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Black people in Europe
Afro-Europeans
Frank Rijkaard (2007).jpgAlexandre Dumas.jpgNaomiCampbell.jpg
Chevalier de Saint Georges.jpgRama Yade 2007 05 23 n1.jpgEquianoExeterpainting.jpg
Yannick Noa POPB Octobre 2004 - 01.jpgDeluxe.jpg
Frank Rijkaard · Alexandre Dumas · Naomi Campbell
Chevalier de Saint-Georges · Rama Yade · Olaudah Equiano
Yannick Noah · Samy Deluxe
Regions with significant populations
United Kingdom, France, The Netherlands, Germany, Portugal, others
Languages

English, French, Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, German, Italian, Creole, others

Religion

Christianity, Islam, others

Black people in Europe (sometimes referred to as Afro-Europeans,[1] although this term is also used to describe people of mixed European and African descent, especially in the former European colonies[2][3]) are Black people who are residents or citizens of European countries. They include immigrants as well as European-born people of African descent.

A Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly report on immigration from sub-Saharan Africa gives the number of sub-Saharan African migrants in Europe as between 3.5 and 8 million, concentrated mainly in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom.[4] The report also notes that these figures are likely to underestimate the African migrant population due to factors such as illegal migration.[4]

Contents

Notable individuals

Black people make up to 20% of footballers in various European leagues.[citation needed] Up until recently, however, there were very few to no black people in coaching, administrative or corporate positions with regard to football.[citation needed] Frank Rijkaard became the first black person to Coach a European country when he was manager of the Netherlands in 2000, and has since had a successful spell coaching in Spain.[citation needed] Recently Senegalese born Pape Diouf became chairman of Olympique de Marseille.[citation needed] Paul Ince became the first black British manager of a Premier League football team after being named manager of Blackburn Rovers, having been the first black player to captain England.[citation needed]

Harry Roselmack became the first black prime-time news anchor on a mainstream TV channel in France in July 2006.[5][6] Despite this, the first black prime-time newsreader in the UK was Trevor McDonald who was employed 37 years prior by the BBC in 1969.[7]

Distribution

The largest populations of people of African ancestry living in Europe are:

Country Black Population Article Afro-Caribbean Hubs Description
 France No official data collected
Estimates include:
1.5 million[8]
1.865 million[9]
3–5 million[10]
Black people in France Paris, Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Marseille, Nantes, Lille Sub Saharan mainly (Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast) and Black Caribbeans (Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique) or French Guyana
 United Kingdom 1,148,738 (2001 census)[11]
(Not including people of mixed Black and another ethnicity)
Black British
(Black Caribbean, Black African, Other Black)
London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Liverpool Black Africans now outnumber Afro-Caribbeans in the UK. Largest subgroups of the Black British community are Nigerians, Jamaicans, Ghanaians and Zimbabweans. Although the 2001 census showed only 1.1 million Black British people, there are an estimated 1.4 million Black people in England alone in 2007, some community estimates suggest the figure to be much higher (with the possibility of up to 3 million Nigerians and 1.5 million Ghanaians in the UK).
 Netherlands 200,000 Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Almere, Eindhoven Sub Saharan Africans only Mainly Surinamese, but also people from the Netherlands Antilles, Cape Verde and other parts of Africa
 Germany ca. 500,000[12] Afro-Germans Hamburg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Cologne Ethnicity statistics are prohibited in Germany but the ISD (Initiative Schwarze Menschen in Deutschland / Initiative Black People in Germany) estimates a number of 500.000 Black Germans. It remains unclear if this number includes only black people with a German passport or if it includes every black person residing in Germany.
 Italy 200,000 Italians of African descent Brescia, Milan, Rome, Turin Sub Saharan Africans only Mainly from Senegal, Nigeria, Ghana, and Côte d'Ivoire.[13]
 Spain 150,000[citation needed] Andalusia, Canary Islands, Madrid, Barcelona Sub Saharan Africans only Mainly from Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia or the former Spanish colony Equatorial Guinea[14]
 Portugal 116,071[15] Portuguese of Black African ancestry Lisbon, Porto, Faro Mostly from former Portuguese colonies in Africa, particularly Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Brazilians that may be Black (see Afro-Brazilian).
 Ireland 45,700[16] Black people in Ireland Dublin

See also

References

  1. ^ Lusane, Clarence (2002). Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experience of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans and African Americans in the Nazi Era. London: Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 0415932955. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Dq6HzrFu_z4C&lpg=PA37&dq=%22Afro-Europeans%22&pg=PA9#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  2. ^ Ashcroft, M. T.; Heneage, P.; Lovell, H. G. (1966). "Heights and weights of Jamaican schoolchildren of various ethnic groups". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 24 (1): 35–44. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330240105. 
  3. ^ Feinberg, Harvey M. (1989). Africans and Europeans in West Africa: Elminans and Dutchmen in the Gold Coast during the Eighteenth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 88. ISBN 0871697971. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3SELAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA89&dq=%22afro-europeans%22&pg=PA88#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  4. ^ a b "Immigration from sub-Saharan Africa". Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. 2008-02-11. http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc08/EDOC11526.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  5. ^ "Black TV Newsman is French First". BBC News. 2006-03-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4786376.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  6. ^ Bennhold, Katrin (2006-08-02). "Black Anchor Fills Top Spot on French TV". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/08/02/news/anchor.php. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  7. ^ http://www.thebiographychannel.co.uk/biographies/trevor-mcdonald.html?
  8. ^ Tagliabue, John (2005-09-21). "French blacks skeptical of race neutrality". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/21/world/europe/21iht-france.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  9. ^ "First French racism poll released". BBC News. 2007-01-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6317799.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  10. ^ Kimmelman, Michael (2008-06-17). "For blacks in France, Obama's rise is reason to rejoice, and to hope". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/17/arts/17abroad.html. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  11. ^ "Population size: 7.9% from a minority ethnic group". Office for National Statistics. 2003-02-13. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=273. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  12. ^ Smith, David G. (2008-06-05). "German Newspaper Slammed for Racist Cover". Spiegel Online. http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,557861,00.html. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  13. ^ "Official Demographic Statistics" (in Italian). Istituto Nazionale di Statistica. http://demo.istat.it/str2006/. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  14. ^ "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad (hasta 85 y más)" (in Spanish). Demografía y Población. Instituto Nacional de Estadística. http://www.ine.es/inebase/cgi/axi?AXIS_PATH=/inebase/temas/t20/e245/p04/a2006/l0/&FILE_AXIS=00000010.px&CGI_DEFAULT=/inebase/temas/cgi.opt&COMANDO=SELECCION&CGI_URL=/inebase/cgi. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  15. ^ "Quadro de Avaliação e Responsabilização 2008 (QUAR)" (in Portuguese). Estatísticas 2006. Serviço de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras. http://www.sef.pt/portal/v10/PT/aspx/estatisticas/index.aspx?id_linha=4224&menu_position=4142#0. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  16. ^ "Ireland: People". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ei.html#People. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 

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