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"African-American dance" in the vernacular tradition (academically known as "African American vernacular dance") are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies. African American vernacular dances are usually centered on social dance practice, though performance dance and concert dance often supply complementary aspects to social dancing.

Placing great value on improvisation, African American vernacular dances are characterized by ongoing change and development.

The term 'vernacular dance' is often critiqued by dancers within a tradition as being unnecessarily 'technical'. Despite these issues, the term is commonly used in dance studies literature internationally.

There are a number of notable African American modern dance companies using African American vernacular dance as an inspiration, amongst these are the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater and Dance Theatre of Harlem.

Contents

History

The Greater Chesapeake area embracing Virginia, Maryland, and much of North Carolina was the earliest and perhaps most influential location of the black-while cultural interchange that produced "African American" dance.[1] Captive Africans from numerous societies in several African regions began pouring into the area as slaves from the late seventeenth to the late eighteenth centuries. Given their cultural heterogeneity, including music and dance, they mostly likely learned to dance together by drawing on the "grammar of culture" shared across much of Western and Central Africa.[2] Something like a regional Chesapeake tradition, a thing entirely novel in European eyes, arose perhaps not long before the eighteenth century had become the nineteenth.[3] Within one or two generations of establishing these creolized African forms, or perhaps simultaneously, elements of European dances were added.[4 ] "Competitive individuality and [probably] improvisation" were also Choreographic Elements of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century West African Dance" that were continued in this region.[5]

Based on the limited pictorial record, the typical African practice of bending emphatically at the waist and hips gave way to a more upright, European like style. This may have reflected the African practice of carrying heavy loads on the head, which requires a strong, balancing spine.[4 ] Black dancing continued strong preferences of other African characteristics such as angularity and asymmetry of body positions, multiple body rhythms or polyrhythms, and a low center of gravity.[6]

Jig, Clog, and Break Down Dancing have been attributed to African Americans.[7] It should be noted, though, that Irish Jig and clogging were both in existence when, in the 1840s in the Five Points area of New York, occupied in part by many Irish, William Henry Lane, aka Masta Juba, combined the shuffle with the Irish jig, a style called a break-down, attracting attention from Charles Dickens who visited Charles Almakck, later called Pete Williams' place, a black American dance hall.

The phrase African American vernacular dance is commonly used to refer to those dances which have developed within the African American communities of the United States from the 1600s.African slaves brought to America from the 1600s were representative of a wide range of ethnic groups, and their dance and cultural lives were similarly diverse. To speak of an 'African American vernacular dance' without qualification is to ignore the vast range of dance practices and traditions which developed from these African roots in communities across the United States. Afro-American dance in the earliest days was a response to the conditions of slavery.

New and different cultural traditions developed not only in different cities across America, but on the properties of different slave owners. There were distinct regional variations in dance in African American communities even in the 1600s, developing as a combination of traditions from different African ethnic groups, the culture of slave owners and other groups within the immediate society, as responses to the musical and social lives of individuals in that community, and in response to different experiences under slavery.

New York and the Harlem Renaissance

Just as the Harlem Renaissance saw the development of art, poetry, literature and theatre in Harlem during the early 20th century, it also saw the development of a rich musical and dance life. Clubs (Cotton Club), Ballrooms (Savoy Ballroom), rent party and other black spaces as the birthplaces of new vernacular dances.

Theatres and the shift from vaudeville to local 'shows' written and choreographed by African American artists. Theatres as public forums for popularising African American vernacular dances.

Genres by period

19th century

Dance genres:

1930s and 1940s

Dance genres:

1960s

Music Genres:

Dance moves and genres:

1970s

Music Genres:

1980s

Dance genres and moves:

1990s and 2000s

Dance moves and genres:

Krumping, Hyphy, Snap dance, Cha Cha Slide, Lean wit It, Rock wit It, Walk It Out, Breakdance Footwork, Chicken Noodle Soup, Crip Walk, Gangsta Walking, Tootsee Roll, The Roosevelt, Poole Palace, Butterfly Dance, Joc-in, Crank Dat Soulja Boy, A-Town Stomp, Harlem Shake, Aunt Jackie, Heel Toe, D-Town Boogie, Jerkin', Stanky Legg, Booty Dew, Bird Walk.[8]

Performance, competition and social dance

In a vernacular dance culture there is often no distinction between 'dance' spaces and 'non-dances spaces'. Dance and rhythmic movement are as much a part of everyday life as language. In many cases dance has played a more central role than literacy (especially during slavery), particularly in the communication of history, tradition and culture between generations, much as has oral culture. Competition has long played an important role in social dance in African and African American social dance, from the 'battles' of hip hop and lindy hop to the cake walk. Performances have also been integrated into everyday dance life, from the relationship between performance and social dancing in tap dancing to the 'shows' held at Harlem ball rooms in the 1930s.

Social dance spaces

Competitive dance

Learning to dance in an African American vernacular dance tradition

In most African American vernacular dance cultures, learning to dance does not happen in formal classrooms or dance studios. Children often learn to dance as they grow up, developing not only a body awareness but also aesthetics of dance which are particular to their community. Learning to dance - learning about rhythmic movement - happens in much the same way as developing a local language 'accent' or a particular set of social values. Children learn specific dance steps or 'how to dance' from their families - most often from older brothers and sisters, cousins or other older children. Because vernacular dance happens in everyday spaces, children often dance with older members of the community around their homes and neighbourhoods, at parties and dances, on special occasions, or whenever groups of people gather to 'have a good time'. Vernacular dance traditions are therefore often cross-generational traditions, with younger dancers often 'reviving' dances from previous generations, albeit with new 'cool' variations and 'styling'. This is not to suggest that there are no social limitations on who may dance with whom and when. Dance partners (or people to dance with) are chosen by a range of social factors, including age, sex, kinship, interest and so on. The most common dance groups are often comprised by people of a similar age, background and often sex (though this is a varying factor).

African American vernacular dance in the mainstream

Film, Theatre and Video Clips

  • Music videos: Madonna and Missy Higgins: black dancers in people of non African descent clips, black dances in people of non African descent bodies, black music and dance in black bodies

Black dances in white communities

  • Contemporary swing dance communities
  • Contemporary tap dance
  • Hip hop classes and white b-boys

African American vernacular dance and a continuum of creative cultural expression

Lee Ellen Friedland and other authors argue that to talk about dancing in a vernacular tradition without talking about music or art or drama is like talking about fish without talking about water. Music and dance are intimately related in African American vernacular dance, not only as accompaniments, but as intertwined creative processes.

Jacqui Malone describes the relationships between tap dancers who travelled with bands in the early 20th century, describing the way tap dancers worked with the musicians to create new rhythms. Much has been written about the relationship between improvisation in jazz and improvisation in jazz dance - the two are linked by their emphasis on improvisation and creative additions to compositions while they are in process - choreography and composition on the spot, in a social context - rather than a strict division between 'creation' and 'performance', as in the European middle class ballet and operatic tradition.

It is equally important to talk about the relationship between DJs MCs, b-boys and b-girls and graffiti artists in hip hop culture, and John F. Szwed and Morton Marks have discussed the development of jazz and jazz dance in America from European set dances and dance suites in relation to the development of musical artisanship.

African American modern dance

African American modern dance drew on modern dance and African American vernacular dance along with African dance and Caribbean dance influences. Katherine Dunham founded Ballet Negre in 1936 and later the Katherine Dunham Dance Company based in Chicago, Illinois. She also opened a school in New York (1945). Pearl Primus drew on African and Caribbean dances to create strong dramatic works characterized by large leaps in the air. Primus often based her dances on the work of black writers and on racial and African-American issues, such as Langston Hughes The Negro Speaks of Rivers (1944), and Lewis Allan's Strange Fruit (1945). Alvin Ailey, a student of Lester Horton and Martha Graham, with a troupe of young African American dancers performed as the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in New York in 1930. Ailey drew on his blood memories of Texas, the blues, spirituals and gospel.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2009. page 19. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  2. ^ Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2009. page 21. ISBN 025207565X, 987-0-25207565-0
  3. ^ Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 21. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  4. ^ a b Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 22. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  5. ^ All the Mazes of the Dance. Jurretta Jordan Heckscher. PhD dissertation. 2000.
  6. ^ Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 23. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  7. ^ Jig, Clog, and Break Down Dancing. Ed James. 1873.
  8. ^ See also Dancejam.com this list

Further reading

  • deFrantz, Thomas. Dancing Many Drums: Excavations in African-American Dance. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.
  • Emery, Lynne Fauley. Black Dance in the United States from 1619 to 1970. California: National Press Books, 1972.
  • Friedland, LeeEllen. "Social Commentary in African-American Movement Performance." Human Action Signs in Cultural Context: The Visible and the Invisible in Movement and Dance. Ed. Brenda Farnell. London: Scarecrow Press, 1995. 136 - 57.
  • Gottschild, Brenda Dixon. Digging the Africanist Presence in American Performance. Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 1996.
  • Hazzard-Gordon, Katrina. "African-American Vernacular Dance: Core Culture and Meaning Operatives." Journal of Black Studies 15.4 (1985): 427-45.
  • Hazzard-Gordon, Katrina. Jookin': The Rise of Social Dance Formations in African-American Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.
  • Jackson, Jonathan David. "Improvisation in African-American Vernacular Dancing." Dance Research Journal 33.2 (2001/2002): 40 - 53.
  • Malone, Jacqui. Steppin' on the Blues: The Visible Rhythms of African American Dance. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996.
  • Stearns, Marshall, and Jean Stearns. Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance. 3rd ed. New York: Da Capo Press, 1994.
  • Szwed, John F., and Morton Marks. "The Afro-American Transformation of European Set Dances and Dance Suites." Dance Research Journal 20.1 (1988): 29 - 36.
  • Welsh-Asante Kariamu. "African-American dance in curricula: modes of inclusion." (Pathways to Aesthetic Literacy: Revealing Culture in the Dance Curriculum) American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) (July 28, 2005)
  • Welsh-Asante Kariamu. The African Aesthetic: Keeper of the Traditions (Contributions in Afro-American & African Studies) Greenwood Press, 1993.
  • Welsh-Asante Kariamu. African Culture the Rhythms of Unity: The Rhythms of Unity Africa World Press, 1989.

African American topics
 
African American history
Atlantic slave tradeTemplate:· Maafa
Slavery in the United States
African American military history
Jim Crow lawsTemplate:· Redlining
Civil Rights Movements 1896–1954 and
1955–1968
AfrocentrismTemplate:· Reparations
African American culture
African American studies
NeighborhoodsTemplate:· Juneteenth
KwanzaaTemplate:· ArtTemplate:· Museums
DanceTemplate:· LiteratureTemplate:· MusicTemplate:· SchoolsTemplate:· Historic colleges and universities
Religion
Black churchTemplate:· Black theology
Black liberation theology
Doctrine of Father Divine
Black Hebrew Israelites
American Society of Muslims
Nation of IslamTemplate:· Rastafari
Political movements
Pan-AfricanismTemplate:· Black Power
NationalismTemplate:· Capitalism
ConservatismTemplate:· Populism
LeftismTemplate:· Black Panther Party
Garveyism
Civic and economic groups
NAACPTemplate:· SCLCTemplate:· CORETemplate:· SNCCTemplate:· NUL
Rights groupsTemplate:· ASALHTemplate:· UNCF
NBCCTemplate:· NPHCTemplate:· The LinksTemplate:· NCNW
Sports
Negro league baseball
CIAATemplate:· SIACTemplate:· MEACTemplate:· SWAC
Ethnic sub-divisions
Black IndiansTemplate:· GullahTemplate:· Igbo
Languages
EnglishTemplate:· GullahTemplate:· Creole
African American Vernacular
Diaspora
LiberiaTemplate:· Nova ScotiaTemplate:· France
Sierra LeoneTemplate:· United Kingdom
Lists
African Americans
African-American firsts
First mayorsTemplate:· US state firsts
Landmark legislation
Related topics
Black and African people
CategoryTemplate:· Portal

African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as "African American vernacular dance") are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces, rather than in dance studios, schools or companies Template:Fact. African American vernacular dances are usually centered on social dance practice, though performance dance and concert dance often supply complementary aspects to social dancing.

Placing great value on improvisation, African American vernacular dances are characterized by ongoing change and development.

The term 'vernacular dance' is often critiqued by dancers within a tradition as being unnecessarily 'technical'. Despite these issues, the term is commonly used in dance studies literature internationally.

There are a number of notable African American modern dance companies using African American vernacular dance as an inspiration, amongst these are the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater and Dance Theatre of Harlem.

Contents

History

The Greater Chesapeake area embracing Virginia, Maryland, and much of North Carolina was the earliest and perhaps most influential location of the black-while cultural interchange that produced "African American" dance.[1] Captive Africans from numerous societies in several African regions began pouring into the area as slaves from the late seventeenth to the late eighteenth centuries. Given their cultural heterogeneity, including music and dance, they mostly likely learned to dance together by drawing on the "grammar of culture" shared across much of Western and Central Africa.[2] Something like a regional Chesapeake tradition, a thing entirely novel in European eyes, arose perhaps not long before the eighteenth century had become the nineteenth.[3] Within one or two generations of establishing these creolized African forms, or perhaps simultaneously, elements of European dances were added.[4] "Competitive individuality and [probably] improvisation" were also Choreographic Elements of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century West African Dance" that were continued in this region.[5]

Based on the limited pictorial record, the typical African practice of bending emphatically at the waist and hips gave way to a more upright, European like style. This may have reflected the African practice of carrying heavy loads on the head, which requires a strong, balancing spine.[6] Black dancing continued strong preferences of other African characteristics such as angularity and asymmetry of body positions, multiple body rhythms or polyrhythms, a low center of gravity, etc.[7]

The phrase African American vernacular dance is commonly used to refer to those dances which have developed within the African American communities of the United States from the 1600s.African slaves brought to America from the 1600s were representative of a wide range of ethnic groups, and their dance and cultural lives were similarly diverse. To speak of an 'African American vernacular dance' without qualification is to ignore the vast range of dance practices and traditions which developed from these African roots in communities across the United States. Afro-American dance in the earliest days was a response to the conditions of slavery. Cultural life for African slaves in America was controlled by slave owners, and varied between individual slave owners, local communities and the work in which slaves were employed. In general terms, though, we can say that much of the rich cultural and social life of African slaves in America was forbidden by slave owners (for a range of reasons, including social, religious, misunderstanding or simple cruelty), compromised by strict rules, replaced by the culture of the slave owners, or combined with this culture of the slavers to produce new Cross-genre forms. New and different cultural traditions developed not only in different cities across America, but on the properties of different slave owners. There were distinct regional variations in dance in African American communities even in the 1600s, developing as a combination of traditions from different African ethnic groups, the culture of slave owners and other groups within the immediate society, as responses to the musical and social lives of individuals in that community, and in response to different experiences under slavery.

The Americans Civil War and northern and southern African American dance The American civil war saw social change in both the Northern and Southern states of America, with a reduction in slaves in the North, and, conversely, increases in slavery in the South in response to developments in cotton farming. There were, consequently, different types of dances developing in different parts of the country in response to these social forces. Just as music of the day reflected the everyday experiences of musicians, the dances of the day reflected the everyday lives of the dancers.

New York and the Harlem Renaissance Just as the Harlem Renaissance saw the development of art, poetry, literature and theatre in Harlem during the early 20th century, it also saw the development of a rich musical and dance life. Clubs (Cotton Club), Ballrooms(Savoy Ballroom),rent party and other black spaces as the birthplaces of new vernacular dances. Theatres and the shift from vaudeville to local 'shows' written and choreographed by African American artists. Theatres as public forums for popularising African American vernacular dances.

1800s Tap dancing Cakewalk

The Swing era Late 20s, 1930s and 1940s lindy hop,Charleston dance,Texas Tommy dance

The 1960s Northern Soul,Motown

The 1970s funk,disco

The 1980s Hip hop music,break dancing,popping,locking,voguing,cabbage patch

The 1990s and 2000s Krumping,Hyphy,Snap dance,Cha Cha Slide,Lean wit It, Rock wit It,Walk It Out,Footwork, Chicken Noodle Soup,Crip Walk,Gangsta Walking,Tootsee Roll,The Roosevelt,Poole Palace,Butterfly Dance,Jocin,Crank Dat Soulja Boy,A-Town Stomp, Harlem Shake,Aunt Jackie,Heel Toe,D-Town Boogie, Stanky Legg,are amongst the dances the generation does.

Performance, competition and social dance

The idea of dividing performative, competitive and social dance in African American vernacular dance is largely an imposition of Anglo-European class and cultural values. In a vernacular dance culture there is often no distinction between 'dance' spaces and 'non-dances spaces'. Dance and rhythmic movement are as much a part of everyday life as language. In many cases dance has played a more central role than literacy (especially during slavery), particularly in the communication of history, tradition and culture between generations, much as has oral culture. Competition has long played an important role in social dance in African and African American social dance, from the 'battles' of hip hop and lindy hop to the cake walk. Performances have also been integrated into everyday dance life, from the relationship between performance and social dancing in tap dancing to the 'shows' held at Harlem ball rooms in the 1930s.

Social dance spaces

  • Juke joint, street parties, rent party and the importance of the front porch
  • ballrooms, cabaret clubs and church halls

Competitive dance

- Cake walks, the Harvest Moon Ball, Breakdance and battles

Learning to dance in an African American vernacular dance tradition

In most African American vernacular dance cultures, learning to dance does not happen in formal classrooms or dance studios. Children often learn to dance as they grow up, developing not only a body awareness but also aesthetics of dance which are particular to their community. Learning to dance - learning about rhythmic movement - happens in much the same way as developing a local language 'accent' or a particular set of social values. Children learn specific dance steps or 'how to dance' from their families - most often from older brothers and sisters, cousins or other older children. Because vernacular dance happens in everyday spaces, children often dance with older members of the community around their homes and neighbourhoods, at parties and dances, on special occasions, or whenever groups of people gather to 'have a good time'. Vernacular dance traditions are therefore often cross-generational traditions, with younger dancers often 'reviving' dances from previous generations, albeit with new 'cool' variations and 'styling'. This is not to suggest that there are no social limitations on who may dance with whom and when. Dance partners (or people to dance with) are chosen by a range of social factors, including age, sex, kinship, interest and so on. The most common dance groups are often comprised by people of a similar age, background and often sex (though this is a varying factor).

African American vernacular dance in the mainstream

Film, Theatre and Video Clips

- Hollywood musicals and stage (theatre)s: the Nicholas Brothers and Gene Kelly; Frankie Manning and Dean Collins

- Music videos: Madonna and Missy Higgins: black dancers in white clips, black dances on white bodies, black music and dance in black bodies

Black dances in white communities

- contemporary swing dance communities - contemporary tap dance - hip hop classes and white b-boys

African American vernacular dance and a continuum of creative cultural expression

Lee Ellen Friedland and other authors argue that to talk about dancing in a vernacular tradition without talking about music or art or drama is like talking about fish without talking about water. Music and dance are intimately related in African American vernacular dance, not only as accompaniments, but as intertwined creative processes.

Jacqui Malone describes the relationships between tap dancers who travelled with bands in the early 20th century, describing the way tap dancers worked with the musicians to create new rhythms. Much has been written about the relationship between improvisation in jazz and improvisation in jazz dance - the two are linked by their emphasis on improvisation and creative additions to compositions while they are in process - choreography and composition on the spot, in a social context - rather than a strict division between 'creation' and 'performance', as in the European middle class ballet and operatic tradition.

It is equally important to talk about the relationship between DJs MCs, b-boys and b-girls and graffiti artists in hip hop culture, and John F. Szwed and Morton Marks have discussed the development of jazz and jazz dance in America from European set dances and dance suites in relation to the development of musical artisanship.

African American modern dance

African American modern dance drew on modern dance and African American vernacular dance along with African dance and Caribbean dance influences. Katherine Dunham founded Ballet Negre in 1936 and later the Katherine Dunham Dance Company based in Chicago, Illinois. She also opened a school in New York (1945). Pearl Primus drew on African and Caribbean dances to create strong dramatic works characterized by large leaps in the air. Primus often based her dances on the work of black writers and on racial and African-American issues, such as Langston Hughes The Negro Speaks of Rivers (1944), and Lewis Allan's Strange Fruit (1945). Alvin Ailey, a student of Lester Horton and Martha Graham, with a troupe of young African American dancers performed as the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in New York in 1930. Ailey drew on his blood memories of Texas, the blues, spirituals and gospel.

References

  1. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2009. page 19. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  2. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2009. page 21. ISBN 025207565X, 987-0-25207565-0
  3. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 21. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  4. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 22. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  5. All the Mazes of the Dance. Jurretta Jordan Heckscher. PhD dissertation. 1988.
  6. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 22. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650
  7. Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader.Julie Malnig. Edition: illustrated. University of Illinois Press. 2008. page 23. ISBN 025207565X, 9780252075650

See also

Further reading

  • deFrantz, Thomas. Dancing Many Drums: Excavations in African-American Dance. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.
  • Emery, Lynne Fauley. Black Dance in the United States from 1619 to 1970. California: National Press Books, 1972.
  • Friedland, LeeEllen. "Social Commentary in African-American Movement Performance." Human Action Signs in Cultural Context: The Visible and the Invisible in Movement and Dance. Ed. Brenda Farnell. London: Scarecrow Press, 1995. 136 - 57.
  • Gottschild, Brenda Dixon. Digging the Africanist Presence in American Performance. Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 1996.
  • Hazzard-Gordon, Katrina. "African-American Vernacular Dance: Core Culture and Meaning Operatives." Journal of Black Studies 15.4 (1985): 427-45.
  • Hazzard-Gordon, Katrina. Jookin': The Rise of Social Dance Formations in African-American Culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.
  • Jackson, Jonathan David. "Improvisation in African-American Vernacular Dancing." Dance Research Journal 33.2 (2001/2002): 40 - 53.
  • Malone, Jacqui. Steppin' on the Blues: The Visible Rhythms of African American Dance. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996.
  • Stearns, Marshall, and Jean Stearns. Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance. 3rd ed. New York: Da Capo Press, 1994.
  • Szwed, John F., and Morton Marks. "The Afro-American Transformation of European Set Dances and Dance Suites." Dance Research Journal 20.1 (1988): 29 - 36.
  • Welsh-Asante Kariamu. "African-American dance in curricula: modes of inclusion." (Pathways to Aesthetic Literacy: Revealing Culture in the Dance Curriculum) American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) (July 28, 2005)
  • Welsh-Asante Kariamu. The African Aesthetic: Keeper of the Traditions (Contributions in Afro-American & African Studies) Greenwood Press, 1993
  • Welsh-Asante Kariamu. African Culture the Rhythms of Unity: The Rhythms of Unity Africa World Press. 1989







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