemorial, this individualistic trait has made it difficult for foreign invaders to hold the region.
.Afghanistan has a complex history that has survived either in its current cultures or in the form of various languages and monuments.^ Sharing the same plateau, language and a long overlapping history in which Persians/Iranians have had the greater portion of cultural grandeur, the modern relationship has been awkward.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the virulence of the recent onslaughts, despite current deplorable erosions and perversions, continuity will in the end permit shared sets of values to prevail along with the variations and varieties that constitute the richness of Afghanistan's cultural heritage.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia provides an easy-to-use single reference covering the history of conflict in Afghanistan from 1747, when the state was formed, to the present war against the Taliban."
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, many of the country's historic monuments have been damaged in recent wars.^ After the war began in 1978, however, many qualified teachers, male and female, opted for resettlement abroad.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[135] The two famous statues of Buddha in Bamyan Province were destroyed by the Taliban, who regarded them as idolatrous. .Other famous sites include the cities of Kandahar, Herat, Ghazni and Balkh.^ Higher level madrassa located in Herat, Kunduz, Ghazni, Kandahar and Kabul were known as important learning centers.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Later, during the tenure of the PDPA governments, Balkh University (1986), Herat University (1988), and Kandahar University (1991) were established.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These roads connected major cities with the principal border crossings: from Herat to Iran and Turkmenistan in the west; from Kandahar to Pakistan in the south; from Kabul through Jalalabad to Pakistan in the east; from Balkh to Uzbekistan in the north.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The Minaret of Jam, in the Hari River valley, is a UNESCO World Heritage site. A cloak reputedly worn by Muhammad is stored inside the famous Mosque of the Cloak of the Prophet Mohammed in Kandahar City.
Buzkashi is a national sport in Afghanistan. It is similar to polo and played by horsemen in two teams, each trying to grab and hold a goat carcass. .Afghan hounds (a type of running dog) also originated in Afghanistan.^ Having developed special relationships with communities inside Afghanistan, its neighbors run the risk of acting as spoilers if Afghans make progress toward political unity.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Although literacy levels are very low, classic Persian poetry plays a very important role in the Afghan culture.^ An often unacknowledged event that nevertheless played an important role in Afghan history (and in the politics of Afghanistan's neighbors and the entire region up to the present) was the rise in the tenth century of a strong Sunni dynasty--the Ghaznavids.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam played a key role in the formation of Afghan history as well.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They play both roles, fearing the loss of connections with the major Afghan players, lest one of them prevails.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Poetry has always been one of the major educational pillars in Iran and Afghanistan, to the level that it has integrated itself into culture.^ During the Soviet war Iran made a concerted effort to train and support Hazara groups for the purpose of introducing extensions of its own revolution into Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Project-level examples from Afghanistan have been incorporated into the discussion.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Afghans, perhaps as many as five million, or one-quarter of the country's population, fled to Pakistan and Iran where they organized into guerrilla groups to strike Soviet and government forces inside Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Persian culture has, and continues to, exert a great influence over Afghan culture.^ Of this great Buddhist culture and earlier Zoroastrian influence there remain few, if any, traces in the life of Afghan people today.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Private poetry competition events known as "musha’era" are quite common even among ordinary people. .Almost every homeowner owns one or more poetry collections of some sort, even if they are not read often.^ But it will be clear to the Afghan government -- and, more importantly, to the Afghan people -- that they will ultimately be responsible for their own country."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Even when results are known, if no one has 50% or more there will be a runoff between the top two vote-getters on Oct.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Some years after their own publications had been terminated by government, they gained control of all official media.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The eastern dialects of the Persian language are popularly known as "Dari". The name itself derives from "Pārsī-e Darbārī", meaning Persian of the royal courts.^ Its strenuous effort to impose Pushtu as the working language of government on the Persian- (Dari-) speaking bureaucrats was an indication of the monarchy's anxiety to be identified with Pushtun roots and sentiment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Persianized in language and partially detribalized in marriage and social relations, the royal and administrative hierarchy was sensitive to its cultural isolation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They speak various Tajiki dialects of Dari, an Iranian language in the Indo-European language family.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The ancient term Darī – one of the original names of the Persian language – was revived in the Afghan constitution of 1964, and was intended "to signify that Afghans consider their country the cradle of the language.^ The poetry of the Sufis is considered the best in the Persian language, and among the most notable of all poetic styles.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Afghan Uzbek refer to themselves by old tribal names; others identify with their towns of origin in Central Asia.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the spring of 1964, he ordered the convening of a loya jirgah--a country-wide gathering that included members of the National Assembly, the Senate, the Supreme Court, and the constitutional commission.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Hence, the name Fārsī, the language of Fārs, is strictly avoided."[136]
Avicenna, a famous physician and philosopher whose writings had huge impact over the entire then-known world.
.Many of the famous Persian poets of the tenth to fifteenth centuries stem from Khorasan where is now known as Afghanistan.^ It's not known now many, if any, people died.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Universally acclaimed Afghan Sufi poets include Ansari (eleventh century) and Jami (fifteenth century) of Herat, Sanayi of Ghazni (twelfth century) , and Rumi of Balkh (thirteenth century), the founder of the order of whirling dervishes, whose Mathnawi is considered by many to be the greatest poem ever written in Persian.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Hundreds of members of the Ikwani Musalamin (Muslim Brotherhood, also known in Afghanistan as the Muslim Youth), were arrested--many were later executed.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

They were mostly also scholars in many disciplines like languages, natural sciences, medicine, religion and astronomy.
.Most of these individuals were of Persian (Tājīk) ethnicity who still form the second-largest ethnic group in Afghanistan.^ The Tajik form the second largest ethnic group in Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In short order, the powerful army brought under its control the Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, and Hazara tribes of northern Afghanistan (see Ethnic Groups , ch.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By the 1880s they were, with the Uzbek with whom they established close ties, the second most populous ethnic group in present day Kunduz, Takhar and Baghlan provinces.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Also, some of the contemporary Persian language poets and writers, who are relatively well-known in Persian-speaking world, include Khalilullah Khalili,[137] Sufi Ghulam Nabi Ashqari,[138] Sarwar Joya, Parwin Pazwak and others.^ The poetry of the Sufis is considered the best in the Persian language, and among the most notable of all poetic styles.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Army support allowed Amanullah to suppress other claims and imprison those relatives who would not swear loyalty to him.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Its strenuous effort to impose Pushtu as the working language of government on the Persian- (Dari-) speaking bureaucrats was an indication of the monarchy's anxiety to be identified with Pushtun roots and sentiment.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In 2003, Khaled Hosseini published The Kite Runner which though fiction, captured much of the history, politics and culture experienced in Afghanistan from the 1930s to present day.^ An often unacknowledged event that nevertheless played an important role in Afghan history (and in the politics of Afghanistan's neighbors and the entire region up to the present) was the rise in the tenth century of a strong Sunni dynasty--the Ghaznavids.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In a new era of political alignments and cultural resurgence, there is opportunity for Afghanistan to revive within a community of Islamic states.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia provides an easy-to-use single reference covering the history of conflict in Afghanistan from 1747, when the state was formed, to the present war against the Taliban."
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to poets and authors, numerous Persian scientists were born or worked in the region of present-day Afghanistan.^ Roy convincingly contrasts the social leadership of religious figures in the Persian and Turkish speaking regions of Afghanistan with that of the Pushtuns.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to forging a nation from the splintered regions comprising Afghanistan, Abdur Rahman tried to modernize his kingdom by forging a regular army and the first institutionalized bureaucracy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The area that is present-day Afghanistan comprised several satrapies (provinces) of the Achaemenid Empire when it was at its most extensive, under Darius the Great (ca.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Most notable was Avicenna (Abu Alī Hussein ibn Sīnā) whose father hailed from Balkh. Ibn Sīnā, who travelled to Isfahan later in life to establish a medical school there, is known by some scholars as "the father of modern medicine". George Sarton called ibn Sīnā "the most famous scientist of Islam and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times." His most famous works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, also known as the Qanun. .Ibn Sīnā's story even found way to the contemporary English literature through Noah Gordon's The Physician, now published in many languages.^ For the first time their languages and literatures were prominently broadcast and published by government media.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, according to Ibn al-Nadim, Al-Farabi, a well-known philosopher and scientist, was from Faryab Province in Afghanistan.^ The passes of the Paropamisus in the west are relatively low, averaging around 600 meters; the most well-known of these is the Sabzak between Herat and Badghis provinces, which links the western and northwestern parts of Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ About 1.3 million Uzbek live mingled with the Tajik all across the northern plains of Afghanistan, from Faryab Province to Faizabad, capital of Badakhshan Province.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Haqqani Network is a terrorist group that is not as well known as the Taliban or al-Qaida.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Before the Taliban gained power, the city of Kabul was home to many musicians who were masters of both traditional and modern Afghan music, especially during the Nauroz-celebration.^ "The picnic of the red flower is a traditional time of celebration for Afghans".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reveals how the tribal strongmen who have regained power - after years of being displaced by the Taliban - have renewed a plague of corruption and violence on the Afghan people."
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What's it like for a Westerner to live in Kandahar, Afghanistan, the traditional seat of power and influence for the Taliban?
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Kabul in the middle part of the twentieth century has been likened to Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.^ Provides information from the British policy in the nineteenth century to the U.S. policies toward South Asia during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, and the Soviet-Afghan agreements.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jihads waged against the British in the nineteenth century and King Amanullah in the twentieth had had the same effect.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The distrust and discrimination between Hazara and Pushtun set during late nineteenth century confrontations is still abundantly present.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There are an estimated 60 major Pashtun tribes.^ Turkmen tribes, of which there are twelve major groups in Afghanistan, base their structure on genealogies traced through the male line.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[139] .The tribal system, which orders the life of most people outside metropolitan areas, is potent in political terms.^ Even in the mid-1990s, there was ample evidence in a number of areas outside the present arenas of conflict to suggest that a return to the old order could occur.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Men feel a fierce loyalty to their own tribe, such that, if called upon, they would assemble in arms under the tribal chiefs and local clan leaders.^ Moving eastward from the area of Herat, the Macedonian leader encountered fierce resistance from local rulers of what had been Iranian satraps.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1747 Ahmad Shah and his Abdali horsemen joined the chiefs of the Abdali tribes and clans near Qandahar to choose a leader.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Much would depend upon the circumstances that might lead to such a partition.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

In theory, under Islamic law, every believer has an obligation to bear arms at the ruler's call.
.Heathcote considers the tribal system to be the best way of organizing large groups of people in a country that is geographically difficult, and in a society that, from a materialistic point of view, has an uncomplicated lifestyle.^ As Gorbachev opened up the country's system, it became more clear that the Soviet Union wished to find a face-saving way to withdraw from Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Activist students on the Kabul University campus organized informal political and study groups that ran the spectrum from Maoism to the Islamist views of the Muslim Brotherhood.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[134]
.The population of nomads in Afghanistan is estimated at about 2-3 million.^ Estimated population in 1995 was one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This count estimated the population to be 13.9 million, including 800,000 nomads, but it is little credited since only 56 percent of the population was enumerated due to mounting resistance in the countryside.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ IDPs or Internally Displaced Persons are estimated at about one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[140] .Nomads contribute importantly to the national economy in terms of meat, skins and wool.^ Uniquely adapted to the environment, pastoral nomads help maintain the nation's ecosystem and contribute substantially to the national economy.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Religions

Religion in Afghanistan
Religion Percent
Islam
  
99%
Christianity
  
1%
.Religiously, Afghans are over 99% Muslims: approximately 80% Sunni, 19% Shi'a, and 1% other.^ Considered less zealous than other Afghan Muslims, Ismaili are seen to follow their leaders uncritically.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, approximately 99 percent of Afghans are Muslims.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sayyids among both Sunni and Shia refer to descendants of the Prophet Mohammad who enjoy social and religious prestige throughout the Muslim world.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[1] Until the 1890s, the region around Nuristan was known as Kafiristan (land of the kafirs) because of its inhabitants: the Nuristani, an ethnically distinctive people who practiced animism, polytheism and shamanism.[141]
.Up until the mid-1980s, there were possibly about 50,000 Hindus and Sikhs living in different cities, mostly in Kabul, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Ghazni.^ Hindus and Sikhs live mostly in urban centers throughout Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A group of about 120,000 live in Iranian Khorasan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A British force of about 40,000 fighting men were distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[142][143]
.There was also a small Jewish community in Afghanistan who immigrated to Israel and the United States by the end of the last century, and only one individual, Zablon Simintov, remains today.^ To combat terrorism the United States has initiated three military operations: Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Noble Eagle (ONE), and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OAF).
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Analyzes the United States' position in Afghanistan, the history of its involvement with Afghanistan and Pakistan back to the Cold War, and the U.S. policy toward the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explores the causes of Pakistan's involvement in the Afghanistan war and the United States' support to prevent Soviet adventurism.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144]

Economy

.Afghanistan is a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC).^ They organized the Shura-i-ala Humaagi inquilab-i-Islami Afghanistan (Supreme Coordination Council of the Islamic Revolution in Afghanistan).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Associated Press -- Four U.S. Military Personnel Killed In Afgahnistan: In the past 24 hours four U.S. service members died in Afghanistan, NATO officials said today .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Iran and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) hosted a poorly attended peace conference in Teheran in November.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It is an impoverished country, one of the world's poorest and least developed.^ The absence of law enforcement facilities makes these one of the least controlled narcotics trafficking areas in the world.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

In 2010, 40% of Afghans live below the poverty ine.[145] .Two-thirds of the population lives on fewer than 2 US dollars a day.^ They are, the men add, "the only two Westerners living permanently in Kandahar without blast walls and intrusive security restrictions to protect us."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ It took several thousand lives and reduced Kabul's population below 500,000 (it had reached more than 2 million late in the Soviet war).
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1985, unconfirmed reports placed Kabul's population at over two million, more than a 100 percent increase in less than a decade.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Its economy has suffered greatly from the 1979 Soviet invasion and subsequent conflicts, while severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998–2001.[146][147] According to the World Bank, "economic growth has been strong and has generated better livelihoods" since 2001.[148]
.The economically active population in 2002 was about 11 million (out of a total of an estimated 29 million).^ Estimated population in 1995 was one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ IDPs or Internally Displaced Persons are estimated at about one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In August, Karzai won the most votes -- but his total fell below 50% when more than a million were tossed out because of widespread evidence of fraud.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

As of 2005, the official unemployment rate is at 40%.[149] .The number of non-skilled young people is estimated at 3 million, which is likely to increase by some 300,000 per annum.^ The flow ebbed and surged in response to Soviet offenses, so that by the fall of 1989, the number of Afghan refugees was estimated at 3.2 million in Pakistan, 2.2.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sadly, the number of disabled increases daily because of an estimated 10 million landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) that contaminate the landscape, the largest concentration in the world.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The population in the 1990s is estimated at 125,000 by some; the Nuristani prefer a figure of 300,000.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[150]
Pomegranates from Afghanistan
.The nation's economy began to improve since 2002 due to the infusion of multi-billion US dollars in international assistance and investments, as well as remittances from expats.^ He has been in Kabul, Afghanistan, since NATO took responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force in August 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obama also said he wants to make certain that when he sends young Americans to war, and spends billions of taxpayers' dollars to do that, "It's making us safer": .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[151] .It is also due to dramatic improvements in agricultural production and the end of a four-year drought in most of the country.^ Among most settled rural families, women participate in agricultural work only during light harvesting periods, and are responsible for the production of milk products.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ CNN says the goal is to have "most U.S. service members" out of the country within the next three years.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.The real value of non-drug GDP increased by 29% in 2002, 16% in 2003, 8% in 2004 and 14% in 2005.[152] As much as one-third of Afghanistan's GDP comes from growing poppy and illicit drugs including opium and its two derivatives, morphine and heroin, as well as hashish production.^ Three agents of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration in Afghanistan to combat that nation's poppy production which provides much of the world's heroin were among the ten Americans killed when their helicopter crashed following a firefight.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Examines Afghanistan's narcotics problem; increases in opium poppy production and price after the fall of the Taliban; and the relationship between drug trafficking, the insurgency, government control of poppy cultivating areas".
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examines Afghanistan's narcotics problem; increases in opium poppy production and price after the fall of the Taliban; and the relationship between drug trafficking, the insurgency, and government control of poppy cultivating areas.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Opium production in Afghanistan has soared to a new record in 2007, with an increase on last year of more than a third, the United Nations has said.^ New York, United Nations, 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan's last 30 difficult years.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Many analysts say Pakistan is more critical than Afghanistan to long-term U.S. plans for Central Asia, as NPR's Jackie Northam reports : .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[153] .Some 3.3 million Afghans are now involved in producing opium.^ Some would say that these conflicts are evidence that Afghan society must now be fragmented between groups identified by religious, ethnic, or regional labels.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[154] In a recent article in the Washington Quarterly, Peter van Ham and Jorrit Kamminga argue that the international community should establish a pilot project and investigate a licensing scheme to start the production of medicines such as morphine and codeine from poppy crops to help it escape the economic dependence on opium.[155]
.According to a 2004 report by the Asian Development Bank, the present reconstruction effort is two-pronged: first it focuses on rebuilding critical physical infrastructure, and second, on building modern public sector institutions from the remnants of Soviet style planning to ones that promote market-led development.^ According to UNAMA report (2003) Community Development Councils (CDCs) have been set up in 34 provinces as a part of the National Solidarity Programme (NSP) aimed towards the promotion of good local governance.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Focuses on four areas - the continuing success of the Provincial Reconstruction Teams, the development and expansion of the Afghan National Army, the continuing expansion of the role of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), and the institution-building and coordination efforts of the OEF, ISAF, the Afghan Ministry of Defense, the National Directorate of Security, and police forces in Kabul.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aid work has also been endangered in the country because of a perceived link between aid agencies and the US-led intervention according to a report by the Feinstein International Centre.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[150] .In 2006, two U.S. companies, Black & Veatch and the Louis Berger Group, have won a US 1.4 billion dollar contract to rebuild roads, power lines and water supply systems of Afghanistan.^ Obama also said he wants to make certain that when he sends young Americans to war, and spends billions of taxpayers' dollars to do that, "It's making us safer": .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Rebuilding of the roads, however, is beyond the capacity of any agency now involved in Afghanistan's rehabilitation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ That appears to be changing as thousands more U.S. troops, civilian rebuilding experts and billions of tax dollars are heading this way.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[156]
Afghan rug weavers.
.One of the main drivers for the current economic recovery is the return of over 5 million Afghan refugees from neighbouring countries, who brought with them fresh energy, entrepreneurship and wealth-creating skills as well as much needed funds to start up businesses.^ The flow ebbed and surged in response to Soviet offenses, so that by the fall of 1989, the number of Afghan refugees was estimated at 3.2 million in Pakistan, 2.2.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Former nomads may also return to nomadism if, after being forced through poverty to give up herding, they manage to earn enough to start another herd.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, much of the equipment and material provided by foreign aid programs and needed for development projects was held up in Pakistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.What is also helping is the estimated US 2–3 billion dollars in international assistance every year, the partial recovery of the agricultural sector, and the reestablishment of market institutions.^ Obama also said he wants to make certain that when he sends young Americans to war, and spends billions of taxpayers' dollars to do that, "It's making us safer": .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ By coincidence, this is similar to the revenue accrued by the opium trade in 2009 (which UNODC estimates at US$ 2.8 billion).
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The summit did not commit to a specific figure of $44 billion a year for agricultural aid that the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization says will be necessary in the coming decades."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Private developments are also beginning to get underway. .In 2006, a Dubai-based Afghan family opened a $25 million Coca Cola bottling plant in Afghanistan.^ "The soldier opened fire on the two Italians and one American in a joint Afghan and foreign base," General Khair Mohammad Khawari, a senior officer in western Afghanistan, told Reuters.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[157]
.While the country's current account deficit is largely financed with the donor money, only a small portion – about 15% – is provided directly to the government budget.^ Mullahs who officiate at mosques are normally appointed by the government after consultation with their communities and, although partially financed by the government, mullahs are largely dependent for their livelihood on community contributions including shelter and a portion of the harvest.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Their aid had not only been cut off, the Marxist-Leninist ideology that had provided the government its rationale for existence been repudiated at its source.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite these efforts, education receives only about 10 percent of the funding provided for other sectors.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The rest is provided to non-budgetary expenditure and donor-designated projects through the United Nations system and non-governmental organizations.^ Also provides a listing of over 1,900 International Organizations, such as the United Nation's commissions, and a listing of international telephone codes.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ International Cooperation in Counter-Terrorism: The United Nations and Regional Organizations in the Fight Against Terrorism , edited by Giuseppe Nesi.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The government had a central budget of only $350 million in 2003 and an estimated $550 million in 2004. The country's foreign exchange reserves totals about $500 million.^ The government was heavily dependent upon customs revenues, which fell dramatically; trade suffered; and foreign exchange reserves were seriously depleted.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Roeder also says there are now an estimated 7.5 million phones in the country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ IDPs or Internally Displaced Persons are estimated at about one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Revenue is mostly generated through customs, as income and corporate tax bases are negligible.
.Inflation had been a major problem until 2002. However, the depreciation of the Afghani in 2002 after the introduction of the new notes (which replaced 1,000 old Afghani by one new Afghani) coupled with the relative stability compared to previous periods has helped prices to stabilize and even decrease between December 2002 and February 2003, reflecting the turnaround appreciation of the new Afghani currency.^ Even when results are known, if no one has 50% or more there will be a runoff between the top two vote-getters on Oct.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ BBC News -- Thai King In Hospital; Condition Stable: "The 81-year-old king of Thailand has been admitted to hospital suffering from a fever.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ However, currently there is only one health center to care for every population group of approximately 100,000.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Since then, the index has indicated stability, with a moderate increase toward late 2003.[150]
.The Afghan government and international donors seem to remain committed to improving access to basic necessities, infrastructure development, education, housing and economic reform.^ The post-coup Soviet government then attempted to develop political relations with the Afghan resistance.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although now in shambles, a skeleton education infrastructure based on the past partially remains.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Political autonomy from central government buffered by the mediating functions of local notables remained the norm of experience for most Afghans.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

The central government is also focusing on improved revenue collection and public sector expenditure discipline. The rebuilding of the financial sector seems to have been so far successful. Money can now be transferred in and out of the country via official banking channels. .Since 2003, over sixteen new banks have opened in the country, including Afghanistan International Bank, Kabul Bank, Azizi Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, First Micro Finance Bank, and others.^ As Gorbachev opened up the country's system, it became more clear that the Soviet Union wished to find a face-saving way to withdraw from Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviets had at first backed Amin, but they realized that he was too rigidly Marxist-Leninist to survive politically in a country as conservative and religious as Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. has sent federal workers from various agencies, including the U.S. AID and the Agriculture Department, to help development efforts in Afghanistan, a critical part of the effort to stabilize the troubled country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.A new law on private investment provides three to seven-year tax holidays to eligible companies and a four-year exemption from exports tariffs and duties.^ Children from age seven attended six years of primary school, three years of middle and three years of secondary school.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some private investment projects, backed with national support, are also beginning to pick up steam in Afghanistan.^ The story's also been picked up by the liberal Daily Kos and the liberal Brave New Foundation's Rethink Afghanistan .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ But if the mission is "building a stable democratic government in Afghanistan" -- or nation-building -- then support for having U.S. troops there evaporates: 39% said that is a worthy goal, vs. .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ School children pile into the back of pick-up truck after classes at their school house which sits in the middle of the future site of a local police training center in Lashkar Gah in Helmand province in southern Afghanistan.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

An initial concept design called the City of Light Development, envisioned by Dr. Hisham N. Ashkouri, Principal of ARCADD, Inc. for the development and the implementation of a privately based investment enterprise has been proposed for multi-function commercial, historic and cultural development within the limits of the .Old City of Kabul along the Southern side of the Kabul River and along Jade Meywand Avenue,[158] revitalizing some of the most commercial and historic districts in the City of Kabul, which contains numerous historic mosques and shrines as well as viable commercial activities among war damaged buildings.^ As the Afghan-Soviet war became more destructive, internal refugees flocked to Kabul and the largest of the provincial cities.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ These networks also provided for political mobilization, which led to some of the most effective of the resistance operations during the war.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the seat of the great Mughal Empire he founded was in India, Babur's memoirs stressed his love for Kabul--both as a commercial strategic center as well as a beautiful highland city with an "extremely delightful" climate.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Also incorporated in the design is a new complex for the Afghan National Museum.^ A new Afghan National Army was created through presidential decree.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His new book, Welcome to Afghanistan: Send More Ammo , details his time as an embedded trainer in the Afghan National Army: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.According to the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry, Afghanistan may be possessing up to 36 trillion cubic feet (1,000 km3) of natural gas, 3.6 billion barrels (570,000,000 m3) of petroleum and up to 1,325 million barrels (2.107E+8 m3) of natural gas liquids.^ Afghan President Hamid Karzai may have unwittingly shot himself in the foot in his effort to keep U.S. troops in Afghanistan and all because he mistakenly read U.S. intentions.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Since then, according to the United States Geological Survey, there have been ten earthquakes in Afghanistan which have registered above 6.0; the most severe, both registering at 6.4, occurred in January and July 1991.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Afghanistan not listed but list of public-sector and private companies engaged in the defence industry of the Asia-Pacific region may be useful.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This could mark the turning point in Afghanistan's reconstruction efforts.^ He could soon be a hero to those who think the U.S. should begin to wind down its efforts in Afghanistan, which means he could soon be all over the cable news airwaves.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Reviews the composition and efforts of the Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a bargain could mark a turning point for Obama's top domestic priority."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.Energy exports could generate the revenue that Afghan officials need to modernize the country's infrastructure and expand economic opportunities for the beleaguered and fractious population.^ We need to ask ourselves at every turn: "will this help the Afghan people take responsibility for their country?"--and where the answer is no, we probably shouldn't be doing it.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The experiment in democracy had brought few benefits to the most Afghans while economic opportunities and profits from corruption appeared to be monopolized by the elite.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ But several senior Afghan officials said the U.S. should deploy troops only to the porous border with Pakistan and not the country's interior.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[28] Other reports show that the country has huge amounts of gold, copper, coal, iron ore and other minerals.[25][29][159][160] .The government of Afghanistan is in the process of extracting and exporting its copper reserves, which will be earning $1.2 billion US dollars in royalties and taxes every year for the next 30 years.^ Afghanistan's last 30 difficult years.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Obama also said he wants to make certain that when he sends young Americans to war, and spends billions of taxpayers' dollars to do that, "It's making us safer": .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Ahmad Shah's successors governed so ineptly during a period of profound unrest that within fifty years of his death, Afghanistan was embroiled in a civil war.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

It will also provide permanent labor to 3,000 of its citizens.[161]

Transport

.Ariana Afghan Airlines is the national airlines carrier, with domestic flights between Kabul, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-e Sharif.^ UNHCR, ICRC and NGO-assisted camps were established in and around Jalalabad in the east, at Pul-i-Khumri, Mazar-i- Sharif and Kunduz in the north, and in Herat in the west.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The brotherhoods in Kabul and around Mazar-i-Sharif are mostly associated with the Naqshbandiya.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Their membership was recruited from university faculties and from secondary schools in several cities such as Mazar-i-Sharif and Herat.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

International flights include to Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul and a number of other destinations.[162] There are also limited domestic and international flight services available from Kam Air, Pamir Airways and Safi Airways.
The country has limited rail service with Turkmenistan. .There are two railway projects currently in progress, one is between Herat and the Iranian city Mashad while another is between Kandahar and Quetta in Pakistan.^ This remarkable engineering feat completed in 1960 reduced travel time between Kabul and the Pakistan border from two days to a few hours.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Even when results are known, if no one has 50% or more there will be a runoff between the top two vote-getters on Oct.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Competing ambitions between Iran, Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics are more likely to escalate toward annexation of contiguous regions of Afghanistan if there is no progress toward national unity.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Most people who travel from one city to another use bus services.^ On the one hand, for instance, a trip outside the center of the city could provide wonderful, first-hand research into the way people live.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Soraya says the bus was traveling from the western Afghan city of Herat to Kabul.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ ET: Soraya reports that Karzai must "deliver more on services to his people, and security for his people" if he's going to be seen by most Afghans as legitimate: .
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Automobiles have recently become more widely available, with Toyota, Nissan and Hyundai dealerships in Kabul. A large number of second-hand vehicles are also arriving from the UAE. Nearly all highways and roads are being rebuilt in the country.

Media and communications

.The media was tightly controlled under the Taliban and other periods in its history, and was relatively free in others.^ The Taliban exclude women from universities in areas under their control.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It was estimated that more children under the age of five died of disease in Afghanistan than in any other country during that period.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Under the Taliban, television was shut down in 1996, and print media were forbidden to publish commentary, photos or readers letters.[163] The only radio station broadcast religious programmes and propaganda, and aired no music.[163]
.After the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, press restrictions were gradually relaxed and private media diversified.^ Focuses on developments made in Afghanistan since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Freedom of expression and the press is promoted in the 2004 constitution and censorship is banned, though defaming individuals or producing material contrary to the principles of Islam is prohibited.^ The constitution also maintains: "No law shall be contrary to the beliefs and practices of Islam".
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When news organizations and press freedom groups protested the ban, the Pentagon (we now know) suggested a re-write.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

In 2008, Reporters Without Borders listed the media environment as 156 out of 173, with 1st being most free.[164] 400 publications are now registered and 60 radio stations, a major source of information, currently exist.[165] .Foreign radio stations, such as the BBC World Service, also broadcast into the country.^ "Contact Reference" lists the head of state, official contacts such as the Ministry of Defence, contacts for foreign embassies located in countries, etc.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shooting is the latest in a string of such incidents, at a time when Western countries are pouring resources into training Afghan soldiers and police to fight the Taliban insurgency.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Television

Telecommunication services in the country are provided by Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, Roshan, Areeba and Afghan Telecom. .In 2006, the Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a US$64.5 million agreement with ZTE Corporation for the establishment of a countrywide fibre optic cable network.^ At this time, Afghan government interest shifted to offers of aid from the Soviet Union and in July 1950 it signed a major agreement with the Soviet Union.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1921, the Afghans and the Soviets signed a Treaty of Friendship, Afghanistan's first international agreement since gaining full independence in 1919.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This will improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services throughout the country.^ Links to the American Services Radio and Television Service with audio briefings, the Pentagon Channel, and Defense Visual Information Center--that has multimedia.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[166] Around 500,000 (1.5% of the population) had internet access by the end of 2008.[167]
.Television and radio broadcastings are available in most parts of the country, with local and international channels or stations.^ Links to the American Services Radio and Television Service with audio briefings, the Pentagon Channel, and Defense Visual Information Center--that has multimedia.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Available online at: http://www.infoplease.com/countries.html Lists international disputes (conflicts) & history of countries.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The nation's post service is also operating. Package delivery services such as FedEx, DHL and others are also available.

Education

.As of 2006 more than four million male and female students were enrolled in schools throughout the country.^ This reflected the physical destruction caused by the war, the refugee exodus, and the scarcity of teachers, a high proportion of whom, male and female, settled in third countries.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The mountain peaks in the eastern part of the country reach more than 7,000 meters.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In August, Karzai won the most votes -- but his total fell below 50% when more than a million were tossed out because of widespread evidence of fraud.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.However, there are still significant obstacles to education in Afghanistan, stemming from lack of funding, unsafe school buildings and cultural norms.^ Teacher training, textbook development, supplementary readings, curricula, school supplies and construction are all emphasized by agencies assisting Afghanistan's education sector.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Strict purdah meant that many women spent most of their lives in seclusion, and cultural norms further limited their access to health services, education and training.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That willingness to deal with the fundamentalists, he adds, stems from the attitude among many in Kandahar that after soldiers from the U.S. and its allies leave the Taliban will still be there.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.A lack of women teachers is an issue that concerns some Afghan parents, especially in more conservative areas.^ An overview of the cultural traumas experienced by Afghan refugees, especially women, may be found in Disposable People?
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, due to their suppression in the last few decades, rural women lack awareness of governance issues.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier, we reported that the president plans to say that adding more troops -- most from the U.S. and some from its allies -- will allow for a quicker handover of control to Afghans.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

Some parents will not allow their daughters to be taught by men.[168]
.UNICEF estimates that more than 80 percent of females and around 50 percent of males lack access to education centers.^ In urban settings 25.9 percent (35.5 percent male; 14.8 percent female) of the population six years old and over were literate, but in rural areas literate accounted for only 8.8.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Probably no more than ten of these centers are true cities, and other towns could be considered.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Contrasting 1993 official figures giving an overall literacy rate of 29.8 percent (45.2 percent males; 13.5 percent females) assumes that expanded educational efforts during the intervening years were effective.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.According to the United Nations, 700 schools have been closed in the country because of poor security.^ Action by the United Nations (UN) Security Council was impossible because the Soviets were armed with veto power, but the UN General Assembly regularly passed resolutions opposing the Soviet occupation.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The extended family, the major economic and social unit in the society, replaces government because of the absence of an adequate nation-wide service infrastructure.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The U.S. embassy in Yemen has reopened after being closed for two days because of security concerns.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[169]
Literacy of the entire population is estimated at 34%. Female literacy is 10%.[169]
Another aspect of education that is rapidly changing in Afghanistan is the face of higher education. .Following the fall of the Taliban, Kabul University was reopened to both male and female students.^ Abdullah Abdullah, Afghanistan's first foreign minister following the fall of the Taliban in late 2001, is the strongest challenger to President Hamid Karzai in their nation's Aug.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The liberalization of government attitudes following the passage of the 1964 Constitution ushered in a period of intense activism among students at Kabul University.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kabul University student union was dissolved in 1951; newspapers criticizing the government were closed down; many opposition leaders were jailed.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In 2006, the American University of Afghanistan also opened its doors, with the aim of providing a world-class, English-language, co-educational learning environment in Afghanistan.^ ET. In his opening statement, Mullen made the case that many of the lessons learned in Iraq -- most notably, that it is critical to provide safety and security to civilians -- can be applied in Afghanistan.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ By 1973 the number of secondary school graduates far exceeded the openings to higher education available at the university, the teacher training colleges, or the various technical institutions.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Three agents of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration in Afghanistan to combat that nation's poppy production which provides much of the world's heroin were among the ten Americans killed when their helicopter crashed following a firefight.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

The university accepts students from Afghanistan and the neighboring countries. Construction work will soon start at the new site selected for University of Balkh in Mazari Sharif. .The new building for the university, including the building for the Engineering Department, would be constructed at 600 acres (2.4 km²) of land at the cost of 250 million US dollars.^ US Fed News Service, Including US State News, 3 p, December 20, 2006.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 18 million acres of new trees -- roughly the size of West Virginia -- would be planted by 2020, according to an EPA analysis of a climate bill passed by the House of Representatives in June."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ US Fed News Service, Including US State News , 2 p, May 6, 2006.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[170]
.Since the 1930s there have been two French lycées (secondary schools) (AEFE contracted school) in Kabul, the Lycée Esteqlal and Lycée Malalaï.^ Eight privately contracted security guards at the U.S. embassy in Kabul have been fired following the reports of lewd behavior and sexual misconduct there among their ranks.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.A new military school has been set up to properly train and educate Afghan soldiers.^ The soldiers were training Afghan forces, he said.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ By 1935 German experts and businessmen had set up factories and hydroelectric projects at the invitation of the Afghan government.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Teacher training, textbook development, supplementary readings, curricula, school supplies and construction are all emphasized by agencies assisting Afghanistan's education sector.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

Health

Mothers and infants receive health care
.Every half hour, an average of one Afghan woman dies from pregnancy-related complications, another dies of tuberculosis and 14 children die, largely from preventable causes.^ Most children die of a variety of infectious and parasitic diseases, including acute diarrhoea, respiratory infections, tuberculosis, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, malaria, measles and malnutrition, in addition to disorders allied to pregnancy and delivery.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost every Afghan has at one time during his youth studied at a mosque school; for many this is the only formal education they receive.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Eight years after the fall of the Taliban, the humanitarian and development needs in Afghanistan remain acute.^ Abdullah Abdullah, Afghanistan's first foreign minister following the fall of the Taliban in late 2001, is the strongest challenger to President Hamid Karzai in their nation's Aug.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ "Since the Taliban's fall in 2001, the European Union (EU) has been a major contributor to Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Offers thirteen essays by various authors that discuss why the Taliban rose to power, life under the Taliban, and opinions on the U.S. War decision to attack Afghanistan and the fall of the Taliban.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[171]
.According to a November, 2009 UNICEF report, Afghanistan is now the most dangerous place in the world for a child to be born.^ Through mid-1995 these local arrangements have generally remained in place in most of Afghanistan.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Since then, according to the United States Geological Survey, there have been ten earthquakes in Afghanistan which have registered above 6.0; the most severe, both registering at 6.4, occurred in January and July 1991.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ghorids controlled most of what is now Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Pakistan, while parts of central and western Iran were ruled by the Seljuk Turks.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[172] .Afghanistan has the highest infant mortality rate in the world – 257 deaths per 1,000 live births – and 70 percent of the population lacks access to clean water.^ Afghanistan in 1996 had the highest illiteracy rate in Asia, for both men and women.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "Afghanistan provides approximately 70-80 percent of the world's supply of opium.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Human Development Report, 1996 estimates that the population will rise to 26.7 million in the year 2000, using, however, a high growth rate of 6.1 percent.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[173][174]
The Afghan government has ambitious plans to cut the infant mortality rate to 400 from 1,600 for every 100,000 live births by 2020.[175]
.Before the start of the Afghan wars in 1978, Afghanistan had an improving health care system and a semi-modernized health care system in cities like Kabul.^ The Russians advanced steadily southward toward Afghanistan in the three decades after the First Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Within minutes of the release of the Senate Finance Committee chairman's long-awaited health-care reform bill Wednesday, the attacks started flying.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ As the rural population became increasingly aware of the concentration of modern facilities and industry in Kabul and a few other cities, signs of resentment assumed political importance.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Ibn Sina Hospital in Kabul and Ali Abad Hospital in Kabul were two of the leading health institutions in Central Asia at the time.^ This remarkable engineering feat completed in 1960 reduced travel time between Kabul and the Pakistan border from two days to a few hours.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, the Russians feared permanent British occupation in Central Asia as the British encroached northward, taking the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as Kabul dominates the high road from Central Asia into India, Qandahar commands the only approach to India that skirts the Hindu Kush.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[175] .Following the Soviet invasion and the civil war that followed, the health care system was limited only to urban areas and was eventually destroyed.^ Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 .
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The political involvement of Shia communities grew dramatically during the politicized era during and following the Soviet invasion.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Apparently during the post-Soviet civil war, this particular peak was controlled by Abdul Rashid Dostum -- one of the heaviest warlords.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

.The Taliban made some improvements, but health care was not available for women during their six year rule.^ Politico -- "White House Will Change E-mail rules": "The White House said Sunday night that it will change its e-mail sign-up procedures after some recipients of a health-care e-mail complained that they had not asked to receive updates."
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Only 12 percent of pregnant women have access to maternal and emergency obstetric care; only 38 percent of children under one year are fully immunized.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On p 59, the "purpose of the mission is the stabilization and reconstruction of Afghanistan, following years of Taliban rule and the destruction caused by the US-led attack on the country."
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175] .Following the establishment of the Islamic Republic in 2002, the health system began to improve dramatically in Afghanistan due to international aid and all institutions accepted women for the first time since 1996. Non-governmental charities such as Mahboba's promise assist orphans in association with governmental structures.^ He has been in Kabul, Afghanistan, since NATO took responsibility for the International Security Assistance Force in August 2003.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tragically, on the day the Peshawar parties reached a tentative agreement on how they would establish their Islamic republic, a new war for Kabul began.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Taliban gained control of Kabul in September 1996 and established what they regarded as an Islamic form of government, their hard-core policies that adversely affected the rights of minorities and women.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Afghanistan : Afghanistan Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[176] According to Reuters, "Afghanistan's healthcare system is widely believed to be one of the country's success stories since reconstruction began."[175]
.An estimated 80,000 Afghans have lost limbs, mainly as a result of landmines.^ The Afghan Turkmen population in the 1990s is estimated at around 200,000.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

[177] .After years of war in Afghanistan, there are an estimated one million handicapped people.^ Estimated population in 1995 was one million.
  • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Focuses on one year of the Afghanistan Civil War.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roeder also says there are now an estimated 7.5 million phones in the country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

[178] This is one of the highest percentages anywhere in the world.[179]
.According to the Human Development Index Afghanistan is the second least developed country in the world.^ And what he does in Afghanistan will define his first term, at least, and may decide whether he gets a second term.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ The U.S. has sent federal workers from various agencies, including the U.S. AID and the Agriculture Department, to help development efforts in Afghanistan, a critical part of the effort to stabilize the troubled country.
  • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

^ Offers defense analysis by regions/countries of the world including several reports related to Afghanistan at the link above.
  • Afghanistan May 2007 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[180]

Notes

a.^ Other terms that can be used as demonyms are Afghani[181] and Afghanistani.[182]

See also

References

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  151. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News, Afghanistan receives $3.3b remittances from expats, 2007-10-19.
  152. ^ Macroeconomics & Economic Growth in South Asia, The World Bank.
  153. ^ Afghan opium production at record high.
  154. ^ UN horrified by surge in opium trade in Helmand.
  155. ^ Poppies for Peace: Reforming Afghanistan’s Opium Industry.
  156. ^ "Midday Business Report: Black & Veatch unit gains piece of Afghan contract", The Kansas City Star.
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  160. ^ Mineral resources of Afghanistan
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  162. ^ "Ariana". Flyariana.com. http://flyariana.com/schedules.php#. Retrieved 2009-12-29. 
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  166. ^ Ministry signs contract with Chinese company, Pajhwok Afghan News.
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  177. ^ Afghanistan's refugee crisis 'ignored'. The Guardian. 2008-02-13.
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  179. ^ "Afghanistan: People living with disabilities call for integration". IRIN Asia.
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Bibliography

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  • Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977).^ Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, Authors .
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Chapter 2, The Society and Its Environment, completed in 1997 by Nancy Hatch Dupree and Thomas E. Gouttierre, describes the Afghan natural and social environment, and includes, among other subjects, discussion of ethnic groups, religion, education, health, and the country's refugee problem.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization.
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  • Ghobar, Mir Gholam Mohammad.^ A British force of about 40,000 fighting men were distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Click here to see all of NPR.org's coverage of news about Afghanistan.
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    ^ There's similar news at the USFOR Facebook page , along with reports about rebuilding projects and messages from friends and relatives of U.S. personnel serving in Afghanistan.
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    .Afghanistan in the Course of History, 1999, All Prints Inc.
  • Griffiths, John C. 1981. Afghanistan: A History of Conflict.^ As NPR's Kevin Whitelaw puts it , the president "assumed full political ownership of the conflict in Afghanistan" and all that comes with it.
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    André Deutsch, London. Updated edition, 2001. Andre Deutsch Ltd, 2002, ISBN 0-233-05053-1.
  • Hadden, Robert Lee. 2007. "Adits, Caves, Karizi-Qanats, and Tunnels in Afghanistan: An Annotated Bibliography." Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Topographic Engineering Center (now known as the Army Geospatial Center, US Army Corps of Engineers), in Alexandria, Virginia. Includes data and citations on the geology, mining and caves of Afghanistan.
  • Hopkins, B. D. 2008. The Making of Modern Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke & New York, 2008. ISBN 9780230554214
  • Levi, Peter. 1972. The Light Garden of the Angel King: Journeys in Afghanistan. Collins, 1972, ISBN 0-00-211042-3. Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1973, Indianapolis/New York, ISBN 0-672-51252-1.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. .II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971. Oxford University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-19-577199-0.
  • Rashid, Ahmed (2000) "Taliban – Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia", Yale University Press
  • Shahrani, M. Nazif.^ But he failed to destroy the strength of Islam in Central Asia.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to the Associated Press, the Pakistani government "blamed militants seeking to avenge an army offensive against al-Qaida and Taliban close to the Afghan border."
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    ^ With the takeover of government by the PDPA in April 1978, Islam became central to uniting the opposition against the communist ideology of the new rulers.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .(1979) The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan: Adaptation to Closed Frontiers and War.^ Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded promisingly until the Soviet invasion disrupted it in December of 1979.
    • Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / CountryStudies / Area Handbook Series / Afghanistan 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    University of Washington Press. 1st Paperback edition with new preface and epilogue (2002). ISBN 0295982624
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. 1961. Between Oxus and Jumna. Oxford University Press, London. ISBN B0006DBR44.
  • Wood, John. 1872. A Journey to the Source of the River Oxus. New Edition, edited by his son, with an essay on the "Geography of the Valley of the Oxus" by Henry Yule. John Murray, London. Gregg Division McGraw-Hill, 1971, ISBN 0-576-03322-7.
  • Heathcote, T.A. The Afghan Wars 1839–1999, 1980,2003, Spellmount Staplehurst.
  • Rall, Ted. .2002. "To Afghanistan and Back: A Graphic Travelogue" New York: NBM Publishing.
  • Vogelsang, Willem.^ The New York Times -- "Three Top Obama Advisers Favor Adding Troops In Afghanistan": "Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, Adm.
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Related story in The New York Times -- "Threats By Taliban May Sway Vote In Afghanistan ."
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    ^ The New York Times -- Obama Had "Two Messages For Two Sides": " President Obama went before the nation on Tuesday night to announce that he would escalate the war in Afghanistan.
    • The Two-Way - Breaking News, Analysis Blog : NPR 10 February 2010 10:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: News]

    2002. The Afghans. Blackwell Publishers. Oxford. ISBN 0631198415.

External links

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