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Afro-Latin American
Collage of Afro Latin Americans.jpg

1st row: Henri ChristopheHugo ChávezCelso PittaAndré RebouçasCelia CruzAdriana LimaWyclef JeanJosé María MorelosMartin de PorresPedro Albizu Campos
2nd row: Abdias do NascimentoAntonio Maceo GrajalesNicomedes Santa CruzToussaint LouverturePeléFélix TrinidadNilo PeçanhaJuan Almeida BosqueSylvia del VillardSergio Oliva
3rd row: Vicente GuerreroRoberto ClementeJean-Jacques DessalinesBenedita da SilvaJuano HernándezJoaquim Maria Machado de AssisAlexandre PétionGuillermo Galván GalvánErnesto Carneiro RibeiroGabino Ezeiza

Total population
Sub Saharan African
>100,000,000 Latin Americans


*Figure excludes Belize, Guyana, Suriname, or non-Romance-speaking areas of the Caribbean

Regions with significant populations
 Brazil 88.8 million
 Colombia 9.5 million
 Haiti 8.5 million
 Dominican Republic 1.1-8.1 million
 Cuba 3.9 million
 Venezuela 2.6-7.0 million
 Argentina 0.20 million
 Peru 1.8 million
 Puerto Rico 0.27 million
 Nicaragua 0.53 million
 Panama 0.47 million
 Ecuador 0.43 million
 Chile 0.16 million
 Honduras 0.15 million
 Uruguay 0.13 million
 Costa Rica 0.12 million
 Bolivia 1.0 million
Languages

Portuguese, Spanish, French, and several creoles

Religion

Predominantly Christian (mainly Roman Catholic); minorities practicing Judaism,
Islam, or no religion

Related ethnic groups

sub-Saharan, Afro Americans in the Americas

An Afro-Latin American (also Afro-Latino) is a Latin American person of at least partial Black African ancestry; the term may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Latin America thought to emanate from this community.[1] The term can refer to the mixing of African and other cultural elements found in Latin American society such as religion, music, language, the arts and social class.

The term Afro-Latin American, as used in this article refers specifically to black African ancestry and not to European colonial or Afro-Arab ancestry, such as Arab Moroccan or white South African ancestry.[2] The term is not widely used in Latin America outside of academic circles. Normally Afro Latin Americans are called "black" (in Spanish negro, in Portuguese negro or preto). More commonly, when referring to cultural aspects of African origin within specific countries of Latin America, terms carry an Afro- prefix followed by the relevant nationality. Notable examples include Afro-Cuban (Spanish:Afro Cubano)[3] and Afro-Brazilian;[4] however, usage varies considerably from nation to nation.

The accuracy of statistics reporting on Afro-Latin Americans has been questioned, especially where they are derived from census reports in which the subjects choose their own designation, because in all countries the concept of black ancestry is viewed with differing attitudes.

Of a total Latin American population of 549,549,000, an estimated 100-150 million[5][6] are Afro Latin-American.[7][8] Approximately 5% of the Latin American population self-identify, or are classified by census takers, as being primarily of black ancestry. A further 16% of the population is mulatto, while Zambos are a smaller minority.

Contents

History

People of African origin probably first arrived in the Americas with the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries. For example, Pedro Alonso Niño, traditionally considered the first of many New World explorers of African descent [9] was a navigator in the 1492 Columbus expedition. Those who were directly from Africa mostly arrived in Latin America as part of the Atlantic slave trade, as agricultural, domestic, and menial laborers and as mineworkers. They were also employed in mapping and exploration (for example, Estevanico) and were even involved in conquest (for example, Juan Valiente). They were mostly brought from West Africa and Central Africa in what are now the nations of Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, Angola, and Congo, There are six major groups: the Yoruba, Igbo, Hausa, Oromo, Akan, and the Bantu (mostly Zulu). Most of the slaves were sent to Brazil, and the Caribbean, but lesser numbers went to Colombia and Venezuela. Countries with significant black, mulatto, or zambo populations today include Brazil (86 million), Colombia (10 million), Haiti (8.7 million), Dominican Republic (up to 8.1 million), Cuba (up to 4 million), and Puerto Rico (20%-46%). Recent genetic research in UPR Mayaguez has brought to light that 26.4% of Puerto Ricans have African heritage on the X chromosome and 20% on the Y chromosome, thus between 20%-46% of the Puerto Rican population has African heritage.[10] (For more on this see Demographics of Puerto Rico).

Traditional terms for Afro-Latin Americans with their own developed culture include Garífuna (in Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala and Belize), cafuzo (in Brazil), and zambo in the Andes and Central America. Marabou is a term of Haitian origin denoting a Haitian of multiracial ethnicity. The term describes the offspring of a Black African/European or mulatto and an Amerindian, specifically the native Taíno, born in Haiti (formerly Saint-Domingue). The heavy population of Africans on the island established by the French and Spanish diluted the generations of so-called "marabous" over the decades, and virtually all Haitians today of Amerindian descent are assumed to also possess African ancestry. Several other terms exist for the "marabou" racial mixture in other countries.

The mix of these African cultures with the Spanish, Portuguese, French, and indigenous cultures of Latin America has produced many unique forms of language (e.g., Palenquero, Garífuna and Creole), religions (e.g., Candomblé, Abakuá, Santería, Lucumi and Vodou), music (e.g., kompa, salsa, Bachata, Punta, Palo de Mayo, plena, samba, merengue, cumbia) martial arts (capoeira) and dance (rumba, merengue). Many of these cultural expressions have become pervasive in Latin America.

Latin America is home to approximately 28 million (strict definition) or 130 million (broad definition) Afro-Latin Americans.

Racial and ethnic distinctions

Terms used within Latin America which pertain to black heritage include mulato (black - white mixture), and zambo (indigenous - black mixture). Mestizo refers to an indigenous - white mixture. The term mestizaje refers to the intermixing or fusing of races, whether by mere custom or deliberate policy. In Latin America this happened extensively between all the racial groups and cultures, but usually involved European men and indigenous and African women. Unions of white females and non-white males were almost taboo.

South America

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Argentina

Traditionally it has been argued that the black population in Argentina declined since the early nineteenth century to insignificance. However, the pilot census conducted in two neighborhoods of Argentina in 2006 on knowledge of ancestors from Subsaharan Africa verified that 5% of the population knew of African ancestry, and another 20% thought that was possible but not sure. Given that European immigration accounted for more than half the growth of the Argentine population in 1960, some researchers argue that rather than decrease what they had was a process of "invisibility" of the population Afro Argentine and their cultural roots. Other researchers have argued that there was a deliberate policy of genocide against the Afro Argentinian, which was openly expressed by many Euro-Argentines as Domingo F. Sarmiento and was probably implemented by using repressive policies during epidemics and wars as a tool of mass destruction. The theories argue that genocide may have been used to explain the decline in the population. Experts were pursuing similar arguments, but differ on the attribution of intent that was first attributed to the ruling classes.

Bolivia

African descendants in Bolivia account for about 2% of the population. They were brought in during the Spanish colonial times and the majority live in the Yungas. In Bolivia there's about 1,000,000 million African descendants who live in Bolivia.

Brazil

Brazilian Quilombolas during a meeting in the capital of Brazil, Brasília.

Around 46% of Brazil's 188 million people are Afro-Brazilians (39% either African and European ancestry and African, European and Amerindian ancestry, 7% African ancestry). Around 80% of the northeast state of Bahia is of African descent.

Brazil experienced a long internal struggle over abolition of slavery and was the last Latin American country to adopt it. In 1850 it finally banned the importation of new slaves from overseas, after two decades since the first official attempts to outlaw the human traffic (in spite of illegal parties of African slaves that kept arriving till 1855). In 1864 Brazil emancipated the slaves, and on September 28, 1871, the Brazilian Congress approved the Rio Branco Law of Free Birth, which conditionally freed the children of slaves born from that day on. In 1887 army officers refused to order their troops to hunt runaway slaves, and in 1888 the Senate passed a law establishing immediate, unqualified emancipation. This law, known as Lei Áurea (Golden Law) was sanctioned by the regent Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, daughter of the emperor Pedro II on May 13, 1888.

One of the most famous Afro-Latin Americans is the Brazilian footballer Pelé.

Chile

Chile enslaved about 600 blacks, about one-third of whom arrived before 1615; most were utilized in agriculture around Santiago. Today there are very few Afro-Chileans, at the most, fewer than 0.1% can be estimated from the 2006 population.

Colombia

Available estimates range from 4.4 to 10.5 million Afro-Colombians.[11] Afro-Colombians make up approximately 21% (9,154,537) of the population, according to a projection of the National Administration Department of Statistics (DANE),[12] most of whom are concentrated on the northwest Caribbean coast and the Pacific coast in such departments as Chocó, although considerable numbers are also in Cali, Cartagena, and Barranquilla. Colombia is considered to have the third largest Black/African-descent population in the western hemisphere, following Brazil and the U.S.

It has been estimated that some 4.4 million Afro-Colombians actively recognize their own black ancestry, while many other Afro-Colombians do not, as a result of inter-racial relations with white and indigenous Colombians.[11] They have been historically absent from high level government positions. Many of their long-established settlements around the Pacific coast have remained underdeveloped.[11] In Colombia's ongoing internal conflict, Afro-Colombians are both victims of violence or displacement and members of armed factions, such as the FARC and the AUC. Afro-Colombians have played a role in contributing to the development of certain aspects of Colombian culture. For example, several of Colombia's musical genres, such as Cumbia, have African origins or influences. Some Afro-Colombians have also been successful in sports such as Faustino Asprilla.

San Basilio de Palenque is a village in Colombia that is noted for maintaining many African traditions. It was declared a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2005.[13] The residents of palenque still speak Palenquero, a Spanish/African creole[14]

Ecuador

In 2006 Ecuador had a population of 13,547,510 with 8%, or 1,083,801 descendants from Spanish and African people.The Afro-Ecuadorian culture is found in the northwest coastal region of Ecuador and make up the majority (70%) in the province of Esmeraldas and the Chota Valley in the Imbabura Province. They can be also found in Quito and Guayaquil. The best known cultural influence known outside of Ecuador is a distinctive kind of marimba music. Bao is a fusion of native rhythms and Caribbean rhythms including candombe, salsa, merengue, reggae and calypso. From the Chota Valley there is Bomba (Ecuador) music which is very different from marimba from Esmeraldas.

Paraguay

Black Paraguayans are descended from African slaves brought to Paraguay by the 16th century. They became a significant presence in the country, and made up 11% of the population in 1785. Most Afro-Paraguayans established communities in towns such as Areguá, Emboscada, and Guarambaré. Many achieved their freedom during the Spanish rule. In the capital Asunción, there is a community of 300 Afro-Paraguayan families in the Fernando de la Mora municipality.

Peru

Afro-Peruvians make up about 3-4% of the population (close to two million).

Over the course of the slave trade, approximately 95,000 slaves were brought into Peru, with the last group arriving in 1850. Today, Afro-Peruvians reside mainly on the central and south coast. Afro-Peruvians can also be found in significant numbers on the northern coast. Recently, it has been verified that the community with the greatest concentration of Afro-Peruvians is Yapatera in Morropón (Piura), made up of around 7,000 farmers who are largely descended from African slaves of "malagasy" (Madagascar) origin. They are referred to as "malgaches" or "mangaches".

Afro-Peruvian music was little known even in Peru until the 1950s, when it was popularized by the performer Nicomedes Santa Cruz.[15]

Uruguay

African slaves and their descendants figured prominently in the founding of Uruguay. In the late 1700s Montevideo became a major arrival port for slaves, most brought from Portuguese colonies of Africa and bound for Spanish colonies of the New World, the mines of Peru and Bolivia, and the fields of Uruguay.

In the 19th century, when Uruguay joined other colonies in fighting for independence from Spain, Uruguayan national hero Jose Artigas led an elite division of black troops against the colonists. One of his top advisors was Joaquin Lezina, known as Ansina, a freed slave who composed musical odes about his commander's exploits and is regarded by Afro-Uruguayans as an unheralded father of the nation.

Venezuela

Black Venezuelans are mostly descendants from African slaves brought to Venezuela from the 17th to the 19th century for the coffee and cocoa crops. Most of the African-Venezuelans live in the North-central Region: coastal towns in the area called Barlovento (Miranda State), Northern Yaracuy, Carabobo and Aragua States, and Eastern Vargas State; but there are areas in South Lake Maracaibo (Zulia State) and Northern Merida State in the Andes, among others with several towns and villages. They have kept their traditions and culture alive especially through music.

Venezuela is a very racially mixed nation. Research in 2001 on genetic diversity by the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC) in which the population was compared to the historical patterns of the colonial castes. Adding to this new information about genetic diseases and characteristics associated with people from Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and Native Americans reveals that approximately 5% of the population is of African descent and 29% of the Venezuelans are mulattos (mixed African and European), but no further data about the amount of zambos (mixed black and Amerindian) is provided.[citation needed] This information reveals that at least 32% of the Venezuelan of population is, to some extent, of African descent.[citation needed].

Afro-Venezuelans have stood out as sportsmen, many of them in the Major League Baseball and other sports (e.g. former NBA/Houston Rockets forward Carl Herrera), however, most of them don't describe themselves as Afro-Venezuelan, but as Latinos or Hispanics or simply Venezuelans. Afro-Venezuelans have also stood out in the arts, especially in music, for example: Magdalena Sánchez, Oscar D'León, Morella Muñoz, Frank Quintero, and many others. Miss Venezuela 1998, Carolina Indriago, Miss Venezuela Universe 2006, Jictzad Viña, and Miss Venezuela World 2006, Susan Carrizo are mulatto.

One of the most controversial Afro-Latinos, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez stated in an interview while visiting the United States, "When we were children, we were told that we have a motherland, and that motherland was Spain. However, we have discovered later, in our lives, that as a matter of fact, we have several motherlands. And one of the greatest motherlands of all is no doubt, Africa. We love Africa. And every day we are much more aware of the roots we have in Africa... Racism is very characteristic of imperialism. Racism is very characteristic of capitalism. Katrina is—indeed, has a lot to do with racism–no doubt about it. Hate against me has a lot to do with racism. Because of my big mouth, because of my curly hair. And I’m so proud to have this mouth and this hair, because it’s African." [16]

Central America

The Afro-Latin Americans of Central America mostly live in or near Caribbean coast. The blacks of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, are of Garífuna, Afro-Caribbean and/or Mestizo heritage, as well as of Miskito heritage in the latter two. Those of Costa Rica and Panama are mostly of Afro-Caribbean heritage. Many Afro-Caribbean islanders arrived in Panama to help build the Panama Canal and to Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica to work in the banana plantations.

Belize

Belizean culture is a mix of African, European, and Mayan but only 30% of the population is considered to be of African descent. The main community of African descent are the Kriols and Garifuna concentrated from the Cayo District to the Belize District and Stann Creek District (Dangriga) on the Caribbean Sea. Belize City, on the Caribbean coast, is the center of African culture in Belize, with its population being of mixed African, Maya, and European.

Costa Rica

Three per cent of the population is of black African descent (called Afro-Costa Ricans) and are English-speaking descendants of nineteenth century black Jamaican immigrant workers. The indigenous population numbers around 1%, 41,338 individuals. In the Guanacaste Province, a significant portion of the population descends from a mix of local Amerindians, Africans and Spaniards. Most Afro-Costa Ricans are found in the Limón Province.

El Salvador

General Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez instituted race laws in 1930 that prohibited blacks from entering the country, this changed during the 1980s and the law was removed.[17]

Guatemala

Only 2% of the Guatemalan population is considered black or mulatto. The main community of African heritage are the Garifuna, concentrated in Livingston and Puerto Barrios. The rest are Afro-Caribbean and mulattoes who lives in Puerto Barrios and Morales. All these places belong to Izabal department, on the Caribbean coast. Sadly, because of unemployent and lack of opportunities, many Garifuna from Guatemala had left the country and move to Belize and the United States. Also many of African descent are located in Amatitlán, San Jerónimo, and Jutiapa, although most of them may not recognize it because the loss of culture in these places.

Many of the slaves brought from Africa came to Guatemala to work on cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, and coffee plantations. The main reason for slavery in Guatemala was because of the large sugar cane plantations and haciendas located on Guatemala's Pacific and Caribbean coasts. The national folk instrument, the marimba, has its origins in Africa and was brought to Guatemala and the rest of Central America by African slaves during colonial times. The melodies played on it show native American, African and European influences in both form and style.

Among the notable Garifuna from Guatemala are social leaders (Mario Ellington and Dilia Palacios Cayetano), musicians (Sofía Blanco, Silvia Blanco and Jursino Cayetano), poets (Nora Murillo and Wingston González), athletes (Teodoro Palacios Flores and Mario Blanco), soccer players (Guillermo la Pantera Enríquez Gamboa, Tomás Enríquez Gamboa, German Trigueño Castro, Clemente Lalín Sánchez, Wilson Lalín Salvatierra, Carlos Delva, Norman Delva, David Suazo, Tomás Suazo, Braulio Arzú, Ricardo Trigueno Foster, Guillermo Ramírez el Pando, Florencio Martínez, Renato Blanco and Marvin Avila), basketball players (Juan Pablo Trigueño Foster), a wrestler (El Cadete del Espacio) and a model (Deborah David).

From the Afro-Caribbean community comes doctors (Henry Stokes Brown and his son, Wilfredo Stokes Baltazar; Arla Cinderella Stokes), psychologists (Elizabeth Stokes), engineers (Sydney Samuels), a poet (Alan Mills), a journalist (Glenda Weatherborn), athletes (Roy Fearon, Salomón Rowe and Octavio Guillespie), soccer players (Ricardo Clark, Jorge Lynch, Jerry Slosher, Royston Hall, David Stokes, Tony Edwin, Oscar Sims, Willie Sims, Vicente Charles, José A. Charles, Martín Charles, Selvyn Pennant, Douglas Pérez McNish, Mynor Pérez McNish, Carlos Pérez McNish, Leonardo McNish, Arturo McNish, Alfredo McNish, Julio César Anderson, Hermenegildo Pepp Castro, Stanley Gardiner, David Gardiner, Kenneth Brown, Mario la Gallina Becker, Freddy Thompson, Elton Brown and Jonny Brown), basketball players (Jeremías Stokes, Tomás Guillespie and Peggy Lynch), and a former Miss Guatemala (Marva Weatherborn).

Today, the Garifuna and Afro-Caribbean people of Guatemala are organized in a group called Organización Negra Guatemalteca (Onegua). According to its website, Onegua is "a non-governmental organisation established in 1995 with a mandate to promote the interests and fight for the rights of Guatemala's Garifuna and Afrodescendant populations". There is also an asociation, called Asociación Raíces Afrodescendientes Guatemaltecas.

Honduras

The official census of Honduras indicates that 2% of the population, or about 150,000 individuals, self-identified as black during the last official census. This number is based on self-identification and does not use the American definition of blood quantum to identify "blackness" as Henry Gates does in his estimate of the black population of Honduras: "Estimates of people of African descent in Honduras vary widely, from 100,000 to 320,000 (1.8 to 5.8 percent of the country's 5.8 million people in 1994)." [18]

If one uses the blood quantum definition of blackness, then blacks came to Honduras early in the colonial period. One of the mercenaries who aided Pedro de Alvarado in his conquest of Honduras in 1536 was a black slave working as a mercenary to earn his freedom. Alvarado sent his own slaves from Guatemala to work the placer gold deposits in western Honduras as early as 1534. The earliest black slaves consigned to Honduras were part of a license granted to the Bishop Cristobal de Pedraza in 1547 to bring 300 slaves into Honduras. Certainly a large part of the modern Honduran population today identified as mestizo has at least some black ancestry, but they do not self-identify as black.

The self-identifying black population in Honduras is mostly of West Indian (Antillean origin), descendants of indentured laborers brought from Jamaica, Haiti, and other Caribbean Islands. The Garifuna (or Black Caribs), a people of mixed Amerindian and African ancestry, were expelled from the island of Saint Vincent after an uprising against the English and in 1797 and were exiled to Roatan. From there they made their way along the Caribbean coast of Belize, mainland Honduras and Nicaragua. Large Garifuna settlements in Honduras today include Trujillo, La Ceiba, and Triunfo de la Cruz. Even though they only came to Honduras in 1797, the Garifuna are one of the seven officially recognized indigenous groups in Honduras.

Slaves on the north coast mixed with the Miskito Indians, forming a group referred to as the Zambo Miskito. Today the Miskito consider themselves to be purely indigenous, denying this African heritage.[19] Today there are a sizable number of people in the department of Olancho (a center of gold mining and cattle ranching) that would be considered black by U.S. standards. They do not, however, identify as such but rather as mestizo.[20] The Black Creoles of the Bay Islands are today distinguished as an ethnic group for their racial difference from the mestizos and blacks, and their cultural difference as English-speaking Protestants.[21]

All these circumstances led to a denial by many Hondurans of their African heritage which reflects in the census even to this day. "Blacks were more problematic as national symbols because at the time they were neither seen to represent modernity nor autochthony, and their history of dislocation from Africa means they have no great pre-Columbian civilization in the Americas to call upon as symbols of a glorious past. Thus Latin American states often end up with a primarily "Indo-Hispanic" mestizaje where the Indian is privileged as the roots of the nation and blackness is either minimized or completely erased."[22]

Nicaragua

About 9% of Nicaragua's population is black and mainly reside on the country's sparsely populated Caribbean coast. Afro-Nicaraguans are found on the autonomous regions of RAAN and RAAS. The black population is mostly of West Indian (Antillean) origin, the descendants of indentured laborers brought mostly from Jamaica and other Caribbean Islands when the region was a British protectorate. There is also a smaller number of Garífuna, a people of mixed Carib, Angolan, Congolese and Arawak descent. The Garífuna live along in Orinoco, La Fe and Marshall Point, communities settled at Laguna de Perlas. Nicaragua has the largest population of blacks in Central America.

From these regions comes writers and poets, like Carlos Rigby, David McField (current Nicaraguan ambassador in Jamaica), Andira Watson and John Oliver. Among the musicians are Caribbean All Stars, Atma Terapia Arjuna Das, Osberto Jerez y Los Gregorys, Caribbean Taste, Spencer Hodgson and Phillip Montalbán, Grupo Gamma, Anthony Matthews and Dimension Costeña. Altha Hooker is the dean of the Universidad de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Caribe, and Scharllette Allen is Miss Nicaragua 2010.

Panama

Panama was a province, state, and department of Colombia until 1903 when it declared its separation and independence from Colombia.

Blacks in Panama are the descendants of African slaves but later on blacks from the Caribbean islands arrived.[citation needed] The Afro Colonials are the group of Hispanics, while the Antillanos are those of Caribbean descent.

Caribbean

Cuba

According to a 2001 national census which surveyed 11.2 million Cubans, 1.1 million Cubans described themselves as Black, while 2.8 million considered themselves to be "mulatto" or "mestizo" or "javao" or "moro".[23] Many Cubans still locate their origins in specific African ethnic groups or regions, particularly Yoruba, Igbo and Congo, but also Arará, Carabalí, Mandingo, Fula and others.

There is also a significant presence of black Haitian immigrants in the country. Creole language and culture first entered Cuba with the arrival of Haitian immigrants at the start of the nineteenth century. Haiti was a French colony, and the final years of the 1791-1804 Haitian Revolution brought a wave of French settlers fleeing with their Haitian slaves to Cuba. They came mainly to the east, and especially Guantanamo, where the French later introduced sugar cultivation, constructed sugar refineries and developed coffee plantations. By 1804 some 30,000 French were living in Baracoa and Maisi, the furthest eastern municipalities of the province. Later, Haitians continued to come to Cuba to work as brazeros (hand workers, from the Spanish word brazo, meaning "arm") in the fields cutting cane. Their living and working conditions were not much better than slavery. Although they planned to return to Haiti, most stayed on in Cuba. For years, many Haitians and their descendants in Cuba did not identify themselves as such or speak Creole. In the eastern part of the island many Haitians suffered discrimination. But since 1959 the Castro regime claims that discrimination against Cubans of Haitian descent has stopped. After Spanish, Creole is the second most-spoken language in Cuba. Over 400,000 Cubans either speak it fluently, understand it but speak with difficulty, or have at least some familiarity with the language. It is mainly in those communities, where Haitians and their descendants live, that Creole is most spoken. In addition to the eastern provinces there are also communities in Ciego de Avila and Camaguey provinces where the population still maintains Creole, their mother tongue. Classes in Creole are offered in Guantanamo, Matanzas and the City of Havana. There is a Creole-language radio program.

Some of the most famous Afro-Cubanos are Salsa Legend Celia Cruz and Ibrahim Ferrer of the Buena Vista Social Club.

Dominican Republic

73% are mixed (mostly mulatto)[24][25], 11% are Black, and 16% are White, with no fewer than nine ethnic mixes including: mestizos, mulattoes, zambos, grifos, quadroon Indians, quadroon mulattoes, puchelas, saltaras, and cabras.

There is also a significant presence of black Haitian immigrants in the country up to a million Haitians live in the Dominican Republic. There are also immigrants from other Latin American countries including Cuba, Venezuela, and Colombia.

Dominican culture is a mixture of Taino Amerindian, African, and European origins. While Taino influences are present in many Dominican traditions, the European and African influences are the most noticeable.

Haiti

The population of Haiti is 8.7 million, of which 95% are of African descent and the remaining 5% is mulatto and white.[26]

Marabou is a term of Haitian origin denoting a Haitian of multiracial ethnicity. The term describes the offspring of a Black African/European or mulatto and an Amerindian, specifically the native Taíno, born in Haiti (formerly Saint-Domingue). The heavy population of Africans on the island established by the French and Spanish diluted the generations of so-called "marabous" over the decades and virtually all Haitians today of supposed Amerindian descent are assumed to also possess African ancestry.[citation needed] Several other terms exist for the marabou racial mixture in other countries (see Cafuzo, Zambo).

Haiti is an Afro-Latin nation with strong African contributions to the culture as well as its language, music and religion. To a lesser degree French, Spaniard, and in rare occasions (food, art, and folk religion) Taino and Arab customs are present in society.

Puerto Rico

According to the 2000 U.S. Census taken in Puerto Rico, 80.5% of Puerto Ricans identified as White, 8% of the population as Black and 10.9% as of mixed or other race.[27] An island-wide mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study conducted by the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez revealed that 61% of Puerto Ricans have maternal Native American ancestry, 26.4% have maternal West or Central African ancestry, and 12.6% have maternal European ancestry.[28] On the other hand, the Y chromosome evidence showed Puerto Ricans' patrilineage to be approximately 75% European, 20% African, and less than 5% indigenous. The combined results reveal a mostly mestizo (Taino and European) population with important European and African elements (Demographics of Puerto Rico)

These critics maintain that a majority of Puerto Ricans are racially mixed, but that they do not feel the need to identify as such. They argue, furthermore, that Puerto Ricans tend to assume that they are of African, American Indian, and European ancestry and only identify themselves as mixed if having parents "appearing" to be of separate "races". It should also be noted that Puerto Rico underwent a "whitening" process while under U.S. rule. The census-takers at the turn of the 20th Century recorded a huge disparity in the number of "black" and "white" Puerto Ricans between the 1910 and 1920 censuses. "Black" suddenly began to disappear from one census to another (within 10 years' time), possibly due to redefinition of the term. It also appears that the "black" element within the culture was simply disappearing possibly due to the popular idea that in the U.S. one could only advance economically and socially if one were to pass for "white".[29]

Misinformation of ethnic populations within Puerto Rico also existed under Spanish rule, when the Native Amerindian (Taino) populations were recorded as being "extinct". Biological science has now rewritten their history books. These tribes were not voluntary travelers, but have since blended into the mainstream Puerto Rican population (as all the others have been) with Taino ancestry being the common thread that binds.

Many so-called "pure" blacks in Puerto Rico are found in the coastal areas, areas traditionally associated with sugar cane plantations (especially in the towns Loiza, Guayama, Ponce, and Carolina). Although, due to the DNA evidence that is being presented by UPR at Mayaguez, many African bloodlines have been recorded in the central mountains of the island, though not written in the Spanish history books of the time. Consequently, Taino bloodlines have begun appearing in the coastal towns. All this suggesting that escaped Africans ran off to the mountains to escape the slaveowners, while some Tainos remained close to their main staple food, fish.

The Puerto Rican musical genres of bomba and plena are of African and Caribbean origin respectively and danced to during parties and African-derived festivals. Many Boricuas who claim West/Central African ancestry are descendants of enslaved Congo, Igbo and Yoruba from Africa. After the abolition of slavery in 1873 and the Spanish-American War of 1898 a number of African Americans have also migrated and settled in Puerto Rico.

Two of the most famous Afro-Latin Americans are Puerto Rican Boxer Felix "Tito" Trinidad and Hall of Fame baseball player Roberto Clemente.

Mexico

The vast majority of contemporary Afro-Mexicans inhabit the southern region of Mexico; those that migrated north in the colonial period assimilated into the general population, making their existence in the country less evident than other groups. Some Afro-Mexican facts:

  • Mexico's second President, Vicente Guerrero, an Afro-Mexican, issued a decree abolishing slavery and emancipating all slaves in 1829, during his short term as president.
  • Race is not considered for any official purpose, including the census.
  • Gaspar Yanga founded the first free African township in the Americas in 1609.
  • a Black man named Esteban el Negro (Steven the Black), a North African Moor from Spain, searched for the fabled city of Cíbola with Cabeza de Vaca.
  • the song 'La Bamba', a traditional folk song and dance, was originally a song sung by African slaves in Veracruz as they worked. Bamba is the name of an African tribe in Angola.
  • Veracruz, Campeche, Pánuco and Acapulco were the main ports for the entrance of African slaves.
  • In the past, offspring of African/Amerindian mixtures were called jarocho (wild pig), chino or lobo (wolf). Today jarocho refers to all inhabitants of the state of Veracruz, without regard to ancestry.

List of famous Afro-Latinos

Afro-Latino populations in the Americas

Region / Country Country population[30] Afro-descendants population*
Caribbean
Haiti[31] 9,035,536 >95%[32] 8,583,759
Dominican Republic [33][34] 9,650,054 84% 8,106,054
Cuba[35] 11,451,652 34.9% 3,999,626
Puerto Rico[36] 3,971,020 6.9% 274,000
South America/Central America
Guatemala[37] 13,276,517 2% 265,530
Belize[38] 307,899 31% 95,448
El Salvador[39] 7,185,218 N/A[40] 0
Honduras[41] 7,792,854 2.0% 155,857
Nicaragua[42] 5,891,199 9.0% 530,207
Costa Rica[43] 4,253,877 3.0% 127,616
Panama[44] 3,360,474 14.0% 470,466
Colombia[45] 45,644,023 21.0% 9,585,244
Venezuela[46][47] 26,414,815 10-26.5% 2,641,481 - 6,999,926
Brazil[48] 198,739,269 44.7% 88,836,450
Ecuador[49] 14,573,101 3.0% 437,193
Peru[50] 29,546,963 <3.0% 866,408
Bolivia[51] 9,775,246 0/9% [52] 993,080
Chile[53] 16,601,707 N/A[54] 0
Paraguay[55] 6,995,655 N/A[54] 0
Argentina[56] 40,913,584 N/A[54] 0
Uruguay[57] 3,494,382 4.0% 139,775
North America
United States[58] 299,398,485 0.2% 616,953
Mexico[59] 111,211,789 <1.0% 1,112,117

(*)Note that population statistics from different sources and countries use highly divergent methods of identifying race, ethnicity, or national or genetic origin of individuals, from observing for color and racial characteristics, to asking the person to choose from a set of pre-defined choices, sometimes with an "other" category, and sometimes with an open-ended option, and sometimes not, which different national populations tend to choose in divergent ways. Color and visual characteristics were considered an invalid way to determine the genetic "racial" branch in anthoprology (the field of science that original conceived of race, as a genetic branch of people who could have a relative success together compared with other branches, now considered invalid) as of 1910. It is likely these numbers do not fully reflect the percentage of the population that is of African heritage if you use any method of identification other than that of self-identification such as; the blood quantum definition, identification based on physical characteristics and identification by cultural traces. Self-identification also fails to identify those who would consider themselves of African heritage if the option were given in the national census.

See also

References

  1. ^ The American Heritage Book of English Usage. Latino discussed.
  2. ^ Names and Labels
    See also [1] for discussion which describes the application of "Afro" to a term.
  3. ^ AfroCuba.org
  4. ^ Museu AfroBrasil
  5. ^ Afro-Latin Americans: A rising voice by Audra D.S. Burch, Miami Herald
  6. ^ Global Afro Latino & Caribbean Initiative
  7. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2075.html CIA - The World Factbook - Field Listing - Ethnic groups
  8. ^ Latin America#Racial Origins
  9. ^ Henry Louis Gates Jr., Nellie Y. McKay (1997). The Norton Anthology African American Literature. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.. pp. 2665. ISBN 0-8133-0071-1. 
  10. ^ Puerto Rico - DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000
  11. ^ a b c BBC Mundo: ¿Colombia hacia la integración racial?
  12. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named encarta; see Help:Cite error.
  13. ^ "The Cultural Space". UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/culture/intangible-heritage/11lac_uk.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  14. ^ A Language, Not Quite Spanish, With African Echoes
  15. ^ "Nicomedes Santa Cruz". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. http://www.webcitation.org/5kmCzk7Ph. 
  16. ^ Democracy now
  17. ^ Montgomery, Tommie Sue (1995). Revolution in El Salvador: from civil strife to civil peace. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-0071-1. 
  18. ^ Gates, Henry Louis (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. 
  19. ^ Helms, Mary (1977). Negro or Indian?. 
  20. ^ Lang, Julio (1951). Espectro Racial de Honduras. 
  21. ^ Knight, Alan (1990). The Idea of Race in Latin America. 
  22. ^ Wade, Peter (1993). Blackness and Race Mixture. 
  23. ^ Cuba census 2001
  24. ^ Minorities At Risk
  25. ^ MazaWorld
  26. ^ "Haiti: People". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ha.html#People. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  27. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Puerto Rico
  28. ^ http://www.kacike.org/MartinezEnglish.pdf
  29. ^ http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/demsem/loveman-muniz.pdf#search='race%20classification%20Puerto%20Rico'
  30. ^ CIA - The World Factbook
  31. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Haiti". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ha.html. 
  32. ^ CIA World Factbook lists mulatto and white as a category with 5% of population
  33. ^ U.S. Library of Congress
  34. ^ CIA World Factbook list population as 73% mixed race (unspecified) and 11 % black https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/dr.html
  35. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Cuba". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html. 
  36. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Puerto Rico". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ha.html. 
  37. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Guatemala". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/gt.html. 
  38. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Belize". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/bh.html. 
  39. ^ "CIA World Factbook - El Salvador". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/es.html. 
  40. ^ No black population listed
  41. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Honduras". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ho.html. 
  42. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Nicaragua". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/nu.html. 
  43. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Costa Rica". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/cs.html. 
  44. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Panama". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/pm.html. 
  45. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Colombia". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/co.html. 
  46. ^ Venezuela
  47. ^ Seeing Black
  48. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Brazil". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/br.html. 
  49. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Ecuador". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ec.html. 
  50. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Peru". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/pe.html. 
  51. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Bolivia". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/bl.html. 
  52. ^ None listed
  53. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Chile". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ci.html. 
  54. ^ a b c none listed
  55. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Paraguay". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/pa.html. 
  56. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Argentina". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ar.html. 
  57. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Uruguay". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/uy.html. 
  58. ^ "Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B03002&-tree_id=306&-redoLog=false&-currentselections=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B02001&-currentselections=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B02003&-currentselections=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_C02003&-geo_id=01000US&-search_results=01000US&-format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  59. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Mexico". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/mx.html. 

External links


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