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A UH-1D helicopter from the 336th Aviation Company sprays a defoliation agent on a dense jungle area in the Mekong Delta.
^ However, USASCURR further stated that the "Hayes Company" developed the spray equipment used in the Ranch Hand defoliation program.

^ Defoliant is a chemical that is sprayed or dusted on plants that cause the leaves to fall off (See: Agent Orange ).
  • Agent Orange Terminlogy 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gmasw.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ranch Hand aircraft sprayed more than 9,000 acres of mangrove forests there, defoliating approximately 95 percent of the targeted area.
  • Agent Orange/Dioxin Committee 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC utvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

26 July 1969/National Archives photograph.
.Agent Orange is the code name for a herbicide and defoliant—contaminated with TCDD—used by the U.S. military in its Herbicidal Warfare program during the Vietnam War.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam where Agent Orange was used or tested over a number of .
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the Vietnam war era, Guam was used as storage facility for agent orange, a kind of chemical herbicide used in Vietnam in 1968 and 1969.

.From 1961 to 1971, Agent Orange was by far the most widely used of the so-called "Rainbow Herbicides" employed in the herbicidal warfare program.^ The most widely used of these agents was Orange.
  • Agent Orange/Dioxin Committee 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC utvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S....
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "If no change is made, no condemnation of the use of Agent Orange, no call for...
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the production of Agent Orange (as well as Agents Purple, Pink, and Green) dioxins were produced as a contaminant, which have caused health problems for those exposed during the Vietnam War.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And this despite evidence at the plants producing Agent Orange that workers exposed to it suffered unusual health problems.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the war of rainbow herbicides, Agents Orange, Blue, White, Purple, Green and Pink.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agent Orange/Dioxin Committee 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC utvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Agents Blue and White were part of the same program but did not contain dioxins.^ Agents Blue and White were part of the same program but did not contain dioxins.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orange and White are used as defoliants and Agent Blue as a desiccant.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the war of rainbow herbicides, Agents Orange, Blue, White, Purple, Green and Pink.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Early development

.The earliest form of the compound triiodobenzoic acid was studied by Arthur Galston as a plant growth hormone.^ Part of their concern came following a November 1967 study by Yale University botany Professor Arthur Galston.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The research was motivated by the desire to adapt soybeans for short growing season. Arthur Galston is widely known for the social impact his work had on science. .This defoliant was modeled after Galston’s discovery of triiodobenzoic acid in 1943. Galston was especially concerned about the compound’s side effects to humans and the environment.^ This despite Dow's concerns about human exposure to Agent Orange expressed internally in 1965 but hidden from the government.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Effects of Modern Weapons on the Human Environment in Indochina .
  • Moïse's Bibliography: Agent Orange; Ecological 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.Galston found that excessive usage of the compound caused catastrophic defoliation - a finding used by his colleague Ian Sussex to develop a family of herbicides[2] (Galston later campaigned against its use in Vietnam).^ This says little about the use of chemicals in Vietnam, but readers interested in that topic will find it useful for its picture of the way chemical warfare issues were discussed inside the U.S. government in the 1960s.
  • Moïse's Bibliography: Agent Orange; Ecological 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1960 the South Vietnamese government requested that the U.S. government conduct trials of these herbicides for use against guerrilla forces.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Pending decision by the appropriate department on whether this herbicide can remain on the domestic market, defoliation missions in South Vietnam using Orange should be targeted only for areas remote from population.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These herbicides were developed during the 1940s by independent teams in England and the United States for use in controlling broad-leaf plants.^ In 1960 the South Vietnamese government requested that the U.S. government conduct trials of these herbicides for use against guerrilla forces.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 20 million gallons of herbicides were used in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 to remove unwanted plant life and leaves which otherwise provided cover for enemy forces during the Vietnam Conflict.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D [2], which kills broad leaf weeds, has been approved since the 1940s and was a constituent part of Agent Orange – the defoliant used by the US during the war in Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phenoxyl agents work by mimicking a plant growth hormone, indoleacetic acid (IAA).^ Agent Orange had its genesis as a defoliant in an obscure laboratory at the University of Chicago during World War II. Working on experimental plant growth at the time, Professor E.J. Kraus, chairman of the school's botany department, discovered that he could regulate the growth of plants through the infusion of various hormones.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When sprayed on broad-leaf plants they induce rapid, uncontrolled growth, eventually defoliating them.^ Among the discoveries he made was that certain broadleaf vegetation could be killed by causing the plants to experience sudden, uncontrolled growth.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When sprayed on crops such as wheat or corn, it selectively kills only the broad-leaf weeds in the field, leaving the crop relatively unaffected.^ D [2], which kills broad leaf weeds, has been approved since the 1940s and was a constituent part of Agent Orange – the defoliant used by the US during the war in Vietnam in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 2009 Union of Concerned Scientists study calculated that only 14% of recent corn-crop yield increases are due to genetically engineered Bt corn.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, only four major GE crops are sold commercially -- corn, cotton, soy, and canola.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First introduced in 1946 in the agricultural farms of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, these herbicides were in widespread use in agriculture by the middle of the 1950s.^ In 1960 the South Vietnamese government requested that the U.S. government conduct trials of these herbicides for use against guerrilla forces.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following the war, Monsanto championed the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, and began manufacturing the herbicide 2,4,5-T, which contains dioxin.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first recorded military use took place in Malaysia in the 1950s where the British used 2-4-5-T to clear communication routes.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

Description

.Agent Orange was given its name from the color of the 55 US gallons (210 L) orange-striped barrels it was shipped in.^ DOD sprayed an estimated 11 million gallons of Agent Orange in Vietnam during the war.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But despite US$3 million recently given to Agent Orange clean up efforts by the Obama administration, Aldis cannot be sure justice will be served by the hearings.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S....
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a roughly 1:1 mixture of two phenoxyl herbicides in iso-octyl ester form, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
2,4-D
2,4,5-T
.Internal memos from the companies that manufactured it reveal that at the time Agent Orange was sold to the U.S. government for use in Vietnam it was known that it contained a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), a by-product of the manufacture 2,4,5-T.[3] The National Toxicology Program has classified TCDD to be a human carcinogen, frequently associated with soft-tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam where Agent Orange was used or tested over a number of .
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a study by the Institute of Medicine, a link has been found between dioxin exposure and diabetes.^ Claimants, however, have faced three challenges to proving a causal link between their medical conditions and their exposure to dioxin.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite efforts to shut down research and cover up results of studies not favorable to the government or chemical companies, evidence continued to flow in showing a definite statistical link between cancers and exposure to Agent Orange and dioxin: .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There is no risk in this study associated with (dioxin) exposure," said Dr. Daniel Hoffman of the CDC. Veterans groups were appalled by the findings.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5]
.Three studies have suggested an increase in the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia in the children of Vietnam veterans, which might be associated with exposure to Agent Orange.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Disabilities in children of Vietnam veterans .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Birthweight (in children of Vietnam Veterans) .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .A variety of other conditions have been suggested to be linked to exposure, but studies have failed to confirm a link with these diseases.^ The Department of Veterans Affairs must now decide if it will formally recognize the link between Agent Orange exposure and these conditions, according to Jerry Manar, an official with the group Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Claimants, however, have faced three challenges to proving a causal link between their medical conditions and their exposure to dioxin.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The University of Kentucky's Hollie Swanson and other members of the panel said the evidence for both of the links is limited or suggestive, but still persuasive.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

[7] .Just 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of TCDD was released in the Seveso disaster causing widespread effects on people and livestock.^ In the mid 1970s, there was renewed interest in dioxin and its effects on human health following an industrial accident in Seveso, Italy, in which dioxin was released into the air, causing animal deaths and human sickness.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Use in the Vietnam War

Defoliant spray run, part of Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War by UC-123B Provider aircraft.
Vietnamese woman born with deformed face as a result of exposure to Agent Orange.
Group of handicapped children, most of them victims of Agent Orange
.During the Vietnam war, between 1962 and 1971, the United States military sprayed 77,000,000 litres (17,000,000 imp gal; 20,000,000 US gal) of chemical defoliants in South Vietnam as part of a defoliant program.^ Chemicals used in Military Operations during the Vietnam War .
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1962, 15,000 gallons of herbicide were sprayed throughout Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange Information This list is intended to help those who are researching Agent Orange and the problems it is causing to their family members due to the spraying during the Vietnam War and other locations .
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .20 percent of South Vietnam's jungles were sprayed over a nine year period.^ Flying over portions of South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia that had been sprayed, the pilots could see the effects of their work.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Vietnam War, an estimated 20 million gallons of Agent Orange were deployed in South Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USA Dear Mr Grant, In 1961, three years after you were born, U.S. forces began their ten-year use of Agent Orange in South Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The first objective was to reduce the dense jungle foliage so that Communist forces might not use it for cover and to deny them use of crops needed for sustenance.^ During the Vietnam War, the U.S. dropped millions of gallons of Agent Orange, a toxic defoliant, on Vietnam in an attempt to remove the jungle used for cover by communist forces.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Argues that crop destruction harmed the peasants more than it denied rice to Viet Cong military forces.
  • Moïse's Bibliography: Agent Orange; Ecological 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1965, 42 percent of all herbicide spraying was dedicated to food crops.[9] .The second objective was spot clearing in sensitive areas such as around base perimeters.^ It was widely used to suppress vegetation around the perimeters of military bases and, in many instances, the interiors of those bases.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] It was also used to drive civilians into RVN-controlled areas.[11]
.In 1963, the United States (suspecting the negative effects) initiated a study on the health effects of Agent Orange that by 1967 confirmed that the chemical caused cancer, birth defects and other serious health problems.^ Agent Orange on Guam confirmed .

^ Father and son believed that exposure to Agent Orange caused the cancers.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report by a panel of the U.S. Institute of Medicine was the latest in a series issued every two years assessing the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other chemicals used as herbicides by the U.S. military in Vietnam.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

[9] .The outcome of the study had no effect whatsoever on the use of Agent Orange.^ "If no change is made, no condemnation of the use of Agent Orange, no call for...
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange was used by far the most.

^ The report by a panel of the U.S. Institute of Medicine was the latest in a series issued every two years assessing the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other chemicals used as herbicides by the U.S. military in Vietnam.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

[9] .It has been alleged that the use of Agent Orange by the US in Vietnam was a violation of the Geneva Conventions.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam where Agent Orange was used or tested over a number of .
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vietnam were exposed to Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

[12][13]

Effects on health

.According to Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4.8 million Vietnamese people were exposed to Agent Orange, resulting in 400,000 deaths and disabilities, and 500,000 children born with birth defects.^ Vietnam were exposed to Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agent Orange devastates generations of Vietnamese .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of Veterans Affairs must now decide if it will formally recognize the link between Agent Orange exposure and these conditions, according to Jerry Manar, an official with the group Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

[14 ] .The most affected zones are the mountainous area along Truong Son (Long Mountains) and the border between Vietnam and Cambodia.^ Let's contemplate a mile wide no-grow zone all along our Mexican and Canadian borders.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of the small animals in Zone A of the exposed area died or had to be destroyed.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

The affected residents are living in sub-standard conditions with many genetic diseases.[15]
.The use of Agent Orange still has an effect on the citizens of Vietnam, poisoning their food chain and creating concern about its effect on human beings.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam where Agent Orange was used or tested over a number of .
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agents Orange and White are still being produced.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

.This chemical has been reported to cause serious skin diseases as well as a vast variety of cancers in the lungs, larynx, and prostate.^ There were skin and liver diseases and what seemed to be an abnormal number of cancers to soft tissue organs such as the lungs and stomach.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The veteran underwent a radical retropubic prostatectomy for the prostate cancer, pathologically described as moderately well differentiated adenocarcinoma, in November 1995.

^ Dioxin, one of the most poisonous substances known to man, is known to cause many serious systemic diseases, autoimmune illnesses, cancers and birth defects.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Children in the areas where Agent Orange was used have been affected and have multiple health problems including cleft palate, mental disabilities, hernias, and extra fingers and toes.^ Agent Orange was used by far the most.

^ The report by a panel of the U.S. Institute of Medicine was the latest in a series issued every two years assessing the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other chemicals used as herbicides by the U.S. military in Vietnam.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Those findings add both conditions to a list of Agent Orange-linked health problems that already includes several rare cancers, type II diabetes and birth defects in the children of the veterans exposed.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N27280764.htm 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

[16]

Perception and information

.Until the 21st century much of the data on the effects of Agent Orange in Vietnam, was compiled by Vietnamese scientists in Vietnam and largely unavailable to the worldwide English reader.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam were exposed to Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agent Orange devastates generations of Vietnamese .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, general public perception in Vietnam is that the effects are severe and clearly visible in children of veterans and people in affected areas.^ Disabilities in children of Vietnam veterans .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Low Birthweight (in children of Vietnam Veterans) .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Childhood Cancer (in children of Vietnam Veterans) .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

.Veterans have become increasingly concerned about the effects of Agent Orange to humans.^ Derwinski also decided not to challenge a California court's finding that the VA was applying too strict a standard to determine whether Agent Orange harmed Vietnam veterans.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a true study of the effects of Agent Orange, say the veterans - a study devoid of government interference and political considerations, the war of the rainbow herbicides will go on.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, in early 1971, the U.S. Surgeon General prohibited the use of Agent Orange for home use because of possible harmful effects on humans and on June 30, 1971, all United States defoliation operations in Vietnam were brought to an end.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While in Vietnam, the veterans were told not to worry, and were persuaded that the chemical was harmless.^ Today in Vietnam there are 3.5 million people from new born babies to veterans suffering from the effects of the chemical your company made.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the terms of the settlement, the Vietnam veterans who claimed exposure to Agent Orange would receive $180 million from the chemical companies.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soldiers in Vietnam sprayed one another with AGENT ORANGE in spray fights as they were told the chemical was harmless.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .In the last few years, this opinion has changed, and studies show the true effects Agent Orange has on humans.^ In the summer of 1986, the House Veterans Affairs Subcommittee on Hospitals and Health Care held hearings to assess the progress of the CDC study of Agent Orange, mandated seven years earlier.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1983, the results of studies of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure began to trickle in.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a true study of the effects of Agent Orange, say the veterans - a study devoid of government interference and political considerations, the war of the rainbow herbicides will go on.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.For more than a decade The Hatfield Group from Vancouver, Canada has been researching the long-term environmental effects of Agent Orange.^ In accepting the claim, Labor referenced VA's policy regarding Agent Orange claims and an Environmental Protection Agency report on the health effects of dioxin exposure to justify its approval of compensation.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An indepth reading of the report reveals even more sordid details of how the CDC and the White House stacked the deck on Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a true study of the effects of Agent Orange, say the veterans - a study devoid of government interference and political considerations, the war of the rainbow herbicides will go on.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their extensive research has found that in the areas that were sprayed by Agent Orange during the war, no longer contain measurable amounts of dioxin and do not pose a health threat.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange was a war agent.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, many of the former US military bases in Vietnam where the herbicides were stored and loaded onto airplanes still have high level of dioxins in the soil.^ However, the claim was denied because Labor determined that the claimant failed to submit medical evidence that attributed his bladder cancer to his exposure to herbicides in Vietnam.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The military sprayed herbicides in Vietnam six to 25 times the rate suggested by the manufacturer.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The herbicide “Agent Orange,” used by U.S. military forces as a defoliant during the Vietnam War, was a mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D and had very high concentrations of dioxin.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These 'Dioxin Hotspots' still pose a health threat to the surrounding communities.^ The CDC, meanwhile, continues to perpetrate the scientifically flawed myth that Agent Orange and dioxin posed no health threats to Vietnam veterans.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dow still argues that these Dioxin levels are so low as to be harmless, especially since they are airborne rather than transmitted through the food chain.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

.The airbases in Bien Hoa, Da Nang and Phu Cat have been put on a priority list for clean-up or containment by the Vietnamese government.^ Only the United States Government can spend millions of dollars cleaning up the toxic chemical mess on Guam and then deny the existence of the toxic chemicals even being there.

[19]

Acknowledgement by the U.S. Government

.Until recently, the US government has not addressed the effects of Agent Orange in Vietnam.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam were exposed to Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange Info 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC veteransinfo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ JOHN DIMSDALE: Some two million U.S. soldiers were exposed to Agent Orange in Vietnam and the department estimates as many as 200,000 are likely to seek government-provided medical treatment for the newly approved diseases.
  • More Agent Orange vets to benefit | Marketplace From American Public Media 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC marketplace.publicradio.org [Source type: General]

.In 2002, Vietnam and the US held a joint conference on Human Health and Environmental Impacts of Agent Orange.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vietnam veterans and their families who brought the original Agent Orange lawsuit stated 25 years ago that the government "is just waiting for us all to die".
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In accepting the claim, Labor referenced VA's policy regarding Agent Orange claims and an Environmental Protection Agency report on the health effects of dioxin exposure to justify its approval of compensation.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the conference the US National Institute of Environmental and Health Sciences (NIEHS) began scientific exchanges between the US and Vietnam and began discussions for a joint research project on the human health impacts of Agent Orange.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, both the National Institutes of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency consider dioxin a carcinogen on the basis of studies showing associations between exposure and medical conditions such as lung cancer.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Agent Orange Act subsequently authorized awards on the presumption that any veteran who served in Vietnam and who develops certain diseases identified by the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine (IOM) and accepted by VA had been exposed to Agent Orange.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These negotiations broke down in 2005 when neither side could agree on the research protocol and the research project was canceled. However, more progress has been made on the environmental front. In 2003 the first US-Vietnam workshop on remediation of dioxin was held.
.Starting in 2005 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency‎ (EPA) began to work with the Vietnamese government to measure the level of dioxin at the Da Nang Airbase.^ In accepting the claim, Labor referenced VA's policy regarding Agent Orange claims and an Environmental Protection Agency report on the health effects of dioxin exposure to justify its approval of compensation.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contains tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (dioxin), a chemical that the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have classified as highly toxic and carcinogenic.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We conducted our work in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards between June 2004 and March 2005.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also in 2005 the Joint Advisory Committee on Agent Orange made up of representatives of Vietnamese and US government agencies was established.^ Agent Orange devastates generations of Vietnamese .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A CBS News report on June 12, 2005, said Agent Orange was sprayed on Guam from 1955 to 1960s, and in the Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to 1970s.

^ Vietnam veterans and their families who brought the original Agent Orange lawsuit stated 25 years ago that the government "is just waiting for us all to die".
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The committee has been meeting yearly to explore areas of scientific cooperation, technical assistance and environmental remediation of dioxin.
.Some talking without any breakthrough came as a result of President George W. Bush's state visit to Vietnam in November 2006. In the joint statement between President Bush and President Triet regarding the visit further cooperation on long-term environmental and human health impacts of Vietnam War era dioxin was raised.^ In accepting the claim, Labor referenced VA's policy regarding Agent Orange claims and an Environmental Protection Agency report on the health effects of dioxin exposure to justify its approval of compensation.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, using numbers provided by two agencies that were able to locate some records--the Department of State and DOD--we developed estimates of the number of federal and contract employees in five agencies who may have worked in Vietnam between 1964 and 1974.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provisions of 38 C.F.R. 3.307(6)(iii) (1997) further state that such a veteran who served in the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam era and has such a (listed) disease shall be presumed to have been exposed to the herbicides.

.In late May 2007, President Bush signed into law a supplemental spending bill for the war in Iraq and Afghanistan that included an earmark of $3 million specifically for funding for programs for the remediation of dioxin 'hotspots' on former US military bases and for public health programs for the surrounding communities.^ Although they were first considered for military use at the end of the War in the Pacific, the first application (of 2-4-D) was for domestic weed control in the US. .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The master plan also suggested using $52 million to fund a "class assistance foundation" earmarked for benefit programs.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Caution, Hazardous Waste Site, Dioxin Contamination," read the signs leading into Times Beach.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Use outside of Vietnam

.Agent Orange was also widely used by the US Military from the late 1940s through the 1970s.^ Although they were first considered for military use at the end of the War in the Pacific, the first application (of 2-4-D) was for domestic weed control in the US. .
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orange and White are used as defoliants and Agent Blue as a desiccant.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.vvnw.org [Source type: Academic]

[21][22]

United States

.In December 2006 a report titled "The History of the US Department of Defense Programs for the Testing, Evaluation, and Storage of Tactical Herbicides," Submitted by Alvin L. Young, Ph.^ The report did not specify what department or agency would be responsible for creating and maintaining this special program.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regarding the effect of VC/NVA combat and infiltration capability, the memo reported that "Very few PWs who have infiltrated even mention the effects of US herbicide operations.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.D., for Under Secretary of Defense William Van Houten listed Agent Orange test sites at Fort Gordon (Augusta, Georgia), Fort Chaffee (Fort Smith, Arkansas) and Apalachicola National Forest (Sopchoppy, Florida).^ This is the report VA uses to establish the diseases it will recognize as associated with Agent Orange exposure under the Agent Orange Act.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proof that Agent Orange was tested in the US and veterans exposed to it here were and still are being denied VA benefits.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the Agent Orange Act, VA uses IOM's biennial review of research on dioxin exposure and recommendations to add to its list of accepted medical conditions related to Agent Orange exposure.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The Veteran Administration has also acknowledged that Agent Orange was used domestically by U.S. forces.^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Derwinski also decided not to challenge a California court's finding that the VA was applying too strict a standard to determine whether Agent Orange harmed Vietnam veterans.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T; used between January 1965 and April 1970.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Korea

.In September 2000, the Veteran Administration (VA) recognized that Agent Orange was used in Korea in the late 1960s.^ VA notes that the Agent Orange Act does not itself authorize VA to provide compensation and treatment to veterans, but merely establishes evidentiary rules that apply to existing benefit programs.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although these costs do not include the costs of administering the claims, when VA added diabetes as a condition related to Agent Orange exposure, it estimated that the administrative costs for each claim processed would be about $350.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Republic of Korea troops are reported to have done the spraying, which occurred along the demilitarized zone with North Korea.^ A CBS News report on June 12, 2005, said Agent Orange was sprayed on Guam from 1955 to 1960s, and in the Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to 1970s.

Thailand

.Agent Orange was routinely used to clear Thai airbase perimiters, those airbases were used by the US throughout the course of the Vietnam War.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the use of Agent Orange throughout Vietnam was widespread through much of 1969.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange was a war agent.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One base, UdornRTAFB, in Udon Thani, Thailand was used as a staging point for herbicides used along the Lao border with Vietnam.^ One of the U.S. government's worst planned and executed efforts to use herbicides was a secret operation known as "Project Pink Rose."
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Vietnam war era, Guam was used as storage facility for agent orange, a kind of chemical herbicide used in Vietnam in 1968 and 1969.

^ The herbicide “Agent Orange,” used by U.S. military forces as a defoliant during the Vietnam War, was a mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D and had very high concentrations of dioxin.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The base at Udorn was also the staging point for CIA activities in Laos and North Vietnam.

Canadian Forces Base Gagetown (New Brunswick, Canada)

.The U.S. military, with the permission of the Canadian government, secretly tested many unregistered U.S. military herbicides, including Agent Orange, in the forests near the Canadian Forces Base Gagetown in New Brunswick in 1966 and 1967. On September 12, 2007, Greg Thompson, Minister of Veterans Affairs, announced that the government of Canada was offering a one-time ex gratia payment of $20,000 as the compensation package for Agent Orange exposure at CFB Gagetown.^ Newark, New Jersey, was one of the major producers of Agent Orange for the government.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Veterans have sent in photos of Agent Orange and White on Guam.

^ Proof that Agent Orange was tested in the US and veterans exposed to it here were and...
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

Globe (Arizona, United States)

Billee Shoecraft died of cancer in 1977. She began suffering from cancer after a helicopter sprayed her with the defoliant Kuron. Before her death, Shoecraft wrote a book about her experience in which she said that after she was sprayed her eyes were nearly swollen shut, her arms and legs were swollen to twice their normal size and her hair was falling out in patches.[27] .Kuron, a herbicide related to Agent Orange, was sprayed by the U.S. Forest Service to thin foliage and increase water runoff in the Pinal Mountains of the Tonto National Forest near Globe, Arizona, in 1968 and 1969. Dow Chemical Company and the U.S. Forest Service paid an undisclosed sum to five families.^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the companies named were Dow Chemical Co.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A CBS News report on June 12, 2005, said Agent Orange was sprayed on Guam from 1955 to 1960s, and in the Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to 1970s.

Shoecraft wrote a book entitled, Sue the Bastards!, about her incident in 1971.

Innisfail (Queensland, Australia)

It is speculated[28][29] that the Australian military tested Agent Orange on Innisfail, a small town in northern Queensland, between 1964 and 1966.[30]
.Files from the Australian War Memorial archives showed the chemicals 2,4-D, Diquat, Tordon and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) were sprayed on the rainforest in the Gregory Falls area in June 1966, as part of a wider chemical weapons test program dubbed 'Operation Desert'. These claims were made by Jean Williams, who was given the Order of Australia Medal for her work concerning Vietnam War veterans.^ [Footnote 18] Including civilian employees who worked in Vietnam under these options also has policy implications.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November, 1966, three free strike target areas were selected: one in War Zone D and two in War Zone C. Each target was a box seven kilometers square.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noting VA's presumption that any veteran who served in Vietnam and developed certain medical conditions associated with Agent Orange had been exposed, the claims examiner stated that it would be difficult for Labor to take a contrary position.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She claimed she found evidence pertaining to the use of toxic herbicide, but that evidence was missing from archives.^ However, the claim was denied because Labor determined that the claimant failed to submit medical evidence that attributed his bladder cancer to his exposure to herbicides in Vietnam.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There is no evidence," Tschirley wrote, "to suggest that the herbicides used in Vietnam will cause toxicity problems for man or animals."
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The herbicides used in Vietnam are only moderately toxic to warm-blooded animals," Tschirley wrote.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] Anna Bligh, the Queensland Premier stated that the government would investigate thoroughly the supposed tests in the forest.[32]
.These claims have since been proved false by a Defence Science and Technology Organization investigation.^ VA approves these organizations to help veterans, service members, and dependents prepare their claims and present them to VA. An accredited representative works for the service organization and knows how to prepare and present claims.

.They found that there was a small-scale defoliation trial conducted in the Gregory Falls area near Innisfail in 1966 but it did not involve Agent Orange.^ This material is present in the defoliant (Agent) Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fee for VA home and small business loan cases: An attorney or agent may charge you a reasonable fee for services involving a VA home loan or small business loan.

^ Until there is a true study of the effects of Agent Orange, say the veterans - a study devoid of government interference and political considerations, the war of the rainbow herbicides will go on.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Claims the cancer rate was 10 times as high in Innisfail were also proved to be untrue by Queensland Health, who have stated it was caused by media miscalculation.^ Of the 11 claims that were denied, Labor denied 10 of them because the claimant failed to prove a causal link between his medical condition and exposure to Agent Orange, and 1 claim was denied because it was not filed within the time limits prescribed by FECA. Furthermore, 5 of the claims denied by Labor were appealed by the claimants.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The New York Times didn't mention it; on The Washington Post website, it rated a few paragraphs in the midst of a daily health round up.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under FECA, to prove causation, claimants must provide "medical evidence establishing that the employment factors identified by the claimant were the proximate cause of the condition for which compensation is claimed, or, stated differently, medical evidence establishing that the diagnosed condition is causally related to the employment factors identified by the claimant."
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
===Guam=== After a veteran contracted a disease as a result of exposure to Agent Orange, the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans concluded that toxic herbicides have been used in Guam.
^ Agent Orange on Guam confirmed .

^ Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S....
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many Veterans have sent in photos of Agent Orange and White on Guam.

.During the Vietnam War, Guam was used as a storage facility for Agent Orange.^ Agent Orange on Guam confirmed .

^ During the Vietnam war era, Guam was used as storage facility for agent orange, a kind of chemical herbicide used in Vietnam in 1968 and 1969.

^ Agent Orange was a war agent.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A CBS News report on June 12, 2005, said Agent Orange was sprayed on Guam from 1955 to the 1960s, and in the Panama Canal Zone from the 1960s to sometime in the 1970s.^ Agent Orange on Guam confirmed .

^ A CBS News report on June 12, 2005, said Agent Orange was sprayed on Guam from 1955 to 1960s, and in the Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to 1970s.

^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]

Brazil

.The Brazilian government used Agent Orange to defoliate a large section of the Amazon rainforest so that the multinational corporation Alcoa could build the Tucuruí dam to power mining operations.^ Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S....
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This material is present in the defoliant (Agent) Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange was used by far the most.

Large areas of rainforest were destroyed, along with the homes and livelihoods of thousands of rural peasants and indigenous tribes.[34]

Effects of the program

New Jersey Agent Orange Commission

.In 1980, New Jersey created the New Jersey Agent Orange Commission, the first state commission created to study its effects.^ A CBS News report on June 12, 2005, said Agent Orange was sprayed on Guam from 1955 to 1960s, and in the Panama Canal Zone from 1960s to 1970s.

^ By 1983, the results of studies of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure began to trickle in.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a true study of the effects of Agent Orange, say the veterans - a study devoid of government interference and political considerations, the war of the rainbow herbicides will go on.
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The commission's research project in association with Rutgers University was called "The Pointman Project". It was disbanded by Governor Christine Todd Whitman in 1996.[35]
During Pointman I, commission researchers devised ways to determine small dioxin levels in blood. Prior to this, such levels could only be found in the adipose (fat) tissue. .The project compared dioxin levels in a small group of Vietnam veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange with a group of matched veterans who had not served in Vietnam.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proof that Agent Orange was tested in the US and veterans exposed to it here were and...
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American veterans of the Vietnam War were seeking recognition of Agent Orange syndrome, compensation and treatment for diseases that they and their children suffered from; many exposed to Agent Orange have not been able to receive promised medical care through the Veterans Administration medical system, and only with rare exception have their affected children received healthcare assistance from the government.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The results of this project were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1988.[36]
.The second phase of the project continued to examine and compare dioxin levels in various groups of Vietnam veterans including Army, Marines and brown water riverboat Navy personnel.^ "There is no risk in this study associated with (dioxin) exposure," said Dr. Daniel Hoffman of the CDC. Veterans groups were appalled by the findings.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, restriction of new enrollment for Priority Group 8 veterans has allowed VA to continue providing the high quality health care that veterans deserve.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This amendment would authorize full VA benefits to specific civilian groups that supported the military in Vietnam, and would allow civilians to apply for and obtain benefits in the same manner as veterans.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Litigation

Against manufacturers

.Since at least 1978, several lawsuits have been filed against the companies which produced Agent Orange, among them Dow Chemical, Monsanto, and Diamond Shamrock (which produced 5%[37]).^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the companies named were Dow Chemical Co.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the 1980s, several lawsuits have been filed against the companies which produced Agent Orange, among them; Dow Chemical, Monsanto, and Diamond Shamrock (which produced 5%[2]).
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.U.S. veterans obtained a $180 million settlement in 1984, with most affected veterans receiving a one-time lump sum payment of $1,200. According to the Department of Veterans Affairs, shortly after the Vietnam War veterans reported various health complications which can be traced to exposure to the chemical Agent Orange.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. veterans obtained a $180 million settlement in 1984, with most affected veterans receiving a one-time lump sum payment of $1,200.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the terms of the settlement, the Vietnam veterans who claimed exposure to Agent Orange would receive $180 million from the chemical companies.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Congress

.In 1991, the US Congress enacted the Agent Orange Act giving the Department of Veterans Affairs the authority to declare certain conditions 'presumptive' to exposure to Agent Orange/Dioxin enabling these veterans who served in Vietnam eligible to receive treatment and compensation for these conditions.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange Act of 1991, Pub.

^ After many years of controversy, in 1991 Congress passed the Agent Orange Act to provide military veterans who developed medical conditions related to dioxin exposure in Vietnam with easier access to compensation, such as payments for medical expenses.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .The same law required the National Academy of Sciences to periodically review the science on dioxin and herbicides used in Vietnam to inform the Secretary of Veterans Affairs about the strength of the scientific evidence showing association between exposure to Agent Orange/Dioxin and certain conditions.^ Victims of Agent Orange - Vietnam war .
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agent Orange is the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used by the U.S....
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accept your responsibility for the manufacture of Agent Orange and its use on Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
.Through this process, the list of 'presumptive' conditions has grown since 1991 and currently the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, peripheral neuropathy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange as conditions associated with exposure to the herbicide.^ Proof that Agent Orange was tested in the US and veterans exposed to it here were and...
  • Agent Orange // Current 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these conditions are types of cancers, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcomas, or skin disorders, such as chloracne.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 1987 study in the state of Washington showed veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange had significant increases in soft tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of October 2009, this list includes B cell leukemias, such as hairy cell leukemia, Parkinson’s disease and ischemic heart disease.
.American veterans of the Vietnam war were seeking recognition of Agent Orange syndrome, compensation and treatment for diseases that they and their children suffered from; many exposed to Agent Orange have not been able to receive promised medical care through the Veterans Administration medical system, and only in exceptional cases have their affected children received health care assistance from the government.^ But as the government continues to drag its feet, more veterans and their children continue to suffer the effects of Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking care of our Vietnam Veterans .
  • Agent Orange: Treatment For Vets Still Lagging, Says Report | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

^ Agent Orange was a war agent.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vietnam veterans and their families who brought the original Agent Orange lawsuit 25 years ago alleged that the government "is just waiting for us all to die". They alleged that most of those still alive would succumb to the effects of toxic exposure before the age of 65.

On behalf of Vietnam War allies

.In Australia, Canada and New Zealand, veterans obtained compensation in settlements that same year.^ This amendment would authorize full VA benefits to specific civilian groups that supported the military in Vietnam, and would allow civilians to apply for and obtain benefits in the same manner as veterans.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is mystifying is that Vietnam Veterans are dying at the SAME rate...only they are in their late 50's to 60's years old.
  • Agent Orange: Treatment For Vets Still Lagging, Says Report | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

In 1999, South Korean veterans filed a lawsuit in the Korean courts. .In January 2006, the Korean Appeal Court ordered Monsanto and Dow to pay US$62 million in compensation.^ After hearing of the CDC's latest study, he ordered the VA to pay compensation to all veterans suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a ruling which could mean as much as $23 million to the 1,600 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma sufferers or their widows and children.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dow Chemical ran out of the funds they were ordered to set aside for compensation....in the early 80's.
  • Agent Orange: Treatment For Vets Still Lagging, Says Report | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

^ A decision of the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board is final--claimants cannot appeal Labor's decisions in federal court.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, no Vietnamese have received compensation, and on March 10, 2005, Judge Jack B. Weinstein of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York dismissed the lawsuit filed by the Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange against the chemical companies which produced the defoliants and herbicides.^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prodded by U.S. District Judge Jack B. Weinstein, attorneys for the veterans and the chemical companies reached an agreement at 4 a.m.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This material is present in the defoliant (Agent) Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The case was appealed and heard by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals on June 18, 2007. The Court of Appeals upheld the dismissal of the case stating that the herbicides used during the war were not intended to be used to poison humans and therefore did not violate international law.^ Finally, in early 1971, the U.S. Surgeon General prohibited the use of Agent Orange for home use because of possible harmful effects on humans and on June 30, 1971, all United States defoliation operations in Vietnam were brought to an end.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galston did some experiments with Agent Orange and other herbicides to determine whether they were dangerous to humans and animals.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, using the limited historical data provided to us by the Department of State and the Department of Defense (DOD), we developed estimates of the number of civilian employees who worked in Vietnam during the war.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .The lawyers for the Vietnamese have petitioned the US Supreme Court to consider the case.^ In 1950, the Supreme Court ruled in a case involving the death of a military man that the government is not responsible for deaths, injuries or other losses related to military service.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U.S. Vietnamese victims class action lawsuit

.On January 31, 2004, a victim's rights group, the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin (VAVA), filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in Brooklyn, against several U.S. companies for liability in causing personal injury, by developing and producing the chemical.^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fed up with what they perceived as government inaction on the Agent Orange issue, veterans filed a class action lawsuit in 1982 against the chemical companies that had made Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labor located 5 claims by--upon our request--querying its database for claims where the date of injury was during the Vietnam War (January 1, 1964, through December 31, 1975) and the nature of the injury was an occupational disease, and then reviewing the list of claims produced to identify claims they remembered as being related to Agent Orange.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dow Chemical and Monsanto were the two largest producers of Agent Orange for the U.S. military and were named in the suit along with the dozens of other companies (Diamond Shamrock, Uniroyal, Thompson Chemicals, Hercules, etc.^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the companies named were Dow Chemical Co.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 1965, Dow official V.K. Rowe convened a meeting of executives of Monsanto, Hooker Chemical, which operated the Love Canal dump, Diamond Alkali, the forerunner of Diamond-Shamrock, and the Hercules Powder Co., which later became Hercules, Inc.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .A number of lawsuits by American GIs were settled out of court - without admission of liability by the chemical companies - in the years since the Vietnam War.^ Year: 1970; Annual federal employee personnel strength data provided by DOD: 1,133; Estimated number of DOD federal employees entering Vietnam each year, assuming a 2-year rotation: 235.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even federal employees can have difficulties locating their employer because of the many government reorganizations over the 30 years since the end of the Vietnam War.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tschirley went to Vietnam under the auspices of the State Department early in 1968 and returned with exactly the report the U.S. government and the chemical companies wanted.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1984, some chemical companies that manufactured Agent Orange paid $180 million into a fund for United States veterans following a lawsuit.^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the terms of the settlement, the Vietnam veterans who claimed exposure to Agent Orange would receive $180 million from the chemical companies.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fed up with what they perceived as government inaction on the Agent Orange issue, veterans filed a class action lawsuit in 1982 against the chemical companies that had made Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On March 10, 2005, Judge Jack B. Weinstein - who had defended the U.S. veterans victims of Agent Orange - dismissed the suit, ruling that there was no legal basis for the plaintiffs' claims.^ There is, in short, a presumed entitlement to care, services, and monetary assistance for America's Agent Orange victims, but no overarching system for fulfilling that entitlement except the private knowledge, initiative, and perseverance of each individual veteran.
  • Agent Orange: Treatment For Vets Still Lagging, Says Report | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

^ VA notes that the Agent Orange Act does not itself authorize VA to provide compensation and treatment to veterans, but merely establishes evidentiary rules that apply to existing benefit programs.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noting VA's presumption that any veteran who served in Vietnam and developed certain medical conditions associated with Agent Orange had been exposed, the claims examiner stated that it would be difficult for Labor to take a contrary position.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The judge concluded that Agent Orange was not considered a poison under international law at the time of its use by the U.S.; that the U.S. was not prohibited from using it as a herbicide; and that the companies which produced the substance were not liable for the method of its use by the government.^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And this despite evidence at the plants producing Agent Orange that workers exposed to it suffered unusual health problems.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until there is a true study of the effects of Agent Orange, say the veterans - a study devoid of government interference and political considerations, the war of the rainbow herbicides will go on.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The U.S. government is not a party in the lawsuit, claiming sovereign immunity.
.Three judges on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan heard the Appeals case on June 18, 2007. They upheld Weinstein's ruling to dismiss the case.^ In 1950, the Supreme Court ruled in a case involving the death of a military man that the government is not responsible for deaths, injuries or other losses related to military service.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They ruled that though the herbicides contained a dioxin (a known poison) they were not intended to be used as a poison on humans.^ What they didn't realize, or chose to ignore, was that 2,4,5-T contained dioxin, a useless by-product of herbicide production.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the U.S. government's worst planned and executed efforts to use herbicides was a secret operation known as "Project Pink Rose."
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Galston did some experiments with Agent Orange and other herbicides to determine whether they were dangerous to humans and animals.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Therefore they were not considered a chemical weapon and thus not a violation of international law. .A further review of the case by the whole panel of judges of the Court of Appeals also confirmed this decision.^ Claimants may also obtain review of the Benefits Review Board's decisions in federal court.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Claimants may appeal an administrative law judge's decision to Labor's Benefits Review Board.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 9 claims denied, 5 of the claimants asked Labor to review the insurance carriers' decisions, and 4 claimants took no further action on the claims.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lawyers for the Vietnamese have filed a petition to the US Supreme Court to hear the case.^ In 1950, the Supreme Court ruled in a case involving the death of a military man that the government is not responsible for deaths, injuries or other losses related to military service.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On March 2, 2009, the Supreme Court denied certiorari and refused to reconsider the ruling of the Court of Appeals[41].^ In 1950, the Supreme Court ruled in a case involving the death of a military man that the government is not responsible for deaths, injuries or other losses related to military service.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In order to assist those who have been impacted by Agent Orange/Dioxin, the Vietnamese have established "Peace villages", which each host between 50 to 100 victims, giving them medical and psychological help.^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noting VA's presumption that any veteran who served in Vietnam and developed certain medical conditions associated with Agent Orange had been exposed, the claims examiner stated that it would be difficult for Labor to take a contrary position.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1983, the results of studies of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure began to trickle in.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As of 2006, there were 11 such villages, thus granting some social protection to fewer than a thousand victims. .U.S. veterans of the war in Vietnam and individuals who are aware and sympathetic to the impacts of Agent Orange have also supported these programs in Vietnam.^ Agent Orange was a war agent.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congress could amend the Agent Orange Act and related legislation authorizing benefits for veterans to include civilians who worked in Vietnam or authorize a separate program to specifically cover these individuals.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Footnote 18] Including civilian employees who worked in Vietnam under these options also has policy implications.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An international group of Veterans from the U.S. and its allies during the Vietnam war working together with their former enemy - veterans from the Vietnam Veterans Association - established the Vietnam Friendship Village[42] located outside of Hanoi.^ "There is no risk in this study associated with (dioxin) exposure," said Dr. Daniel Hoffman of the CDC. Veterans groups were appalled by the findings.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The center provides medical care, rehabilitation and vocational training for children and veterans from Vietnam who have been impacted by Agent Orange.^ After many years of controversy, in 1991 Congress passed the Agent Orange Act to provide military veterans who developed medical conditions related to dioxin exposure in Vietnam with easier access to compensation, such as payments for medical expenses.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to information provided to us by VA officials, of the 2.3 million living military veterans who were in Vietnam during the war approximately 160,000 (less than 10 percent) are receiving disability compensation benefits from VA for the four most common medical conditions associated with Agent Orange exposure.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VA notes that the Agent Orange Act does not itself authorize VA to provide compensation and treatment to veterans, but merely establishes evidentiary rules that apply to existing benefit programs.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1998, The Vietnam Red Cross established the Vietnam Agent Orange Victims Fund to provide direct assistance to families throughout Vietnam that have been impacted by Agent Orange.^ VA notes that the Agent Orange Act does not itself authorize VA to provide compensation and treatment to veterans, but merely establishes evidentiary rules that apply to existing benefit programs.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Margaret L. Armen, Susan C. Bernstein, Benjamin A. Bolitzer, Christina Cromley, and Jean L. McSween provided key technical and legal assistance throughout the engagement.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2003, the Vietnam Association of Victims of Agent Orange (VAVA) was formed.^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Noting VA's presumption that any veteran who served in Vietnam and developed certain medical conditions associated with Agent Orange had been exposed, the claims examiner stated that it would be difficult for Labor to take a contrary position.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DOD sprayed an estimated 11 million gallons of Agent Orange in Vietnam during the war.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to filing the lawsuit against the chemical companies, VAVA also provides medical care, rehabilitation services and financial assistance to those impacted by Agent Orange.^ Of particular concern to the chemical companies was Agent Orange, which contained dioxin.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fed up with what they perceived as government inaction on the Agent Orange issue, veterans filed a class action lawsuit in 1982 against the chemical companies that had made Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the agency has no procedures for checking for data entry errors, and our review of Agent Orange claims identified errors.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

South Korean lawsuit

.In 1999, about 20,000 South Koreans filed two separated lawsuits against U.S. companies, seeking more than $5 billion in damages.^ Then on May 7, 1984, came the news that the Agent Orange lawsuit, filed two years earlier, had been settled.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But none of the others had the levels of dioxin contamination of Times Beach, parts of which had dioxin levels of 33,000 parts per billion, or 33,000 times more toxic than the EPA's level of acceptance.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ranch Hand aircraft sprayed more than 9,000 acres of mangrove forests there, defoliating approximately 95 percent of the targeted area.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After losing a decision in 2002, they filed an appeal.
.In January 2006, the South Korean Appeals Court ordered Dow Chemical and Monsanto to pay $62 million in compensation to about 6,800 people.^ After hearing of the CDC's latest study, he ordered the VA to pay compensation to all veterans suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a ruling which could mean as much as $23 million to the 1,600 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma sufferers or their widows and children.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A decision of the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board is final--claimants cannot appeal Labor's decisions in federal court.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ruling acknowledged that "the defendants failed to ensure safety as the defoliants manufactured by the defendants had higher levels of dioxins than standard", and, quoting the U.S. National Academy of Science report, declared that there was a "causal relationship" between Agent Orange and 11 diseases, including cancers of the lung, larynx and prostate.^ This material is present in the defoliant (Agent) Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one case file we reviewed, one of the claimant's doctors stated: "I have very little training in epidemiology and cannot tell you much about the coincidence of Agent Orange exposure with the development of prostate cancer," and another said he was "certainly unable to provide any kind of expert opinion" on the relationship between Agent Orange and the development of prostate cancer.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in one case, the claimant's doctor stated that he had reviewed the research on Agent Orange, relying primarily on the IOM biennial report that showed an association between prostate cancer and exposure to dioxin to support his opinion that the claimant's prostate cancer was related to his exposure to Agent Orange.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the judges failed to acknowledge "the relationship between the chemical and peripheral neuropathy, the disease most widespread among Agent Orange victims" according to the Mercury News.^ "The conclusion seems to fly in the face of other scientific studies, which indicates there is a connection between Agent Orange and cancer, birth defects and other disorders.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This despite evidence within the chemical companies that dioxin, the most toxic ingredient in Agent Orange, was responsible for health problems in laboratory animals and workers at the plants that produced the chemical.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the 32 civilian workers' compensation claims for diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure identified, we found that claimants faced many obstacles and that to date, most of the claims have been denied.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Canada lawsuit

.On July 12, 2005, Merchant Law Group LLP on behalf of over 1,100 Canadian veterans and civilians who were living in and around the CFB Gagetown filed a lawsuit to pursue class action litigation concerning Agent Orange and Agent Purple with the Federal Court of Canada[43].^ The federal court decision boosted the morale of the Agent Orange claimants.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On August 2, 1990, two veteran's groups filed suit in U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., charging that federal scientists canceled an Agent Orange study mandated by Congress in 1979 because of pressure from the White House.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fed up with what they perceived as government inaction on the Agent Orange issue, veterans filed a class action lawsuit in 1982 against the chemical companies that had made Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On August 4, 2009, the case was due to be thrown out of court due to lack of evidence. The ruling was appealed[44][45]
The lawsuit was not thrown out of court, it was initiated by the firm Barry Spalding Lawyers, and not the class action lawsuit by the Merchant Law Group in which was dismissed from the New Brunswick Court of Queen's Bench. The Merchant Law Group is still fighting its case in court cases in numerous provinces.[46]
.One of Merchant's client is Alison Patricia (born in Oromocto, New Brunswick, Canada) where Agent Orange was sprayed in 1966 and 1967. Alison suffered severe neurodevelopmental birth defects as a result.^ And this despite evidence at the plants producing Agent Orange that workers exposed to it suffered unusual health problems.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DOD sprayed an estimated 11 million gallons of Agent Orange in Vietnam during the war.
  • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1983, the results of studies of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure began to trickle in.
  • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alison is the case history in a newly published book,[47]

See also

References

  1. ^ Arthur W. Galston « 2004 « Articles « LASNews Magazine « Alumni & Friends « College of Liberal Arts & Sciences « University of Illinois
  2. ^ JEREMY PEARCE (June 23, 2008). "Arthur Galston, Agent Orange Researcher, Is Dead at 88 - Obituary". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/23/us/23galston.html?ref=us. Retrieved 2008-08-18.  
  3. ^ Barlett, Donald P. and James B. Steele (May 2008) Vanity Fair - http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/05/monsanto200805?currentPage=1 Retrieved 2008-12-09
  4. ^ Institute of Medicine - http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3793/4689/4695.aspx Agent Orange are respiratory cancers, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, primary amyloidosis.
  5. ^ National Academy of Sciences - Data Suggest a Possible Association Between Agent Orange Exposure and Hypertension: "the report also concluded that there is suggestive but limited evidence that AL amyloidosis is associated with herbicide exposure".Retrieved on 19 May 2008.
  6. ^ Frumkin H (2003). "Agent Orange and cancer: an overview for clinicians". CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 53 (4): 245–55. doi:10.3322/canjclin.53.4.245. PMID 12924777. http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12924777.  
  7. ^ MSNBC - "Agent Orange study ends, no cancer link found" by the Associated Press. Originally published 7 September 2006. Retrieved on 19 April 2007.
  8. ^ Vietnam Agent Orange Campaign - Agent orange and the war in Vietnam Prof Van-Tuan,Nguyen, Garvan Institute of Medical Research and University of New South Wales, Australia. Published by Giao Ðiem, 2005.
  9. ^ a b c d Anatomy of a War by Gabriel Kolko, ISBN 1-56584-218-9 pages 145
  10. ^ Tucker, Spencer. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: Political, Social and Military History. ABC-CLIO, Inc. Santa Barbara. 1998.
  11. ^ Anatomy of a War by Gabriel Kolko, ISBN 1-56584-218-9 pages 144-145
  12. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJxb7CY13uc
  13. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/foreign/content/2004/s1132424.htm
  14. ^ The Globe and Mail, June 12, 2008. 'Last Ghost of the Vietnam War'
  15. ^ Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs - [http://www.mofa.gov.vn/vi/tt_baochi/nr041126171753/ns050118101044 Support Agent Orange Victims in Vietnamese.
  16. ^ BBC News | Health | Agent Orange blights Vietnam
  17. ^ Killing Me Softly: How Agent Orange Murders Vietnam's Children
  18. ^ Agent Orange
  19. ^ The Hatfield Consultants
  20. ^ CRS Report for Congress Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and US-Vietnam Relations
  21. ^ Agent Orange information site
  22. ^ Specifics of Agent Orange use
  23. ^ http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/reading_room/TacticalHerbicides.pdf
  24. ^ "Report on DoD Herbicides Outside of Vietnam" (PDF). http://www1.va.gov/agentorange/docs/Report_on_DoD_Herbicides_Outside_of_Vietnam.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-18.  
  25. ^ "Agent Orange: Information for Veterans Who Served in Vietnam" (PDF). http://www1.va.gov/agentorange/docs/AOIB10-49JUL03.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-18.  
  26. ^ "People angry with Agent Orange package turn to class-action lawsuit". The Canadian Press. 2007-09-13. http://canadianpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5jf86SisH1AAn3uWIlyJPujHxvQhA. Retrieved 2007-10-01.  
  27. ^ Herbicide case in Arizona is settled NY Times March 5, 1981
  28. ^ "Qld Govt calls for probe into Agent Orange claims". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). May 19, 2008. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/05/19/2249400.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-18.  
  29. ^ "Vets expecting Agent Orange cover-up". ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). May 19, 2008. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/05/19/2248370.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-18.  
  30. ^ "Agent orange town". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2008-05-18. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/agent-orange-town/2008/05/18/1210765247617.html. Retrieved 2008-05-18.  
  31. ^ [1] May 19, 2008
  32. ^ [2] May 18, 2008
  33. ^ Agent Orange BVA Approved for Guam,Thailand, Okinawa
  34. ^ Kevin Danaher, ed (1994). 50 Years is Enough. South End Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0896084957.  
  35. ^ New York Times, 3 July 1996
  36. ^ Vol. 259 No. 11, 18 March 1988
  37. ^ Answers.com - Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corporation. Retrieved on 19 April 2007
  38. ^ Agent Orange - Office of Public Health and Environmental Hazards
  39. ^ PL 102-4 and The National Academy of Sciences
  40. ^ February 22, 2008 Decision by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals re: Vietnam Association of Victims of Agent Orange v. Dow Chemical Co.
  41. ^ http://www.supremecourtus.gov/orders/courtorders/030209zor.pdf
  42. ^ "Vietnam Friendship Village Project". http://www.vietnamfriendship.org. Retrieved 2008-08-18.  
  43. ^ "Agent Orange Class Action". Merchant Law Group LLP. http://www.merchantlaw.com/agentop.html. Retrieved 2007-10-01.  
  44. ^ [3]
  45. ^ timestranscript.com - Moncton judge rules in Agent Orange lawsuit | By SHAWN BERRY - Breaking News, New Brunswick, Canada
  46. ^ [4]
  47. ^ Autism: The Teratogen Fallout' by Dr. Olga Graham (2009).

Further reading

.
  • Agent Orange: The Last Battle.^ That proved to be only the beginning of the battle over Agent Orange.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Dir. Stephanie Jobe, Adam Scholl. DVD. 2005
  • Graham, Dr. Olga. Autism: The Teratogen Fallout. Toronto: Free Press 777, 2009.
  • Weisman, Joan Murray. .The Effects of Exposure to Agent Orange on the Intellectual Functioning, Academic Achievement, Visual Motor Skill, and Activity Level of the Offspring of Vietnam War Veterans. Doc toral thesis.^ When the report was released by the Food and Drug Administration, the White House, on October 29, 1969, ordered a partial curtailment of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Derwinski also decided not to challenge a California court's finding that the VA was applying too strict a standard to determine whether Agent Orange harmed Vietnam veterans.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By 1983, the results of studies of Agent Orange and dioxin exposure began to trickle in.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Hofstra University. 1986.
  • Klein, Robert. Wounded Men, Broken Promises. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1981.
  • Uhl, Michael, and Tod Ensign. GI Guinea Pigs. 1st Ed. New York: Playboy Press, 1981.
  • Linedecker, Clifford, Michael Ryan, and Maureen Ryan. Kerry: Agent Orange and an American Family. New York: St. Martins Press, 1982.
  • Wilcox, Fred A. Waiting for an Army to Die. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1983.
  • Griffiths, Philip Jones. Agent Orange: Collatoral Damage in Vietnam Trolley Ltd, 2003.
  • Nicosia, Gerald, Home to War, New York, Crown Publishers, 2001

External links

.
  • Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange Trust
  • "The Boneyard" by Ben Quick, Orion Magazine March/April 2008 a personal account of the intergenerational legacy of Agent Orange exposure in Vietnam Veterans
  • Poisoned Lives
  • (http://www.jamesgraham-agentorange.com
  • Walks from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi to collect donations for Agent Orange victim children.
  • The orangecarers 2009 65 day agent orange walk/drive On 3 April 2009 started the 65 day walk/drive around Vietnam to create awareness of Agent Orange, and the effects passed on to the children of Vietnam.^ "E. The Federal Government has suppressed or minimized findings of ill health effects among Vietnam veterans that could be linked to Agent Orange exposure."
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The flawed scientific studies and manipulated conclusions are not only unduly denying justice to Vietnam veterans suffering from exposure to Agent Orange," said Zumwalt, "they are now standing in the way of a full disclosure to the American people of the likely health effects of exposure to toxic dioxins."
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This never-ending legacy of the war in Vietnam has created among many veterans and their families deep feelings of mistrust of the U.S. government for its lack of honesty in studying the effects of the rainbow herbicides, particularly Agent Orange, and its conscious effort to cover up information and rig test results with which it does not agree.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Follow daily where they have been and where they are going.
  • Letters from Agent Orange victims in Vietnam and additional information to provide assistance.
  • Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia History of Operation Ranch Hand
  • NIEHS dioxin fact sheet
  • The Hatfield Group - Research on the environmental impacts of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
  • The War Legacies Project Information about the long term health and environmental effects of Agent Orange in Southeast Asia and the US. Including information about Agent Orange related environmental and health programs in Vietnam and Court documents from the Vietnamese lawsuit.
  • Blood Debt Members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War and Vietnamese victims come together to assess the legacy of Agent Orange (warning: graphic images - viewer discretion advised).^ The act also gave VA responsibility for providing information to veterans about health conditions related to Agent Orange exposure and assistance in preparing their claims.
    • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So, while Operation Ranch Hand provided no long or short term military benefits, it also provided neither long nor short term psychological benefits.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In accepting the claim, Labor referenced VA's policy regarding Agent Orange claims and an Environmental Protection Agency report on the health effects of dioxin exposure to justify its approval of compensation.
    • GAO-05-371, Agent Orange: Limited Information Is Available on the Number of Civilians Exposed in Vietnam and Their Workers' Compensation Claims 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .From the Chicago FreeSpeechZone
  • Agent Orange legal case dismissed - report of the US Federal court ruling on the VAVA suit.
  • www.vietnam-dioxin.org, an information website on the consequences of Agent Orange and dioxin in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
  • The Last Ghost of War Documentary film focusing on the Vietnamese Agent Orange Lawsuit and the impacts of Agent Orange on Vietnam Veterans, citizens of Nitro, WV and the Vietnamese.
  • Assessment of the health risk of dioxins 1998 by the WHO and the IPCS (pdf).
  • Children and the Vietnam War 30-40 years after the use of Agent Orange, article with pictures (warning: uncensored, may be found shocking)
  • Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting Vietnam: War's Lasting Legacy.^ The federal court decision boosted the morale of the Agent Orange claimants.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This never-ending legacy of the war in Vietnam has created among many veterans and their families deep feelings of mistrust of the U.S. government for its lack of honesty in studying the effects of the rainbow herbicides, particularly Agent Orange, and its conscious effort to cover up information and rig test results with which it does not agree.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So, while the government was paying off the residents of Times Beach because of dioxin contamination, it continued to deny that Vietnam veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange and its dioxin were at risk.
    • Agent Orange 10 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.usvetdsp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Video reports from the field on the lingering effects of Agent Orange.
  • Agent Orange -a personal requiem-documentary film
  • Non-governmental musical association created to allow everybody who is concerned by the present consequences of dioxin poisoning to help the Vietnamese victims
  • "Agent Orange: 30 Years Later", http://agentorangefilmjohntrinh.ash.com an award-winning drama-documentary about the victims of Agent Orange 30 years after the Viet Nam War.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Agent Orange
  1. a herbicide and defoliant used by US forces in Vietnam.

Translations


Simple English

Agent Orange is a very powerful herbicide that was used in the Vietnam War. It is a defoliant that destroyed forests. It was used by the United States military so their enemies had no place to hide.

Problems

The problem with Agent Orange is that when it is released, some dioxins are also generated. Dioxins can cause cancer. They can also lead to genetic modifications.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Agent Orange, which are similar to those in the above article.








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