The Full Wiki

African Americans in the United Kingdom: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Americans in the United Kingdom article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Americans in the United Kingdom
Sylvia plath.jpgTerryGilliamCCJuly09.jpgKubrickForLook.jpgHenryJamesPhotograph.pngChurchill portrait NYP 45063.jpgWallis Simpson -1936.JPGMacmillan cph.3b40592.jpg
Notable people in the United Kingdom with American links or ancestry
Sylvia Plath, Terry Gilliam, Stanley Kubrick, Henry James, Winston Churchill, Wallis, Duchess of Windsor, Harold Macmillan
Total population
US-born residents
158,434 (2001 Census)
182,000 (2008 ONS estimate)
Regions with significant populations
London, East Anglia, South East England, North West England
Languages

American English and British English

Religion

Christian, Jewish

Americans in the United Kingdom includes people from the United States who are or have become residents or citizens of the UK as well as students and temporary workers.

Contents

Population

The 2001 UK Census recorded 158,434 people born in the United States.[1] Estimates published by the Office for National Statistics suggest that, in 2008, this figure stood at 182,000.[2]

The largest single local cluster of Americans in Britain recorded by the 2001 Census was in Mildenhall in north-west Suffolk – the site of two of the largest US Air Force bases in the world, RAF Mildenhall and nearby RAF Lakenheath. This is because of the legacy of the Cold War and NATO co-operation. Beyond that, London is home to many Americans, mostly young adult workers in the City of London.[3]

Prior to the end of the Cold War the highest proportion of Americans resident in the United Kingdom per head of population was centred on the Scottish seaside town of Dunoon, Argyll and Bute, the former site of the Holy Loch US Navy base. At its height in the early 1990s around a quarter of Dunoon's population was American.[4]

Some of the Americans showing in the figures will be older, ex-servicemen who returned after being based in the UK during World War II. Examples of areas with large percentages of American people are: Mildenhall (17.28%), Chelsea - London (6.53%) and Kensington - London (5.81%). In London, the majority of Americans are businesspeople and their families which ties in with the strong economic relations between London and Washington D.C.[3]

Subgroups

Pocahontas with her son Thomas Rolfe - likely to be the first British born person of American descent, regardless of ethnicity
Advertisements

African Americans

African American immigration to the UK began as early as the late 18th century[5] after American slaves failed in their attempt to defend the British Crown in the American Revolution. The Revolution began in the thirteen American colonies and United States in the late 1770s. The British promised freedom to any slave or rebel who fought the Americans on their behalf.[6] African Americans made up over 20 per cent of the American population at the time, which was the second largest ethnic group in British North America only after the English[7] and as many as 30,000 slaves escaped to British lines.[8] The largest regiment was the Black Pioneers who followed troops under Sir General Henry Clinton[9]. Working as soldiers, labourers, pilots, cooks, and musicians, they were a major part of the unsuccessful British war effort. African Americans who fought against the British were known as Black Patriots (modern day African Americans in the U.S.), but rather if they were fighting for the Crown or American Independence both were mostly doing it in return for promises of freedom from enslavement or indentured servitude[10].

The British-American Commission identified the Black people who had joined the British before the surrender, and issued "certificates of freedom" signed by General Birch or General Musgrave. Those who chose to emigrate were evacuated by ship[5]. The fallout of the Revolution resulted in an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 Black Americans scattering across the Atlantic world, profoundly affecting the development of Nova Scotia, the Bahamas, Jamaica, and the African nation of Sierra Leone as prominent leaders in the emerging freed black communities[10][11][12]. To make sure no one attempted to leave who did not have a certificate of freedom, the name of any Black person on board a vessel, whether slave, indentured servant, or free, was recorded, along with the details of enslavement, escape, and military service, in a document called the Book of Negroes[5]. Between 400 and 1,000 African Americans emigrated to London and were later given the title of Black Loyalist for their service in the British Armed forces and formed the core of the early Black British community.[10][12]

Hispanic and Latino Americans

English musician Dhani Harrison is the son of George Harrison of The Beatles and Mexican American Olivia Trinidad Arias (who also now lives in the UK).[13]

Puerto Ricans
In 2001, 306 Puerto Rican born people alone were residing in the United Kingdom (the 19th most common birthplace amongst Latin American states).[1] Notable British individuals of Puerto Rican origin or descent include former Miss World, Wilnelia Merced,[14] and emerging singer-songwriter VV Brown.[15]

Native American and Alaskan Natives

Pocahontas, who is one of the most important historical figures in Native American history spent much of her life in London, after she married English explorer John Rolfe.[16] At age 21 Pocahontas died of smallpox, she is buried in the chapel of the parish church in Gravesend. There are now many British born people descended of this 16th Century Native American immigrant (the first of whom was her son Thomas Rolfe).[17] More recently, notable British people of Native American descent include actress Hayley Atwell, who has dual UK-US citizenship due to her part-Native American father.[18]

White/European Americans

Zoë Wanamaker is a US-born English actress of Jewish-Ukrainian ancestry,[19] Louis Theroux is of French-Canadian origin,[20] whilst Mika is half Lebanese half 'American'.[21] English Americans in the UK are Americans of English origin that have migrated back to the United Kingdom; many migrate for family reasons and many Americans can actually claim British citizenship through descent.[22]

Notable American Britons

The first American Britons were Tories in the War of Independence, such as Benedict Arnold.

Americans with links to the UK

Name Details
John Barrowman actor, born in Glasgow, raised in Illinois, now works in the UK
Bill Bryson writer, born in the US, lives in the UK
Barbara Cassani former chief-executive of the airline Go, and first leader of London's bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics
Sandra Dickinson actress, born in Washington DC
T. S. Eliot Poet, became British citizen
Rich Fulcher Comedian, co-star of The Mighty Boosh and Snuff Box
Sir John Paul Getty businessman, born in California and later moved to the UK
Terry Gilliam Film director, animator and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. UK based since the late 1960s, now a British citizen.
Bonnie Greer playwright and critic, born and raised in Chicago, lives in UK
Alvin Hall financial expert
Rich Hall comedian, writer
Jimi Hendrix musician, spent much of career in London
Tim Howard A professional soccer player playing in England for Everton Football Club
Reginald D. Hunter comedian
Chrissie Hynde musician, founder of The Pretenders
Henry James American novelist, became a British citizen
Stanley Kubrick Film director and producer; lived in the UK from 1962 till his death in 1999.
Richard Lester Film director born in Pennsylvania; based in UK since early 1950s. Directed first two Beatles films, The Three Musketeers, and 2nd and 3rd Superman films.
Madonna singer, songwriter, actress, has a house in the UK
Linda McCartney American photographer, married Paul McCartney and lived in the UK
Patrick McGoohan actor, born in New York City but raised in Ireland and the UK
Sienna Miller model and actress; born in the US but raised in the UK
Patrick Ness An author born and raised in Virginia, US, now is a British citizen and lives in London
Gwyneth Paltrow American actress, divides her time between UK and US
Sylvia Plath Poet, novelist, and short story writer; born in the US, then lived in the UK
Suzi Quatro singer, guitarist, radio personality
James Rubin news presenter & commentator, former aide to Bill Clinton
Wallis Simpson
(later Duchess of Windsor)
American wife of HRH The Duke of Windsor (formerly Edward VIII)
Sinitta US born actress and singer living and working in the UK
David Soul Actor, became British citizen
Kevin Spacey Actor, theatre director living and working in the UK
Gwen Stefani Singer, songwriter; married to a Briton and divide time between the UK and the US
Zoë Wanamaker Born in the US, raised in the UK, now a British citizen
Ruby Wax American comedienne, writer, and television personality, lives and works in the UK

Britons with American ancestry

Name Occupation Link
Damon Buffini entrepreneur, businessman (American father)
Agatha Christie novelist (American father, Frederick Alvah Miller)
Winston Churchill politician, statesman (American mother, Jennie Churchill)
Mark Getty entrepreneur, businessman (American father, Sir John Paul Getty)
Elizabeth Jagger model (American mother, Jerry Hall)
Oona King former MP (American father)
Harold Macmillan politician, statesman (American mother, Helen (Nellie) Artie Tarleton Belles)
Stella McCartney fashion designer (American mother, Linda McCartney)
Mika singer, songwriter (American father, although born in Lebanon, he was raised in London)
Sienna Miller actress, model (American father, although born in United States, she was raised in London)
Brian Molko musician (American father, although born in Belgium, he was raised in Scotland)
Will Self novelist, columnist (American mother)
Elizabeth Taylor actress (American parents)
Louis Theroux television presenter, writer (American father, although born in Singapore, he was raised in London)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/23/34792376.xls. Retrieved 2008-10-05.  
  2. ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, 60 most common countries of birth, January 2008 to December 2008". Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/Population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality-Jan08-Dec08.zip. Retrieved 2009-10-05.   Figure given is the central estimate. See the source for 95 per cent confidence intervals.
  3. ^ a b "Born abroad: USA". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/usa.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-05.  
  4. ^ Undiscovered Scotland "Undiscovered Scotland - Dunoon". Undiscovered Scotland. http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/dunoon/dunoon/index.html Undiscovered Scotland. Retrieved 2008-01-14.  
  5. ^ a b c "Who were the Black Loyalists?". Nova Scotia Museum. http://museum.gov.ns.ca/Blackloyalists/who.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  6. ^ "Home Page". American Revolution. http://www.americanrevolution.com. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  7. ^ http://www.dalhousielodge.org/Thesis/scotstonc.htm
  8. ^ "Home Page". Black Loyalists. http://www.blackloyalist.com/canadiandigitalcollection/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  9. ^ "New status for a black pioneer". Black History Month (MSNBC). 2005-02-11. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6948815. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  10. ^ a b c Walker, James W. S. (December 1976). The Black Loyalists: In Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia 1783 - 1870. Africana Pub.Co. ISBN 0841902658. http://books.google.com/books?id=BMY79c675JsC&pg=PR11&lpg=PR11&dq=Black+loyalist&source=web&ots=8XwTXwpYxr&sig=JdKTnMSXnUvz0VTeC9s5faLglKs&hl=en. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  11. ^ "African Americans in Early American Military History". Colorado College. http://www.coloradocollege.edu/Dept/HY/HY243Ruiz/Research/military.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  12. ^ a b Blythe, Bob. "The Odyssey of the Black Loyalists". The Unfinished Revolution. National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/revwar/unfinished_revolution/black_loyalists.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14.  
  13. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1450072/bio
  14. ^ Roberts, Laura (2008-02-22). "'Fruit for lunch and the love of a young woman': Bruce Forsyth's recipe for a long life as he turns 80". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-517454/Fruit-lunch-love-young-woman-Bruce-Forsyths-recipe-long-life-turns-80.html. Retrieved 2009-06-03.  
  15. ^ http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/music/article5809842.ece
  16. ^ http://www.preservationvirginia.org/rediscovery/page.php?page_id=26
  17. ^ http://www.threlkeld.org.uk/Pocahontas.htm
  18. ^ http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/film/article4655175.ece
  19. ^ http://www.brama.com/news/press/2004/07/040716leliw_zwanamaker.html
  20. ^ http://www.sidereel.com/Louis_Theroux's_Weird_Weekends
  21. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1581479,00.html
  22. ^ http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/britishcitizenship/aboutcitizenship/

Template:Infobox ethnic group

African Americans in the United Kingdom are a subgroup of the larger American population in the UK population, in Britain it may include people of African American heritage or black people from the United States who are or have become residents or citizens of Britain as well as students and temporary workers.

African American migration after the American Revolution

African American immigration to the UK began as early as the late 18th century[1] after American slaves failed in their attempt to defend the British Crown in the American Revolution. The Revolution began in the thirteen American colonies and United States in the late 1770s. The British promised freedom to any slave or rebel who fought the Americans on their behalf.[2] African Americans made up over 20 per cent of the American population at the time, which was the second largest ethnic group in British North America only after the English[3] and as many as 30,000 slaves escaped to British lines.[4] The largest regiment was the Black Pioneers who followed troops under Sir General Henry Clinton[5]. Working as soldiers, labourers, pilots, cooks, and musicians, they were a major part of the unsuccessful British war effort. African Americans who fought against the British were known as Black Patriots (modern day African Americans in the U.S.), but rather if they were fighting for the Crown or American Independence both were mostly doing it in return for promises of freedom from enslavement or indentured servitude[6].

The British-American Commission identified the Black people who had joined the British before the surrender, and issued "certificates of freedom" signed by General Birch or General Musgrave. Those who chose to emigrate were evacuated by ship[1]. The fallout of the Revolution resulted in an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 Black Americans scattering across the Atlantic world, profoundly affecting the development of Nova Scotia, the Bahamas, Jamaica, and the African nation of Sierra Leone as prominent leaders in the emerging freed black communities[6][7][8]. To make sure no one attempted to leave who did not have a certificate of freedom, the name of any Black person on board a vessel, whether slave, indentured servant, or free, was recorded, along with the details of enslavement, escape, and military service, in a document called the Book of Negroes[1]. Between 400 and 1,000 African Americans emigrated to London and were later given the title of Black Loyalist for their service in the British Armed forces and formed the core of the early Black British community[6][8]

Notable people in the UK with African American links or ancestry

References


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message