Afrika Korps: Wikis


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Deutsches Afrikakorps
Active February 12, 1941 - May 13, 1943
Country  Nazi Germany
Branch Wehrmacht Heer
Type Expeditionary Force
Size Corps
Garrison/HQ Tripoli
Motto Ritterlich im Kriege, wachsam für den Frieden
("Courteous in the war, watchfully for the peace")
Colors Yellow, Brown
Engagements World War II
Erwin Rommel
Ludwig Crüwell
Walther Nehring
Seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps

The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK About this sound listen ) was the German expeditionary force in Libya and Tunisia during the North African Campaign of World War II. The force was kept as a distinct formation[1] and became the main German contribution to Panzer Army Africa which evolved into the German-Italian Panzer Army (Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee) and Army Group Africa.



The Afrika Korps was derived and formed upon Adolf Hitler's personal choice of Erwin Rommel to its command on February 12, 1941 (Rommel himself landed on African soil in Libya on February 14, 1941 to begin leading his forces that would be brought into action). The German Armed Forces High Command or Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) and Army High Command or Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) had decided to send a "blocking force" or Sperrverband to Libya to support the Italian army. The Italian army group had been routed by Commonwealth Force's counter-offensive led by the British Eighth Army, in Operation Compass. The German "blocking force", commanded by Rommel, at first consisted of only the 5./leichte "Afrika" Panzer Regiment, which was quickly cobbled together from the second regiment of the 3./Panzer Division and various other small units attached for water treatment and medical care. These elements were organized into the 5th Light Division when they arrived in Africa from February 10 to March 12, 1941. In late April and into May, the 5th Light Division was joined by transference of the various elements constituting the 15th Panzer Division from Italy, though it did not completely arrive until after Rommel had made a counter-offensive and re-taken most of Cyrenaica and then subsequently gone back over to the defensive. At this time, the Afrikakorps consisted of the two divisions plus various smaller supporting units, and was officially subordinated to the Italian chain of command in Africa (though Rommel had conducted his offensive without any authorization).

On August 15, 1941, the German 5th Light Division5./leichte "AFRIKA" Division was redesignated 21st Panzer Division (commonly written as 21./PD), still attached to the enlarged entity still known as the Afrikakorps.

During the summer of 1941 OKW and OKH invested more command structure in Africa by creating a new headquarters called Panzer Group Africa (Panzergruppe Afrika). On August 15, Panzer Group Africa was activated with Rommel in command, and command of the Afrikakorps was turned over to Ludwig Crüwell. The Panzer Group controlled the Afrikakorps plus some additional German units that were sent to Africa, as well as two corps of Italian units. (A German "group" was approximately the equivalent of an army in other militaries, and in fact, Panzer Group Africa was redesignated as German Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika) on January 30, 1942.)

After the defeat at El Alamein and the Allied invasion in Morocco and Algeria Operation Torch, OKW once more upgraded its presence in Africa by creating the XC Army Corps in Tunisia on November 19, 1942, and then creating a new 5th Panzer Army headquarters there as well on December 8, under the command of Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim.

On February 23, 1943 Panzer Army Africa, (now called the German-Italian Panzer Army,) was redesignated as the Italian 1st Army and put under the command of Italian general Giovanni Messe, while Rommel was placed in command of a new Army Group Africa (Heeresgruppe Afrika), created to control both the Italian 1st Army and the 5th Panzer Army. The remnants of the Afrikakorps and other surviving units of the 1st Italian Army retreated into Tunisia. Command of the Army Group was turned over to von Arnim in March. On May 13, remnants of the Afrikakorps surrendered, along with all other remaining Axis forces in North Africa.


Composition and terminology

German soldier in North Africa during World War II

"Afrika Korps" is derived from the original German name properly written in one word. Strictly speaking, the term refers to the original formation which, although not dissolved, became part of the ever-expanding German and Italian presence in North Africa for its February 1941 to May 1943 role in the North African Campaign. However, it is sometimes used by the news media and veteran Allied soldiers as a name for all the German units in North Africa. Some notable attached units include the 15th Panzer Division, 21st Panzer Division, Afrika zbV (zur besonderen Verwendung, "special purpose") Division, which was created as an infantry division and slowly upgraded to a fully motorized division, and then redesignated as the 90th Light Afrika Division; the 164th Light Afrika Division, the 999 Light "Afrika" Division, also the 334th Infantry division; and the Luftwaffenjäger-Brigade 1 or Fallschirmjäger-Ramcke Brigade Ramcke Parachute Brigade (named after its commander Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke). There were also eight Italian divisions (out of the ten Italian Divisions in North Africa) under Rommel's command in Panzer Army Afrika, including two armored divisions, two motorized divisions, three infantry divisions, and the Folgore parachute division. The army was supported by a number of smaller units from both the German and Italian armed forces.

The designation "Light" (German: Leicht) did not refer to a standardized table of organization and equipment (TOE) for the various German divisions that bore that designation.

German unit organizations were based on tables of organization, (Kriegsstärkenachweisungen or KStN). Every unit in the German Army raised had one, and all orders raising units indicated the corresponding KStN number and date which applied to them. For instance, the 5./leichte "Afrika" or 5th Light "Africa" had an organizational structure that was missing specific elements to make it a complete Panzer 'Division,' as did its late April to May 1941 arriving 'full complement' partner division in Africa, the 15./Panzer Division. The 5./le. "Africa" Division eventually became at least partially expanded into the 21./PD or 21st Panzer Division. It was given German unit elements that were already on the ground in North Africa and some replacement equipment to meet the prescribed full Panzer Division KStN constraints (except for the Motorcycle Battalion component, which was never complete) and then renamed in August 1941. As the entire Afrikakorps organization was restructured and even renamed in August 1941, the nomenclature of Afrikakorps lasted less than six months. The famous force, with the short-lived name Afrikakorps, became a major German component of Panzer Army Africa; Panzerarmee Afrika, which evolved into the German-Italian Panzer Army (Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee) and then to Army Group Africa (Heeresgruppe Afrika) in the twenty-seven months of the campaign for this force.[2]

Additional German forces were sent to Africa and became components of the Panzer Army Africa, Panzerarmee Afrika. Examples such as the 164./le. "Africa" or 164th Light Afrika Division was at first only a partially-motorized infantry division, and actually never had any tanks at all, only armored cars and reconnaissance vehicles. Various German divisions in Africa occasionally reorganized or re-equipped without a change of name, or conversely were redesignated with a new name without any substantial reorganization. None of the German Armies actually fielded for service in North Africa completely met the service KStNs directed for their completion because of battle losses, sinkings across the Mediterranenan while in transit and the tremendous wear on the vehicles.

Herman Göring Panzer Division

Luftwaffe Fallschirmjäger (paratroopers) from FJR3 and FJR5 of the Herman Göring Panzer Division, plus ground and mechanized forces were sent to Tunisia beginning in mid-November 1942 and through to major components into March 1943. Over 5,000 from this force were buried in the Cape Bon Peninsula, Tunisia.

Ramcke Brigade

Luftwaffenjäger-Brigade 1 known by its most common name today as the Ramcke Parachute Brigade

Resurrection of units

Certain divisions were resurrected in Europe after the cessation of fighting in Tunisia:

Afrika Korps marching songs

1st song: Panzer rollen in Afrika vor / Heiß über Afrikas Boden

Heiß über Afrikas Boden die Sonne glüht.
Unsere Panzermotoren singen ihr Lied!
Deutsche Panzer im Sonnenbrand,
Stehen zum Kampf gegen England
Es rasseln die Ketten, es dröhnt der Motor,
Panzer rollen in Afrika vor!


The sun shines hot over African ground.
Our panzer engines are singing their song!
German panzers in the blazing sun,
As they stand ready for battle against England.
The tracks rattle, the engine roars,
Panzers rolling forwards in Africa.

2nd Song: "Unser Rommel" ("Our Rommel")[3]

Wir sind das deutsche Afrikakorps
Des Führers verwegene Truppe
Wir stürmen wie die Teufel hervor
Versalzen dem Tommy die Suppe
Wir fürchten nicht Hitze und Wüstensand
Wir trotzen dem Durst und dem Sonnenbrand
Marschieren beim Takt unserer Trommel
Vorwärts, vorwärts
|:Vorwärts mit unserem Rommel!:|

Translation of verse 1

We are the German Africa Korps
The Führer's daring troops
We attack like the Devil
Make things hot for the Tommys
We fear neither heat nor desert sand
We brave the thirst and the blazing sun
Marching to the beat of our drum
Forwards, forwards
|:Forwards with our Rommel!:|


Die Briten fürchten uns wie die Pest
Sie sitzen auf glühenden Kohlen
Wir rächen Deutsch-Ost und rächen Südwest
Das einst sie uns feige gestohlen
Sind Churchill und Roosevelt auch Wut entbrannt
Wir werfen die Feinde in jedem Land
Es schlägt Generalmarsch die Trommel
Vorwärts, vorwärts
|:Vorwärts mit unserem Rommel!:|

Translation of verse 2

The British fear us like the plague
They're like cats on a hot tin roof
We're taking revenge for German East (Africa) and for South-West (Africa)
Which were cowardly stolen from us
Churchill and Roosevelt are getting mad
We beat the enemy in every country
The drum beats 'get ready'Generalmarsch[›]
Forwards, forwards
|:Forwards with our Rommel!:|


Mit uns im Kampf und im Siege vereint
Marschieren Italiens Scharen
Bis einst die Sonne des Friedens uns scheint
Und wieder gen Deutschland wir fahren.
Doch wenn mich die feindliche Kugel fand
So lasset mich ruhen im Wüstensand
Und rühret noch einmal die Trommel
Vorwärts, vorwärts (disputed line)
|:Vorwärts mit unserem Rommel!:|

Translation of verse 3

With us united in battle and in victory
Italy's cohorts are marching
Until one day the sun of peace will shine on us
And we will return to Germany.
But if the enemy's bullet gets me
Then let me rest in the desert sand
Let the drum beat once more.
Forwards, forwards (disputed line)
|:Forwards with our Rommel!:|

See also


  1. ^ With Rommel in the Desert by Heinz Werner Schmidt
  2. ^
  3. ^ Song text and MP3(not identical at the ending of the third verse) of Unser Rommel Retrieved 2007-02-12

AANA Research Group at}

^ Generalmarsch: A German military signal meaning: "Attention! Assemble at your positions!"


Further reading

  • Editor Major-General Alfred Toppe Desert warfare:German experiences in World War II, written with the assistance of nine German commanders who served in North Africa, the manuscript (translated by Mr. H. Heitman) represents a collaborative attempt to determine "as many factors as possible which exerted a determining influence on desert warfare."
  • Hans von Luck's memoirs Panzer Commander: The Memoirs of Colonel Hans von Luck include chapters from his time in North Africa under Rommel.

External links


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