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.In psychology, as well as other social and behavioral sciences, aggression (also called combativeness) refers to behavior between members of the same species that is intended to cause pain or harm.^ Cats > Behavior > Behavior - Aggression between Cats .
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agonistic behavior refers to the complex of aggression, appeasement and avoidance behavior that occurs between members of the same species.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Aggression: Aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

Predatory or defensive behavior between members of different species is not normally considered "aggression." Aggression takes a variety of forms among humans and can be physical, mental, or verbal. .Aggression should not be confused with assertiveness, although the terms are often used interchangeably among laypeople, e.g.^ However, in order for an owner to find the right kind of aggressive dog behavior they should be using to control this problem they need to understand the kinds of aggression that [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ However, in order for an owner to find the right kind of Dog Aggression Training they should be using to control this problem they need to understand the kinds of aggression that [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ However, in order for an owner to find the right kind of aggression dogs they should be using to control this problem they need to understand the kinds of aggression that [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

an aggressive salesperson.
.There are two broad categories of aggression.^ Agonistic - There may be a personality conflict between two dogs and one or both dogs may without cause exhibit aggression .
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

.These include hostile, affective, or retaliatory aggression and instrumental, predatory, or goal-oriented aggression.^ In instrumental aggression, the player tries to inflict physical damage as a step towards the higher goal of winning.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In displacement theory , the activity must consist of hostile or perhaps instrumental aggression.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy?
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Books, Chapters and Articles in Social Psychology: Aggression (CROW) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC jonathan.mueller.faculty.noctrl.edu [Source type: Academic]

[1][2][3][4] .Empirical research indicates that there is a critical difference between the two, both psychologically and physiologically.^ The sizes of animals were an order of magnitude different between the two studies.
  • Circadian Rhythm of Aggression in Crayfish : A Blog Around The Clock 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even so, while certain correlations were significant within the AAS using group, there were no differences reported between AAS users, non-using athletes, and non-using non-athletes.
  • Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Aggression (Part 1) by Jack Darkes, Ph.D. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mesomorphosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These two theories shed somewhat different lights on the origins of sex differences between men and women.
  • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences, Jealousy, and Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some research indicates that people with tendencies toward "affective" aggression, defined in this study as being "impulsive, unplanned, overt, or uncontrolled" have lower IQs than those with tendencies toward "predatory" aggression, defined here as being "goal-oriented, planned, hidden, or controlled".[1]
.Across many different human cultures, men are more likely than women to express aggression by means of direct physical violence.^ When it comes to physical aggression, women are more likely to scratch their mate.
  • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences, Jealousy, and Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archer (2000) discussed how sexual and physical aggression are more common in men than women.
  • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences, Jealousy, and Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its not going to be too many more years until humans will be to Mars and beyond.
  • Area 51 - A Personal Account - Transcript of Custer, South Dakota Meeting 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.all-natural.com [Source type: Original source]

.Women are more likely to instead express aggression through a variety of indirect or nonphysical means.^ When it comes to physical aggression, women are more likely to scratch their mate.
  • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences, Jealousy, and Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That could give her an advantage if there is trouble and it might make it seem more like it is "her" house, which might slow Toby's aggression some.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Women are more likely to show instrumental aggression, in which the primary goal is not to harm the victim but attainment of some other goal, such as access to valued resources.
  • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences, Jealousy, and Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.personalityresearch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Evolution of aggression

Male elephant seals fighting
.Like most behaviors, aggression can be examined in terms of its ability to help an animal reproduce and survive.^ Most likely, if you stick to the scientific definition for dominance and then look more closely at the dog’s behavior, body language, and the reaction of the animals around him, you’ll find dog behavior to be much more nuanced and interesting.
  • Aggression : AskDrYin.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC askdryin.com [Source type: General]

^ Aggression during a veterinary examination was more likely in dogs from non-domestic maternal environments.

^ If this structure is disrupted, and animals must adjust to new situations such as crowding, 6 radical change of environment, or scarcity of food, aggression is most manifest.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Animals may use aggression to gain and secure territories, as well as other resources including food, water, and mating opportunities.^ Aggression is used for both humans and animals.

^ Dominance is defined in animal behavior as a relationship between individuals that is established by force, aggression and submission in order to determine who has priority access to multiple resources such as food, preferred resting spots, and access to mates.
  • Aggression : AskDrYin.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC askdryin.com [Source type: General]

^ Intermale aggression and territorial aggression, as well as sex- and rank-related aggression, all appear to be mediated by androgens (Bouissou 1983).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Researchers have theorized that aggression and the capacity for murder are products of our evolutionary past.[5]

Aggression against outsiders

.The most apparent type of aggression is that seen in the interaction between a predator and its prey.^ Predatory aggression: Attack on prey by a predator.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aggression in dogs is an important behavioral problem; in fact, it is the most common problem seen at animal behavior clinics.
  • Dominance Aggression in Dogs 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Dominance Aggression in Dogs 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is individual centered, stressing the development of aggression as an interaction between response, reinforcement, stimuli, and so forth.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An animal defending itself against a predator becomes aggressive in order to survive and to ensure the survival of its offspring.^ Is the nation that defends its borders against invasion aggressive?
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the intent to do harm can exist without the quality of being offensive, as in a police unit defending itself against a guerrilla attack.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With significant effects of our treatments on the distribution of the behaviours within each group, we can process the data in order to determine the effect of our treatments on the propensity of the animals to become aggressive.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

.Because aggression against a much larger enemy or group of enemies would lead to the death of an animal, animals have developed a good sense of when they are outnumbered.^ In the case of the mb group, this is unlikely, because there still should be at least some aggression between mb- animals, even if mb+ animals attacked every other male they encountered.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There was general agreement in Group 2 that it would be a good idea to use video images from cameras along the Beltway to ticket aggressive drivers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resident females' response to spayed/unspayed female intruders: Spaying female intruders does not reduce the amount of aggression they receive from resident females: resident females attack spayed females just as much as they attack intact females.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .This ability to gauge the strength of other animals gives animals a “fight or flight” response to predators; depending on how strong they gauge the predator to be, animals will either become aggressive or flee.^ The moderator asked Group 4 how they defined aggressive driving.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally nonaggressive people become quite aggressive if they perceive threats to their security, attacks on their values, or slurs on their self.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How much gamma radiation, how much beta, how many neutrons they could absorb, these were animals.
  • Area 51 - A Personal Account - Transcript of Custer, South Dakota Meeting 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.all-natural.com [Source type: Original source]

The need to survive and the viability of cooperative behavior as a survival strategy leads to a phenomenon known as altruism. An example of an altruistic act is the alarm call that is given when a predator is approaching. While this call will inform the community of a predator’s presence, it will also inform the predator of the whereabouts of the animal that gave the alarm call. .While this would appear to give the alarm caller an evolutionary disadvantage, it would facilitate the continuation of this animal’s genes because its relatives and progeny would be more able to avoid predators.^ The Skippy's Trucking drivers disagreed with the policy of giving drivers license exams in foreign languages because they felt that the drivers would not be able to read road signs.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personally, I happen to believe that was the thing to do because I think a million or more Americans, soldiers would have died and a lot of Japanese people would have died if we had invaded the homeland.
  • Area 51 - A Personal Account - Transcript of Custer, South Dakota Meeting 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.all-natural.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know that her dog is her ''baby'', but my daughter's wellbeing is more important and would not hesitate to report the dog to animal welfare if it EVER happens again.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[7]
According to many researchers, predation is not aggression. .Cats do not hiss or arch their backs when in pursuit of a rat, and the active areas in their hypothalamuses are more similar to those that reflect hunger than those that reflect aggression.^ In rats and mice, a single area, largely coincident with the intermediate hypothalamic area, is crucial for the expression of offensive aggression (Siegel et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, this theory also demands that aggression should be greater for contact athletes than for their bigger non-athlete counterparts, and similar for bigger and smaller non-athletes.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The problem with TV and video games is more dissociation than aggression.
  • A "video game" to reduce aggression : Cognitive Daily 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Aggression within a species

.Aggression against conspecifics serves a number of purposes having to do with breeding.^ Freud hypothized that through the mechanism such as displacement, the energy of Thanatos is redirected towards and serve as the basis of aggression against others.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

.One of the most common of these purposes is the establishment of a dominance hierarchy.^ Well, one of the most common causes is territoriality .
  • Aggression : AskDrYin.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC askdryin.com [Source type: General]

^ Interestingly, five weeks after the hierarchy was established, the dominant male became ill and stayed in his burrow for a week.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Males tend to develop dominance hierarchies, which are less common in females.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.When certain types of animals are first placed in a common environment, the first thing they do is fight to assert their role in the dominance hierarchy.^ The first behavioral statement of this theory was by J. Dollard et al., in their well-known Frustration and Aggression (1939), in which they asserted that aggression always results from frustration (p.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But in order for an owner to find the right sort of Dog Aggression Training to help solve the problem they first need to understand a little about the types of aggression a [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ As with the previous generation, winners and losers were reversed frequently and they didn't develop any stable dominance hierarchy.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .In general, the more dominant animals will be more aggressive than their subordinates.^ The aggressive driver groups were more aware of the campaign than general drivers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This group serves as the positive control , as it is known that e flies are more aggressive than b flies (Jacobs, 1978).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As might have been expected, fewer participants in the aggressive driver groups (15 percent) identified aggressive driving as a major crash cause than participants in the general groups (53 percent).
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[10] [11] The majority of conspecific aggression ceases about 24 hours after the introduction of the animals being tested.^ Mice treated with 7-NI displayed substantially increased aggression in two different tests of aggressiveness compared with control animals (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is tempting to interpret this phenocopy of the octopamine mutants as resulting from Kenyon cells being the major regulators of octopamine- (and/or dopamine-) mediated aggression.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Because most of the animal studies of aggression have been conducted on mice, this problem is not as great as it is for studies of learning or mating behavior in which the vast majority of studies have been conducted on rats.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[9] [12]
.There are many different theories that try to explain how males and females developed these different aggressive tendencies.^ How many feel that there is too much?
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The male investigated, sniffed, and mounted spayed females somewhat less than intact females, though the differences were not significant.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, there was no significant difference in aggressiveness between WT and OT-/+ mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One theory states that in species where one sex makes a higher parental investment than the other, the higher investing sex is a resource for which the other sex competes: in the majority of species, females are the higher investing sex.^ Intra-sex - This is aggression behavior that female dogs have only towards other female dogs or male dogs have only towards other male dogs.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ Taylor (1975) found that male rats attacked others at much higher frequencies after just smelling a female rat in heat.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More is spent on health care in the United States on a per capita basis than in any other nation in the world.
  • Austin Area Birthing Center - Your Austin Birth Center 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.austinabc.com [Source type: General]

It also holds that reproductive success is cardinal to the perpetuation an organism's lineage and hereditary characteristics. .For males, it is of crucial importance to establish dominance and resource holding to obtain reproductive opportunities in order to pass on their genetics.^ Dominance is defined in animal behavior as a relationship between individuals that is established by force, aggression and submission in order to determine who has priority access to multiple resources such as food, preferred resting spots, and access to mates.
  • Aggression : AskDrYin.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC askdryin.com [Source type: General]

^ Interestingly, five weeks after the hierarchy was established, the dominant male became ill and stayed in his burrow for a week.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Over time, one of the young dominant males established himself as dominant over the other.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike females, whose reproductive success is constrained by long gestation and lactation periods, male reproductive success is constrained by the number of partners they can mate with.^ Dominant males from colonies containing at least one lactating female and litter attacked male intruders severely and at great length (Lore and Luciano 1977).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lactating female 5-HT 1B -/-mice also attack unfamiliar male mice more rapidly and violently (R. Hen, Columbia University, personal communication, 2000).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In female mice, aggressive behavior is generally observed only when parturient females are approached by strange intruders during the first part of the lactating period.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, males employ physical aggression more often than females; they take more risks in order to compete with other males and gain an elevation of status.^ Effect of other rats on male aggression .
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This male copulated with females twice as often as any other male.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of the mb group, this is unlikely, because there still should be at least some aggression between mb- animals, even if mb+ animals attacked every other male they encountered.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

Males even go as far as killing one another, although this is rare. .Males demonstrate less concern for their physical welfare in such competitions.^ Inter-male aggression: Competition between males of the same species over access to resources such as females, dominance, status, etc.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

In contrast, females compete with one another for resources, which can be converted to offspring. .The establishment of dominance is more costly for females than for males and females have less to gain from achieving status.^ Female dominance: Females dominance wasn't as salient as that of males.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Males tend to develop dominance hierarchies, which are less common in females.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The male investigated, sniffed, and mounted spayed females somewhat less than intact females, though the differences were not significant.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.The female presence is more critical to the offspring’s survival and hence her reproductive success than is the father’s.^ In mixed-sex colonies, male residents -- especially the socially dominant male -- attack intruders more than females and subordinates do (Blanchard et al.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Household fights were more serious than fights with outsiders; fights between female house-mates tended to be more severe than other gender combinations.

^ The presence of a juvenile reduces aggression between adult males, but juvenile females and castrated juvenile males are more effective in inhibiting adult male aggression than intact juvenile males (Taylor and Weiss 1982).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is only logical then that the health and well being of females would cause them to use less aggressive, low risk, and indirect strategies to acquire resources.^ They used only females.
  • Circadian Rhythm of Aggression in Crayfish : A Blog Around The Clock 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Various mental health symptoms caused by rare epilepsy : Temporal lobe epilepsy is a less common form of epilepsy that does not have the typical physical seizures.

^ There was general agreement in Group 2 that it would be a good idea to use video images from cameras along the Beltway to ticket aggressive drivers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, in the majority of female-female conflicts, females rarely inflict serious damage to one another over resources.^ Introduction Aggression is overt behavior with the intention of inflicting physical damage on another individual (Moyer 1968, 1971).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, in a pasture of several males and many females, the calves will be sired by more than one bull, but the highest ranked bull will get the most matings.
  • Aggression : AskDrYin.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC askdryin.com [Source type: General]

^ Generally, these conflicts were resolved when one female dropped to a sidling-biting posture.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.When translated to human, these facts suggest that women should be expected to show less evidence of dominance hierarchies than men do.^ One final need is less solidly based in the scientific evidence than self-assertion, but there is systematic support for its existence.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These results suggest that a relationship exists between serum lipid profile and dominance aggression in dogs, and hypocholesterolaemia exists in dogs with dominance aggression.

^ Their violations might not be any different than those committed by less aggressive drivers, but these are the ones who should be stopped.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In society, aggression in boys becomes increasingly motivated by issues of social status and self-esteem, which are usually decided by varying degrees of aggressive reactivity to personal challenge.^ Once learned, and reinforced through social approval and acquired status, through the esteem and pride of success, and through observing the success of others, aggression will be avoided only if it becomes risky, if costs in punishment or negative sanctions develop and nonaggressive behavioral alternatives are rewarded (Bandura, 1973:222).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The keys to understanding environmentally based aggression are our dynamic attitudes as they are integrated into a self striving for esteem.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Storr feels that aggression is an essential element in society, encouraging competition for food and sex, and ensuring peace and order through status hierarchies.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Aggression in girls, focusing mainly on resource acquisition and not status, is more likely to take less physically dangerous and more covert forms of indirect aggression [13].^ That could give her an advantage if there is trouble and it might make it seem more like it is "her" house, which might slow Toby's aggression some.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About the Author: To read more excellent dog training resource please visit Dog Aggression Training as well as Dog Training Hand Commands [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ Aggression during a veterinary examination was more likely in dogs from non-domestic maternal environments.

.There are, however, extensive critiques of the use of animal behavior to explain human behavior and the application of evolutionary explanations of contemporary human behavior[14].^ Aggression is used for both humans and animals.

^ However, there were significant reductions in the duration of aggressive behaviors among OT-/- animals, especially in agonistic encounters within neutral arenas.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in order for an owner to find the right kind of aggressive dog behavior they should be using to control this problem they need to understand the kinds of aggression that [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

Aggression in humans

.Although humans share aspects of aggression with non-human animals, they differ from most of them in the complexity of their aggression because of factors such as culture, morals, and social situations[15].^ Aggression is used for both humans and animals.

^ Equating such behavior with aggression misses the subjective nature of aggression and focuses on physical characteristics that apply only to some forms of aggression in some cultures.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They differ from the ethological approach of Lorenz in emphasizing the particularly human organization, psychological processes, and mechanisms involved.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

A wide variety of studies have been done on these situations.

Aggression and culture

.Culture is a distinctly human factor that plays a role in aggression.^ It is within this dynamic system of attitudes that cultural learning and experience play their roles.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar things could happen where humans play the role of the rats.
  • "Aggression" versus "Harm" in Libertarianism - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: General]

^ The negative effect of aggression is due to confusion between it and paranoid hostility or hatred (in which frustration plays a large role).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

Kung Bushmen were described as the "harmless people" by Elizabeth Marshall Thomas (1958). .Other researchers, however, have countered this point of view, calculating that the homicide rate among Bushmen is actually higher than that of most modern industrial societies (Keeley, 1996).^ However, if displacement catharsis theory is correct, aggression might be lower in contact athletes than in the other two groups.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most, however, did not think it more hazardous than travel on other urban interstates.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should penalties be higher on the Beltway than on other roads?
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lawrence Keeley argues that the "peaceful savage" is a myth that is unsupported by the bulk of anthropological and archeological evidence. .Hunter gatherer societies do not have possessions to fight over, but they may still come to conflict over status and mating opportunities.^ However, older males who were still inclined to fight with intruders did so readily, with the same intensity and duration as when they were young, though with less coordination.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Competitive - Dogs that are housemates may fight, over social status (wanting to be top dog).
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

.Empirical cross-cultural research has found differences in the level of aggression between cultures.^ To understand it, the research should focus on the cultural context of aggression and its function in the maintenance and development of the culture.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Surely, cross-sectionally, some cultures manifest little aggression.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cultures merely crossing another person's shadow is interpreted as an act of aggression on that person's spirit.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In one study, American men resorted to physical aggression more readily than Japanese or Spanish men, whereas Japanese men preferred direct verbal conflict more than their American and Spanish counterparts (Andreu et al.^ Study 2: Blanchard et al.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Aggression can be either physical or verbal.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, the dichotomy between hostile and instrumental aggression has been questioned by Bushman and Anderson (2001), who argue that it is confounded with automatic-controlled processing and does not take account of aggression stemming from more than one motive.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

1998). .Within American culture, southerners were shown to become more aroused and to respond more aggressively than northerners when affronted (Bowdle et al.^ This group serves as the positive control , as it is known that e flies are more aggressive than b flies (Jacobs, 1978).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of the home cage Rats tend to be more aggressive toward intruders in their home cage than two strange rats are toward each other in a neutral area.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

1996). .There is also a higher homicide rate among young white southern men than among white northern men in the United States (Nisbett 1993).^ More is spent on health care in the United States on a per capita basis than in any other nation in the world.
  • Austin Area Birthing Center - Your Austin Birth Center 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.austinabc.com [Source type: General]

^ The relative position of the United States in comparison to countries with the lowest infant mortality rates, appears to be worsening.
  • Austin Area Birthing Center - Your Austin Birth Center 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.austinabc.com [Source type: General]

^ I was there during the visit of two presidents of the United States, Lyndon Johnson was one of them, Gerald Ford was the other one.
  • Area 51 - A Personal Account - Transcript of Custer, South Dakota Meeting 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.all-natural.com [Source type: Original source]

.Changes in dominant behavior or in social status causes changes in testosterone levels.^ What causes this behavior and what can be done to change it?
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Testosterone, cognition, and social status .

^ Juveniles appear to be immune from attack because of their low levels of testosterone, their small size, and possibly their juvenile behavior.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

Reports of changes in testeosterone of young men during athletic events, which involve face-to-face competition with a winner and a loser, reveal that testosterone rises shortly before their matches, as if in anticipation of the competition. .Also, one to two hours after the competitive match, the testosterone levels of the winners are high relative to those levels of the losers [16].^ La Labbra Del Tempo rocks more and works easier, even if that remains relative given the high level of boiling creativity here.
  • AREA music, discography, MP3, videos and reviews 10 February 2010 11:34 UTC www.progarchives.com [Source type: General]

^ During the first month after the colonies were created, aggression levels were relatively high in four of the colonies.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, one woman said that it is pretty hazardous during rush hours and tries to avoid using it during those times.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also important to take into account the type of conflict that is occurring when assessing aggression.^ In captivity, intruders cannot run away, so conflicts tend to escalate into serious and sometimes lethal fights (more on wild rat aggression ).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Types of Aggression in Mice Aggression has been divided into various types for ease of classification (Moyer 1968, 1971; Wilson 1975)(Table 1), and the different types of aggression appear to have different neuroendocrine bases.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Third, and most important, we must channel aggression onto substitute objects or into aggression-draining activities, such as sports and athletic competition.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

Is the conflict between groups, within a group, within a family? The sex of those involved in the conflict is also critical. .Male-male, male-female and female-female encounters should all be clearly distinguished from one another.^ Dominant males from colonies containing at least one lactating female and litter attacked male intruders severely and at great length (Lore and Luciano 1977).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with a mental disorder and a comorbid substance abuse disorder had the highest probabilities of all—12.6 times higher for males and 9.1 times higher for females.

^ Flannelly and Lore (1977) housed males for one week with intact females, or spayed females, or small intact males.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.Same sex encounters are more frequent than inter-sex encounters and this could affect the level of aggression present [17].^ That could give her an advantage if there is trouble and it might make it seem more like it is "her" house, which might slow Toby's aggression some.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When client continues to exhibit aggression more than several weeks choice of medication is based on underlying condition.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A: Once you get more than two cats, the possibility of territorial aggression surfacing gets pretty high.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

Aggression in media

.Behaviors like aggression can be learned by watching and imitating the behavior of others.^ Like behaviors, expectations are wholly learned.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Intra-sex - This is aggression behavior that female dogs have only towards other female dogs or male dogs have only towards other male dogs.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ We are intrigued or amused by aggressive behaviors like chasing and sidling, but we hate it when our pets hurt each other.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.A considerable amount of evidence suggests that watching violence on television increases the likelihood of short-term aggression in children (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2005), though for a dissenting viewpoint, see Freedman (2002).^ The more televised violence children watch, the greater is their level of aggression against others.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been also suggested that a disruption in the mother infant bonding process can lead to the development of poor interpersonal behavior that may increase the likelihood of violent behavior.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Terms such as aggression, violence, crime, and hostility are observed in medical literature.

.Individuals may differ in how they respond to violence.^ Aggression and submission may represent the end points of a single behavioral continuum; alternatively, they may represent two independent, but interacting, dimensions of the behaving individual.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Persistent (recidivistic) and transient violence may differ in cause, management, and social consequences.

^ The moderator asked the group how they individually deal with aggressive drivers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The greatest impact is on those who are already prone to violent behavior.^ Haloperidol was used successfully in a sample of 11 patients who developed violent, aggressive behavior after a severe closed head injury.

^ Apparently, patients who are transiently violent are more responsive to typical neuroleptic medication and have less neurological impairment than those who are persistently violent.

^ In contrast to the patient who is persistently violent, those who are transiently violent respond to the introduction of a new, structured environment.

.Adults may be influenced by violence in media as well.^ The influence of media violence on youth .

^ On the one hand, the media may give greater coverage to criminal acts by people who are well known than by those who are unknown.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

.A long-term study of over 700 families found "a significant association" between the amount of time spent watching violent television as a teenager and the likelihood of committing acts of aggression later in life.^ In other animals, the dominance pattern has been found associated with masculine sexual aggression, grabbing food from others, and bullying, as well as concentration of the male hormone (testosterone).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One retrospective study in a state hospital found that the number of violent episodes among inpatients with schizophrenia decreased after they began clozapine treatment.

^ Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults .

The results remained the same in spite of factors such as family income, parental education and neighborhood violence (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2005).
.Although exposure to violence in media is associated with likelihood of short-term increases in aggression, none of these studies provide evidence for a definitive causal mechanism.^ Theory in the study of media violence: The General Aggression Model .

^ Media violence, aggression, and public policy .

^ When studying canine aggression, the information provided by the owners of the dogs is often not detailed and reliable enough for this purpose.

.Instead, violence in media may be one of many factors, or it may play a maintenance role since violent media tend to be selected by people who are prone to violence.^ Time of day may be a factor, with a peak problem period of 7:00-9:00 AM reported in one facility.

^ Contact sports may attract people who are already aggressive or engaging in contact sports may promote aggression (the selection and developmental hypotheses respectively, Cox, 2002).
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the one hand, the media may give greater coverage to criminal acts by people who are well known than by those who are unknown.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

Situational factors

.Alcohol impairs judgment, making people much less cautious than they usually are (MacDonald et al.^ Intact male residents attack castrated male intruders about half as much as they attack intact intruders (Debold and Miczek 1984, Christie and Barfield 1979, see also Flannely and Thor 1976, Barfield et al.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What kinds of roadway design, marking, signage and roadway maintenance situations do you feel make the Beltway less safe than it could be?
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Damage to the frontal lobes can result in impaired judgment, personality changes, and problems in decision making, inappropriate conduct and aggressive outbursts.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

1996). .It also disrupts the way information is processed (Bushman 1993, 1997; Bushman & Cooper 1990).^ It is important to remember that your consultation is a two-way process and any extra information you can share with your doctor about your symptoms may help them with their diagnosis.

.A drunk person is much more likely to view an accidental event as a purposeful one, and therefore act more aggressively.^ A more ethologic approach of analysis, including the total time spent in aggressive behavior, would likely provide a more sensitive evaluation.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If esteem is tied to command and coercive power over others, one may ape the more successful and aggressive villains in movies and television.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He said that he thinks there are more drivers like that every year and that it is a nationwide problem, not one that is confined to the Capital area.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pain and discomfort also increase aggression. .Even the simple act of placing ones hands in warm water can cause an aggressive response.^ However rats do exist and therefore, even if they don't happen to be causing a problem at the moment the mere act of leaving the shit around is endangering.
  • "Aggression" versus "Harm" in Libertarianism - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, we may act aggressively even though such needs are satiated, because it is in our character to do so in the perceived situation.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the one hand, the media may give greater coverage to criminal acts by people who are well known than by those who are unknown.
  • Athletic Insight - Self Reported Aggression in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.athleticinsight.com [Source type: Academic]

Hot temperatures have been implicated as a factor in a number of studies. .One study completed in the midst of the civil rights movement found that riots were more likely on hotter days than cooler ones (Carlsmith & Anderson 1979).^ While that may not be a novel approach these days, Shane's fertile intelligence makes EFS more than just the sum of his influences.

^ Moreover, the targets of patient violence were more likely to be family members, friends, or acquaintances (89.3%) rather than strangers (10.7%).

^ Adult rats almost never attack juvenile rats -- adults are far more likely to attack another adult or an infant (see infanticide ) than a juvenile.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.Students were found to be more aggressive and irritable after taking a test in a hot classroom (Anderson et al.^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Others Both male and female mice that lack a functional tailless protein, an orphan nuclear receptor, are dramatically aggressive (Monaghan et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because murine aggressive behavior can also be motivated by fear, studies investigating knockout mice typically evaluate the mutants' response to fearful stimuli-- a -CaMKII mutant mice display reduced fear when tested in a number of tasks (Chen et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.1996, Rule, et al.^ The M18 P-element octopamine mutant and control stocks (Monastirioti et al., 1996) were kept at 25 C for two generations after arrival.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This strain has normal levels of octopamine (Monastirioti et al., 1996) and will be denoted the high subgroup (oa+).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The P[GAL4] line mb247 (Schulz et al., 1996) served as a mushroom body specific GAL4 driver (Zars et al., 2000) for both toxins.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

1987). .Drivers in cars without air conditioning were also found to be more likely to honk their horns (Kenrick & MacFarlane 1986).^ Most of the more aggressive drivers in Group 5 regularly drive the Beltway at 65 to 70 when conditions permit.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said that he thinks there are more drivers like that every year and that it is a nationwide problem, not one that is confined to the Capital area.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most aggressive drivers in the group said he thought that just more law enforcement cars on the road would help a lot.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Frustration is another major cause of aggression. .The Frustration aggression theory states that aggression increases if a person feels that he or she is being blocked from achieving a goal (Aronson et al.^ Aggression depends on the sex, age, experience and hormonal status of the resident and the intruder, and the presence of females and juveniles (for a review, see Lore et al.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Examination of the evidence indicates that whether frustration increases or fails to enhance covert aggression depends largely on two factors.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover, the strength of the actualized need depends on a person's physiological state in relation to the degree of associated goal gratification.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

2005). .One study found that the closeness to the goal makes a difference.^ For example, one study found that 90% of the bites inflicted on an intruder were made by the resident alpha male (Takahashi and Blanchard 1982).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was targeted at motorists, and one of its primary goals was to make the public more aware of jurisdictional efforts to reduce aggressive driving.
  • Aggressive Driving Programs (DOT HS 808 730, February 2001) 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One retrospective study in a state hospital found that the number of violent episodes among inpatients with schizophrenia decreased after they began clozapine treatment.

.The study examined people waiting in line and concluded that the 2nd person was more aggressive than the 12th one when someone cut in line (Harris 1974).^ This group serves as the positive control , as it is known that e flies are more aggressive than b flies (Jacobs, 1978).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of the home cage Rats tend to be more aggressive toward intruders in their home cage than two strange rats are toward each other in a neutral area.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Noise: several studies have reported that persons exposed to loud ,irritating noise direct stronger assaults against others than those not exposed to such environmental conditions.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

Unexpected frustration may be another factor. In a separate study, a group of students were collecting donations over the phone. .Some of them were told that the people they would call would be generous and the collection would be very successful.^ They called some woman in the midwest or back east (forget where), and she informed them all about the dog's issues with his owners and the two cats.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It was as if the people in the room were rehearsing their righteous indignation against the time they would need to spend in court.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She thinks the problem is attitudinal and that attitudes would be different if people had some fear that they could get arrested.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The other group was given no expectations.^ One member of the group volunteered that it is no worse than similar kinds of interstate highways around other major cities.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reasons given for driving the Beltway did not vary much between groups and there were no discernible differences among general drivers, aggressive drivers, and truckers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The group with high expectations was much more upset and became more aggressive when no one was pledging (Kulik & Brown 1979).^ After the 8-week follow up period, 14 dogs (70%) had responded to the treatment to some degree and 6 dogs did not demonstrate any reduction in aggressive behaviour or became more aggressive.

^ Most of the more aggressive drivers in Group 5 regularly drive the Beltway at 65 to 70 when conditions permit.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One member (again the second most aggressive driver) argued that the limits should be higher and law enforcement should give no tolerance.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is some evidence to suggest that the presence of violent objects such as a gun can trigger aggression.^ That could give her an advantage if there is trouble and it might make it seem more like it is "her" house, which might slow Toby's aggression some.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is one final approach to consider, that of the cultural anthropologists such as Alexander Alland, Jr. Aggression is seated within a culture; it is learned in the same way a language is learned.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Even when they are housed with littermates, there is increased evidence of aggression among the mutants (Scearce-Levie et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

In a study done by Leonard Berkowitz and Anthony Le Page (1967), college students were made angry and then left in the presence of a gun or badminton racket. They were then led to believe they were delivering electric shocks to another student, as in the Milgram experiment. .Those who had been in the presence of the gun administered more shocks.^ In contrast to omegas, betas become fully submissive toward the dominant rat, who in turn tolerates their presence more (Pellis et al.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Those who did not want the limit raised said that everyone would drive 75 and more lives would be lost.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently, patients who are transiently violent are more responsive to typical neuroleptic medication and have less neurological impairment than those who are persistently violent.

.It is possible that a violence-related stimulus increases the likelihood of aggressive cognitions by activating the semantic network.^ This finding suggests that NCAM-/- mice may experience a heightened "emotional" response to the presentation of a threatening stimulus, thereby leading to an increase in aggressive behavior.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Aggression and gender

.Gender is a factor that plays a role in both human and animal aggression.^ Aggression is used for both humans and animals.

^ Similar things could happen where humans play the role of the rats.
  • "Aggression" versus "Harm" in Libertarianism - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: General]

^ The negative effect of aggression is due to confusion between it and paranoid hostility or hatred (in which frustration plays a large role).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Males are historically believed to be generally more physically aggressive than females (Coie & Dodge 1997, Maccoby & Jacklin 1974), and men commit the vast majority of murders (Buss 2005).^ The aggressive driver groups were more aware of the campaign than general drivers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The male investigated, sniffed, and mounted spayed females somewhat less than intact females, though the differences were not significant.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This group serves as the positive control , as it is known that e flies are more aggressive than b flies (Jacobs, 1978).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

.This is one of the most robust and reliable behavioral sex differences, and it has been found across many different age groups and cultures.^ Unlike a personality, which by definition is a set of behavioral characteristics that stays the same across different contexts, rank changes depending on the group in which an animal inhabits .
  • Aggression : AskDrYin.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC askdryin.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the members of this group were in favor of activities like this one.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excessive speed, aggressive driving, inattention, unsafe lane changing and tailgating were the most frequently designated behaviors in the 1997 groups.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is evidence that males are quicker to aggression (Frey et al.^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Others Both male and female mice that lack a functional tailless protein, an orphan nuclear receptor, are dramatically aggressive (Monaghan et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mice treated with 7-NI displayed substantially increased aggression in two different tests of aggressiveness compared with control animals (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.2003) and more likely than females to express their aggression physically (Bjorkqvist et al.^ That could give her an advantage if there is trouble and it might make it seem more like it is "her" house, which might slow Toby's aggression some.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the targets of patient violence were more likely to be family members, friends, or acquaintances (89.3%) rather than strangers (10.7%).

^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

1994). .When considering indirect forms of non-violent aggression, such as relational aggression and social rejection, some scientists argue that females can be quite aggressive although female aggression is rarely expressed physically (Archer, 2004; Card, Stucky, Sawalani, & Little, 2008).^ Where there is environmental stability and interpersonal relations have become locked together in overlapping, crosscutting, and intersecting expectations, nested upward into a crystallized cultural system, there is little social aggression.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Activities such as violent crime, aggressive sports, and war depicted through the media or witnessed, in person reinforce aggressive behavior.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This form of aggression is therefore characteristic of some people but not all.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although females are less likely to initiate physical violence, they can express aggression by using a variety of non-physical means.^ In addition, they use non traditional police vehicles, aircraft, and weather permitting, motorcycles to conduct their operations.
  • Aggressive Driving Programs (DOT HS 808 730, February 2001) 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latent definition underlying this variety, the core meaning in aggression, is the use of power to produce offensive effects.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During these times of stress acts of physical aggression or violence can occur.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Exactly which method women use to express aggression is something that varies from culture to culture.^ It is true that many modern forms of collective aggression are passed from culture to culture, like useful technological innovations.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On Bellona Island, a culture based on male dominance and physical violence, women tend to get into conflicts with other women more frequently than with men.^ The dominant male also tends to be the most active and to copulate most frequently with the females.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Moreover, the targets of patient violence were more likely to be family members, friends, or acquaintances (89.3%) rather than strangers (10.7%).

^ The effect of the home cage Rats tend to be more aggressive toward intruders in their home cage than two strange rats are toward each other in a neutral area.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.When in conflict with males, instead of using physical means, they make up songs mocking the man, which spread across the island and humiliate him.^ They also rejected the concept of using breakdown lanes as travel lanes during rush hours because it makes them nervous.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These two young males grew up to be dominant, even though they weren't the biggest play fighters.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Obviously, your neighbors don't get it, and it's up to you to make sure that they do.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.If a woman wanted to kill a man, she would either convince her male relatives to kill him or hire an assassin.^ I didn't want to do this either, until I actually thought about how I would feel should my son be harmed (potentially very badly).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Through the love of his mistress, a man may induce her to help him kill his wife; through the love of her child, a mother may heed his cries for help and attack his assailant; and through the love of his country, a person may be induced to assassinate a president.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although these two methods involve physical violence, both are forms of indirect aggression, since the aggressor herself avoids getting directly involved or putting herself in immediate physical danger [17].^ Every Friday, an officer from these two programs coordinates a city wide traffic operation with both patrol and community policing officers.
  • Aggressive Driving Programs (DOT HS 808 730, February 2001) 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forceful aggression , which usually involves violence but not necessarily injury to another, is the offensive use of force.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aggressive and violent behavior can be viewed along a continuum with verbal aggression at one end and physical violence at other end.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

Aggression in children

.The frequency of physical aggression in humans peaks at around 2–3 years of age.^ In humans, aggression can denote verbal aggression, physical aggression against objects, or physical aggression against people.

^ Testosterone profiles of young rats: Testosterone is low in young rats until age 40 days (1.6 ng/2 ml), increases from age 40 to 60 days and reaches its highest peak around 60 days (11.4 ng/2 ml).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lorenzs view: According to Konard Lorenz , aggression that causes physical harm to others springs from a fighting instinct that humans share with other organisms.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

It then declines gradually on average [18]. .These observations suggest that physical aggression is mostly not a learned behavior and that development provides opportunities for the learning of self-regulation.^ This suggests that whereas the 5-HT 1B receptor contributes to aggression, it is not the sole 5-HT receptor subtype modulating this behavior.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that pugnacity or self-assertion or protectiveness may be aroused, but no aggression may occur because the self wills otherwise, because no triggering situation is perceived, because expectations suggest defensive behavior, or because one's mood is inappropriate.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These data, in combination with the nNOS-/- data, suggest that the two isoforms of NOS may normally act to increase (eNOS-/-) and decrease (nNOS-/-) aggressive behavior in vivo.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, a small subset of children fails to acquire the necessary self-regulatory abilities and tends to show atypical levels of physical aggression across development [19].^ However, the pattern of asymmetry does not seem to match the pattern of asymmetry in the level of aggression (see Discussion).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ To anticipate my discussion below, it is the self-assertive and forceful meaning of aggression that is important in intercultural comparisons, not an objective manifestation such as physical violence.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, this low level of female aggression toward intruders may be due to the presence of males.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.These may be at risk for later violent behavior.^ These data, in combination with the nNOS-/- data, suggest that the two isoforms of NOS may normally act to increase (eNOS-/-) and decrease (nNOS-/-) aggressive behavior in vivo.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been also suggested that a disruption in the mother infant bonding process can lead to the development of poor interpersonal behavior that may increase the likelihood of violent behavior.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When combined with neurological deficits, the risk of violent behavior is increased.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

What is typically expected of children?
.
  • Young children preparing to enter kindergarten need to develop the socially important skill of being assertive.^ Animals, including humans, develop a social structure mediating between their needs and the environment.
    • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Examples of assertiveness include asking others for information, initiating conversation, or being able to respond to peer pressure.
  • In contrast, some young children use aggressive behavior, such as hitting or biting, as a form of communication.
  • Aggressive behavior can impede learning as a skill deficit, while assertive behavior can facilitate learning.^ Some reasons have to do with a single event and others are long-term behavioral in nature.An aggressive dog owners has a great responsibility to keep the dog under control.To train an aggressive dog first requires some basic understanding the Causes for dog aggression : .
    • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Learning aggressive behavior also takes place by direct experiences.
    • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Equating such behavior with aggression misses the subjective nature of aggression and focuses on physical characteristics that apply only to some forms of aggression in some cultures.
    • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

    However, with young children, aggressive behavior is developmentally appropriate and can lead to opportunities of building conflict resolution and communication skills.
  • By school age, children should learn more socially appropriate forms of communicating such as expressing themselves through verbal or written language; if they have not, this behavior may signify a disability or developmental delay
What triggers aggressive behavior in children?
  • Physical fear of others
  • Family difficulties
  • Learning, neurological, or conduct/behavior disorders
  • Emotional trauma
.The Bobo doll experiment was conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961. In this work, Bandura found that children exposed to aggressive adult model acted more aggressively than those who were exposed to a nonaggressive adult model.^ This group serves as the positive control , as it is known that e flies are more aggressive than b flies (Jacobs, 1978).
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of the home cage Rats tend to be more aggressive toward intruders in their home cage than two strange rats are toward each other in a neutral area.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult rats almost never attack juvenile rats -- adults are far more likely to attack another adult or an infant (see infanticide ) than a juvenile.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.This experiment suggests that anyone who comes in contact with and interacts with children can have an impact on the way they react and handle situations.^ As them for suggestions about what they might do to improve the situation -- i.e.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ When new people come to the site to learn, they don't know who to pay attention to and who to ignore.
  • "Aggression" versus "Harm" in Libertarianism - Stephan Kinsella - Mises Economics Blog 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC blog.mises.org [Source type: General]

[20].
Summaries of best practice recommendations
.
  1. American Academy of Pediatrics : 'Set firm, consistent limits to help children self monitor emotions and behavior; make sure all care takers agree to the same limits.^ I have two dogs and make sure that my dogs meet all the neighbors in my building (5 apartments).
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In part, this may be because owners who frequent dog parks are self-selecting, self-monitoring and self-limiting in regard to dog aggression.

    ^ I have had dogs all of my life and if I had one like the one you describe (and I have in the past) I would keep him away from children and get a qualified trainer to help with aggression.
    • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

    .Provide examples of effective and socially acceptable ways of managing anger; be careful not to reinforce aggression with aggressive forms of punishment.^ In emphasizing a social definition of aggression, as does Bandura (1973:8), for example, social learning theory has made a significant advance over other theories.
    • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Teaching anger management in the community involves both didactic and experiential components, as well as homework to reinforce the points made.

    ^ And social structure often appears to be the key to understanding the more violent forms of aggression.
    • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Also, model acceptable behavior as a caretaker by managing your own temper. Remember that occasional outbursts are normal. .If aggressive behavior continues for more than a few weeks, consult a pediatrician or mental health professional.'^ This group serves as the positive control , as it is known that e flies are more aggressive than b flies (Jacobs, 1978).
    • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Your book helped more than a professional trainer I hired for my adopted Golden."
    • Dog Aggression | Dog Training To Stop Your Dog Aggression Problems -- Works On Any Breed, Any Age. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogproblems.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The effect of the home cage Rats tend to be more aggressive toward intruders in their home cage than two strange rats are toward each other in a neutral area.
    • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

    [1]
  2. .
  3. National Association of School Psychologists: 'Overly aggressive behavior can signify a social skills deficit; direct instruction, modeling, and coaching can help children acquire the skill of assertion, which as a replacement behavior may help prevent aggressive behavior.'^ What driving behaviors do you associate with aggressive driving?
    • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Aggression: Overly aggressive behavior.

    ^ Social and cultural factors also may influence aggressive behavior.
    • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

    (NASP Best Practices in School Psychology 2002):[2]

Biology of aggression

Aggression is directed to and often originates from outside stimuli, but has a very distinct internal character. .Using various techniques and experiments, scientists have been able to explore the relationships between various parts of the body and aggression.^ Various tests are used in the diagnosis of Aggression.

^ In a first attempt to characterize the effects of various candidates for neurobiological factors regulating aggression, we report here the results of a competition experiment.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ During a consultation, your doctor will use various techniques in their assessment of Aggression.

Aggression in the brain

.Many researchers focus on the brain to explain aggression.^ To understand it, the research should focus on the cultural context of aggression and its function in the maintenance and development of the culture.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the brain systems that mediate aggression appear to remain fairly constant among mammals, many details of the regulatory pathways appear to be species specific (Grisola 1997).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The areas involved in aggression in mammals include the amygdala, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and periaqueductal gray of the midbrain.^ Current biological research ahs focused on three areas of the brain believed to be involved in aggression: .
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Future experiments definitely should include shibire ts1 constructs to replicate our mb- results, examine the high levels of aggression in the mb+ flies and look for other brain areas involved in aggression.
  • Drosophila territoriality and aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC brembs.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In the rat CNS, a 2C -R immuno-reactivity is observed in cortex, septum, amygdala, hippo-campus, raphe, striatum, and hypothalamic nuclei (Rosin et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Because of the difficulties in determining the intentions of animals, aggression is defined in neuroscience research as behavior directed at an object or animal which results in damage or harm to that object or animal.^ Maternal aggression may discourage other animals from approaching and possibly harming her offpsring (e.g.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Animals may also participate in psychological intimidation by engaging in threat displays or ritualized combat in which dominance is determined, but no physical damage is inflicted.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Offensive behavior in this context is characterized by initiation on the part of the aggressive animal that often leads to damage to the opponents (Krsiak 1974).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

In many animals, aggression is encoded by pheromones. .In mice, Major urinary proteins (Mups) have been demonstrated to promote innate aggressive in behavior males.^ Serotonin is involved in the aggressive behavior of male nNOS null mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Others Both male and female mice that lack a functional tailless protein, an orphan nuclear receptor, are dramatically aggressive (Monaghan et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[21] .[22] Mups were demonstrated to activate olfactory sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a subsystem of the nose known to detect pheromones via specific sensory receptors, of mice [22] and rats.^ Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice: Experimental design and evaluation of general health, sensory functions, motor abilities, and specific behavioral tests.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To examine the specific behavioral role of NO in neurons, homologous recombination was used to create nNOS-/- mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.The hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray of the midbrain are the most critical areas controlling aggression in mammals, as shown in studies on cats, rats, and monkeys.^ These types of aggression are most commonly studied in the laboratory and are tested by the so-called resident-intruder paradigm (see below).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In both rat and cat models of aggression, electrical stimulation of the medial amygdala, or the so-called "rage centers" in the hypothalamus, induces immediate attack behavior (or sham-rage) directed at cage-mates or the experimenter (Grisolia 1997).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because most of the animal studies of aggression have been conducted on mice, this problem is not as great as it is for studies of learning or mating behavior in which the vast majority of studies have been conducted on rats.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These brain areas control the expression of all the behavioral and autonomic components of aggression in these species, including vocalization.^ Notably, the physiologic control of aggression in these contrived situations is likely to differ from the physiologic mechanisms underlying natural expressions of aggressive behavior.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In rats and mice, a single area, largely coincident with the intermediate hypothalamic area, is crucial for the expression of offensive aggression (Siegel et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Beta-blockers, well studied in the treatment of aggressive behavior in patients with brain injury, also may be helpful as an adjunctive agent to antipsychotics for aggression and schizophrenia.

.They have direct connections with both the brainstem nuclei controlling these functions and areas such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.^ In the rat CNS, a 2C -R immuno-reactivity is observed in cortex, septum, amygdala, hippo-campus, raphe, striatum, and hypothalamic nuclei (Rosin et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These adult mutant mice show a reduction in the size of rhinencephalic and limbic structures, including the olfactory, infrarhinal, and entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and dentate gyms.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus causes aggressive behavior[24] the hypothalamus expresses receptors that help determine aggression levels based on their interactions with the neurotransmitters serotonin and vasopressin.^ Serotonin receptors and animal models of aggressive behavior.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Aggression: Overly aggressive behavior.

^ Drug interactions causing Aggression: .

[25]
The amygdala is also critically involved in aggression. .Stimulation of the amygdala results in augmented aggressive behavior in hamsters,[26][27] while lesions of an evolutionarily homologous area in the lizard greatly reduce competitive drive and aggression[28](Bauman et al.^ What driving behaviors do you associate with aggressive driving?
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aggression: Overly aggressive behavior.

^ Drug-induced aggression - Certain medications can have aggressive behavior as a side-effect because the dog’s perceptions have been affected.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

2006). .Several experiments in attack-primed Syrian Golden Hamsters support the claim of the amygdala being involved in control of aggression.^ Lithium has been reported as being useful in reducing aggression in people who are mentally retarded and in reducing the number of infractions involving violent behavior in a study of prisoners who are recurrently violent.

^ First, aggression is disposed to be, becoming, or being offensive ; that is, a disposition, power, or effect characterized by assault, attack, invasion.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But rather than being an innate drive in search of gratification, aggression is said to be acquired through experience, behavioral models, and reward and punishment.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

Using expression of c-fos as a neuroanatomically localized marker of activity, the neural circuitry involved in the state of “attack readiness” in attack primed hamsters was studied. .The results showed that certain structures of the amygdala were involved in aggressiveness: the medial nucleus and the cortical nuclei showed distinct differences in involvement as compared to other structures such as the lateral and basolateral nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala, which were not associated with any substantial changes in aggressiveness.^ In the aggressive group, 40 percent sometimes block cars trying to change lanes compared to only 10 percent in the general groups.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asked what specific violations they associate with aggressive driving, the group said improper lane changing, tailgating and excessive speed.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As noted earlier in this report, there were distinctive differences in perceptions between the three sessions composed of a general mix of drivers and the two that were designed to represent aggressive drivers.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition, c-fos expression was found most clearly in the most dorsal and caudal aspects of the corticomedial amygdala (CMA). .In the same study, it was also shown that lesions of the CMA significantly reduced the number of aggressive behaviors.^ Aggressive behavior in birds: An experimental model for studies of brain-steroid interactions.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because murine aggressive behavior can also be motivated by fear, studies investigating knockout mice typically evaluate the mutants' response to fearful stimuli-- a -CaMKII mutant mice display reduced fear when tested in a number of tasks (Chen et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A small retrospective uncontrolled study confirmed the antiaggressive effects of lithium in patients who were mentally retarded; self-injurious behavior exhibited by these aggressive individuals was also reduced by the treatment.

Eight of eleven subjects failed to attack. .Also a correlation between lesion site and attack latency was determined: the more anterior the lesion, the longer mean elapsed time to the aggressive behavior [29].^ He who initially attacks another physically or with threats is coercively aggressive if this behavior is directed at another's self.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A more ethologic approach of analysis, including the total time spent in aggressive behavior, would likely provide a more sensitive evaluation.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, the A 2a -/- residents engaged in three to five times more aggressive encounters than the WT residents.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in aggressive psychopathology. .Reduced activity of the prefrontal cortex, in particular its medial and orbitofrontal portions, has been associated with violent/antisocial aggression.^ Maternal aggression, which serves to protect the offspring from intruders, appears to be mediated by hormonal changes associated with the production of offspring (Gammie and Nelson 1999).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I. Limbic system: It is associated with the mediation of basic drives and the expression of human emotions and behaviors such as eating, aggression and sexual response.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the unit norms and the rewards associated with such activities may reduce the amount of disorganised patient behaviour and the number of aggressive acts.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Specifically, regulation of the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the PFC has been connected with a particular type of pathological aggression, induced by subjecting genetically predisposed, aggressive, wild-type mice to repeated winning experience; the male mice selected from aggressive lines had lower serotonin tissue levels in the PFC than the low-aggressive lines in this study [30].^ Serotonin is involved in the aggressive behavior of male nNOS null mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Tests of aggressive behavior in mice with targeted deletion of specific genes have been limited to isolation-induced and resident-intruder tests of males and maternal aggression of females (Table 2).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug-induced aggression - Certain medications can have aggressive behavior as a side-effect because the dog’s perceptions have been affected.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

Neurotransmitters and hormones

.Various neurotransmitters and hormones have been shown to correlate with aggressive behavior.^ Neurotransmitters have also been suggested as having a role in the expression or expression of the aggressive behavior.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Steroid hormones also underlie other types of aggressive behavior.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific reasons for aggressive behavior vary from person to person.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most often mentioned of these is the hormone testosterone.^ Studies of aggression in mice with targeted disruption of specific genes often fail to include measurements of testosterone, thereby complicating interpretation of the results from these studies.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In one source, it was noted that concentration of testosterone most clearly correlated with aggressive responses involving provocation.^ One member (again the second most aggressive driver) argued that the limits should be higher and law enforcement should give no tolerance.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When asked whether double fines in work zones have any impact, one of the most aggressive males said it has no effect.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Testosterone concentrations are highly correlated with aggression in rodent species; castrated mice rarely display aggressive behavior, and testosterone replacement restores aggression to pre-castration values (reviewed in Gandelman 1980).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In adulthood, it is clear that testosterone is not related to any consistent methods of measuring aggression on personality scales, but several studies of the concentration of blood testosterone of convicted male criminals who committed violent crimes compared to males without a criminal record or who committed non-aggressive crimes revealed in most cases that men who were judged aggressive/dominant had higher blood concentrations of testosterone than controls.^ In other animals, the dominance pattern has been found associated with masculine sexual aggression, grabbing food from others, and bullying, as well as concentration of the male hormone (testosterone).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These confounding factors were controlled for in a study of 27 outpatients who were Vietnam War veterans with PTSD and 15 controls who were Vietnam War combat veterans without PTSD. Subjects with PTSD scored significantly higher than subjects without PTSD on measures of hostility and violence.

^ Although patients with mental disorders do not commit most violent crimes (a recent study from Sweden found that patients with severe mental illness commit 1 in 20 violent crimes 2 ), they are at an increased relative risk for committing them.

.However, a correlation between testosterone levels and aggression does not prove a causal role for testosterone.^ However, castration does not eliminate aggression entirely.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Testosterone implants brings male aggression back to pre-castration levels (Albert et al.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some human studies have indicated that 5-HIAA levels in CSF inversely correlates with the frequency of aggression, particularly among persons who commit suicide.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Studies of testosterone levels of male athletes before and after a competition revealed that testosterone levels rise shortly before their matches, as if in anticipation of the competition, and are dependent on the outcome of the event: testosterone levels of winners are high relative to those of losers.^ Takahashi and Lore (1983) also found high levels of aggression in male rats that were 6.7 months old.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Testosterone profiles vary with experience: Experience and events in the environment influence testosterone levels.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the first month after the colonies were created, aggression levels were relatively high in four of the colonies.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.Interestingly, testosterone levels in female criminals versus females without a criminal record mirror those of males: testosterone levels are higher in women who commit aggressive crimes or are deemed aggressive by their peers than non-aggressive females.^ The male investigated, sniffed, and mounted spayed females somewhat less than intact females, though the differences were not significant.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the female is spayed before introduction, the male's behavior is similar, but he investigates, sniffs, and mounts her somewhat less than intact females.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, adult male mice attack females who have been injected with testosterone (Mugford and Nowell 1970).
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, no specific response of testosterone levels to competition was observed in female athletes, although a mood difference was noted[31].^ This increasing level of testosterone may therefore be indirectly responsible for increased adult aggression associated with age.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were no differences between nNOS-/- and WT mice in blood testosterone concentrations either before or after agonistic encounters.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, no significant differences in the number of attacks were detected.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Testosterone has been shown to correlate with aggressive behavior in mice and in some humans,[32] but in contrast to some long-standing theories, various experiments have failed to find a relationship between testosterone levels and aggression in humans.^ Testosterone profiles vary with experience: Experience and events in the environment influence testosterone levels.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some reasons have to do with a single event and others are long-term behavioral in nature.An aggressive dog owners has a great responsibility to keep the dog under control.To train an aggressive dog first requires some basic understanding the Causes for dog aggression : .
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ Testosterone concentrations are highly correlated with aggression in rodent species; castrated mice rarely display aggressive behavior, and testosterone replacement restores aggression to pre-castration values (reviewed in Gandelman 1980).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

[33][34][35] .The possible correlation between testosterone and aggression could explain the "roid rage" that can result from anabolic steroid use[36][37], although an effect of abnormally high levels of steroids does not prove an effect at physiological levels.^ Although some may appear frail, serious injury to self and others can result from a rage reaction to a perceived threat.

^ I imagine it could help matters to have a better introduction between dog and kids- no bones or toys present and with gentle voices and hands, the dog may then become used to your kids and stop the aggression.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Aggressive Dogs and Kids 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Low testosterone not only inhibits attacks on the juvenile, it also reduces aggression between adult males.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.Another line of research has focused more on the effects of circulating testosterone on the nervous system mediated by local metabolism within the brain.^ Although the brain systems that mediate aggression appear to remain fairly constant among mammals, many details of the regulatory pathways appear to be species specific (Grisola 1997).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Testosterone can be metabolized to 17b-estradiol by the enzyme aromatase or to 5a-dihydrotestosterone by 5a-reductase. .Aromatase is highly expressed in regions involved in the regulation of aggressive behavior, such as the amygdala and hypothalamus.^ Enkephalinergic neurons are present in many regions involved in modulating emotional behaviors including the amygdala, hypothalamus, septum, cingulate, and entorhinal cortex (Nieuwenhuys 1985).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Activities such as violent crime, aggressive sports, and war depicted through the media or witnessed, in person reinforce aggressive behavior.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If, for a gang member, it is his ability to beat up an old lady, his esteem will be linked to such aggressive attitudes, and this aggression will be an integrated part of his behavior.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In studies using genetic knock out techniques in inbred mice, male mice that lacked a functional aromatase enzyme displayed a marked reduction in aggression.^ The use of genetic "knock-out" mice in behavioral endocrinology research.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Altered nociception, analgesia and aggression in mice lacking the receptor for substance P. Nature 392:394-407.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Long-term treatment of these mice with estradiol partially restored aggressive behavior, suggesting that the neural conversion of circulating testosterone to estradiol and its effect on estrogen receptors affects inter-male aggression.^ Effect of other rats on male aggression .
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Behavioral effects of estrogen receptor gene disruption in male mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Serotonin is involved in the aggressive behavior of male nNOS null mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Also, two different estrogen receptors, ERa and ERb, have been identified as having the ability to exert different effects on aggression.^ The biochemical mechanism of adenosine receptor action with respect to aggression is unknown but may include neuromodulatory effects on the release of other neurotransmitters.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mice treated with 7-NI displayed substantially increased aggression in two different tests of aggressiveness compared with control animals (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of serotonergic 1A and 1B agonists in androgenic versus estrogenic systems fur aggression.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In studies using estrogen receptor knockout mice, individuals lacking a functional ERa displayed markedly reduced inter-male aggression while male mice that lacked a functional ERb exhibited normal or slightly elevated levels of aggressive behavior.^ Aggression: Overly aggressive behavior.

^ Displaying aggressive behavior .
  • Dog Aggression | Dog Training To Stop Your Dog Aggression Problems -- Works On Any Breed, Any Age. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogproblems.com [Source type: General]

^ A small retrospective uncontrolled study confirmed the antiaggressive effects of lithium in patients who were mentally retarded; self-injurious behavior exhibited by these aggressive individuals was also reduced by the treatment.

.These results imply that ERa facilitates male-male aggression, whereas ERb may inhibit aggression.^ The authors measured the male rat's aggression toward a strange male before and after living with these different cagemates.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Low testosterone not only inhibits attacks on the juvenile, it also reduces aggression between adult males.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, castration of resident male rats results in a powerful decline in aggression toward intruders, but not necessarily a complete elimination of aggression.
  • Aggression in Norway rats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ratbehavior.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, different strains of mice show the opposite pattern in that aromatase activity is negatively correlated with aggressive behavior.^ However, there were significant reductions in the duration of aggressive behaviors among OT-/- animals, especially in agonistic encounters within neutral arenas.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when aggressive behavior was examined in female nNOS-/- mice in the context of maternal aggression when WT females are highly aggressive toward an intruder, nNOS-/- dams were very docile (Gammie and Nelson 1999).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Activities such as violent crime, aggressive sports, and war depicted through the media or witnessed, in person reinforce aggressive behavior.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

.Also, in a different strain of mice the behavioral effect of estradiol is dependent on daylength: under long-days (16h of light) estradiol reduces aggression, and under short-days (8h of light) estradiol rapidly increases aggression [38].^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because 7-NI treatment in WT mice increased aggression to the levels displayed by nNOS-/- mice, it appears that nNOS is an important mediator of aggression in male mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the large numbers of knockout mice being generated and because there are many neurobiologic pathways underlying aggression, it is likely that many knockout mice will exhibit increased aggression.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Glucocorticoids also play an important role in regulating aggressive behavior.^ The psychotherapeutic perspectives that have been reviewed constitute the major ones in which aggression plays an important role.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the serotonergic system plays an important role in the aggressive behavior through 5-HT 1A and/or 5-HT 1B receptors subtypes.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been suggested that SP plays a role in emotional behavior (Maeno et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In adult rats, acute injections of corticosterone promote aggressive behavior and acute reduction of corticosterone decreases aggression; however, a chronic reduction of corticosterone levels can produce abnormally aggressive behavior.^ However, there were significant reductions in the duration of aggressive behaviors among OT-/- animals, especially in agonistic encounters within neutral arenas.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, when aggressive behavior was examined in female nNOS-/- mice in the context of maternal aggression when WT females are highly aggressive toward an intruder, nNOS-/- dams were very docile (Gammie and Nelson 1999).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

In addition, glucocorticoids affect development of aggression and establishment of social hierarchies. .Adult mice with low baseline levels of corticosterone are more likely to become dominant than are mice with high baseline corticosterone levels [38].^ Moreover, the targets of patient violence were more likely to be family members, friends, or acquaintances (89.3%) rather than strangers (10.7%).

^ Men with major mental disorders were approximately 4 times more likely to have been convicted of a violent offense than men without any mental disorder, and women with mental disorders were approximately 27 times more likely to be convicted than women without mental disorders.

^ Informal observation of the nNOS-/- mice revealed high levels of aggressiveness among male cage mates.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant circulating androgen and can be rapidly metabolized within target tissues into potent androgens and estrogens. .Gonadal steroids generally regulate aggression during the breeding season, but non-gonadal steroids may regulate aggression during the non-breeding season.^ Food aggression may also be directed at other dogs or other pets during feeding times for the same reasons.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ Aggression may be present during all these phases.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aggressive drivers also admitted to going much faster than the general groups -- at speeds of 60-70 during non-peak hours.
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.Castration of various species in the non-breeding season has no effect on territorial aggression.^ Taken together, these results suggest that NO from neurons has important, but opposite, effects in the mediation of aggression in male and female mice.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No wonder, then, that the asserted causes and cures of aggression vary so remarkably.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

In several avian studies, circulating DHEA has been found to be elevated in birds during the non-breeding season. These data support the idea that non-breeding birds combine adrenal and/or gonadal DHEA synthesis with neural DHEA metabolism to maintain territorial behavior when gonadal testosterone secretion is low. .Similar results have been found in studies involving different strains of rats, mice, and hamsters.^ Because most of the animal studies of aggression have been conducted on mice, this problem is not as great as it is for studies of learning or mating behavior in which the vast majority of studies have been conducted on rats.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, because of marked species differences in the mechanisms underlying aggression, it is not obvious that similar neurotransmitters will be involved in the expression of specific types of aggression.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of aggression in mice with targeted disruption of specific genes often fail to include measurements of testosterone, thereby complicating interpretation of the results from these studies.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.DHEA levels also have been studied in humans and may play a role in human aggression.^ The negative effect of aggression is due to confusion between it and paranoid hostility or hatred (in which frustration plays a large role).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Enkephalin The endogenous opioid system appears to play a role in pain perception, anxiety, and aggression (Mansour et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The psychotherapeutic perspectives that have been reviewed constitute the major ones in which aggression plays an important role.
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

Circulating DHEAS (its sulfated ester) levels rise during adrenarche (~7 years of age) while plasma testosterone levels are relatively low. .This implies that aggression in pre-pubertal children with aggressive conduct disorder might be correlated with plasma DHEAS rather than plasma testosterone, suggesting an important link between DHEAS and human aggressive behavior [38].^ Testosterone concentrations are highly correlated with aggression in rodent species; castrated mice rarely display aggressive behavior, and testosterone replacement restores aggression to pre-castration values (reviewed in Gandelman 1980).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug-induced aggression - Certain medications can have aggressive behavior as a side-effect because the dog’s perceptions have been affected.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ As might have been expected, fewer participants in the aggressive driver groups (15 percent) identified aggressive driving as a major crash cause than participants in the general groups (53 percent).
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another chemical messenger with implications for aggression is the neurotransmitter serotonin. .In various experiments, serotonin action was shown to be negatively correlated with aggression[39](Delville et al.^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mice treated with 7-NI displayed substantially increased aggression in two different tests of aggressiveness compared with control animals (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even when they are housed with littermates, there is increased evidence of aggression among the mutants (Scearce-Levie et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

1997). .This correlation with aggression helps to explain the aggression-reducing effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine (Delville et al.^ Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, decreased impulsive aggression (including assaultiveness) in 3 patients with personality disorders; this was an open trial.

^ These data are consistent with the dose-dependent decrease in male rodent aggression by the 5-HTlw B agonist eltoprazine and by the selective 5-HTlA agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di- n -propylamino)tetralin (Olivier et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In rats and mice, a single area, largely coincident with the intermediate hypothalamic area, is crucial for the expression of offensive aggression (Siegel et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

1997), aka prozac.
.While serotonin and testosterone have been the two most researched chemical messengers with regards to aggression, other neurotransmitters and hormones have been shown to relate to aggressive behavior as well.^ Steroid hormones also underlie other types of aggressive behavior.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some reasons have to do with a single event and others are long-term behavioral in nature.An aggressive dog owners has a great responsibility to keep the dog under control.To train an aggressive dog first requires some basic understanding the Causes for dog aggression : .
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ Intra-sex - This is aggression behavior that female dogs have only towards other female dogs or male dogs have only towards other male dogs.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

.The neurotransmitter vasopressin causes an increase in aggressive behavior when present in large amounts in the anterior hypothalamus (Delville et al.^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Others Both male and female mice that lack a functional tailless protein, an orphan nuclear receptor, are dramatically aggressive (Monaghan et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because murine aggressive behavior can also be motivated by fear, studies investigating knockout mice typically evaluate the mutants' response to fearful stimuli-- a -CaMKII mutant mice display reduced fear when tested in a number of tasks (Chen et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

1997). The effects of norepinephrine, cortisol, and other neurotransmitters are still being studied.

Genetics and aggression

In a nonmammilian example, the fruitless gene in Drosophila melanogaster is a critical determinant for how fruit flies fight. .Patterns of aggression can be switched, with males using female patterns of aggression or females using male patterns, by manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brain.^ Intra-sex - This is aggression behavior that female dogs have only towards other female dogs or male dogs have only towards other male dogs.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ In other animals, the dominance pattern has been found associated with masculine sexual aggression, grabbing food from others, and bullying, as well as concentration of the male hormone (testosterone).
  • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The males were more likely to have an organic brain syndrome, and the females were more likely to have a personality disorder.

Candidate genes for differentiating aggression between the sexes are the Sry (sex determining region Y) gene, located on the Y chromosome and the Sts (steroid sulfatase) gene. The Sts gene encodes the steroid sulfatase enzyme, which is pivotal in the regulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis. .It is expressed in both sexes, is correlated with levels of aggression among male mice, and increases dramatically in females after parturition and during lactation, corresponding to the onset of maternal aggression[29].^ Intra-sex - This is aggression behavior that female dogs have only towards other female dogs or male dogs have only towards other male dogs.
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

^ However, when aggressive behavior was examined in female nNOS-/- mice in the context of maternal aggression when WT females are highly aggressive toward an intruder, nNOS-/- dams were very docile (Gammie and Nelson 1999).
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because nNOS-/- mice display elevated levels of aggressive behavior compared with WT mice, we recently investigated aggression in eNOS-/- mice (Demas et al.
  • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Behar, D., J. Hunt, A. Ricciuti, D. Stoff, and B. Vitiello. "Subtyping Aggression in Children and Adolescents." The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences 2 (1990): 189-192. 7 Dec. 2006 <http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/2/2/189>
  2. ^ Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. ^ Bushman, B.J. & Anderson, C. A. (2001) Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychological Review 108:273-279.
  4. ^ McElliskem, Joseph E. "Affective and Predatory Violence: a Bimodal Classification System of Human Aggression and Violence." Aggression & Violent Behavior 10 (2004): 1-30. 7 Dec. 2006 <http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16141579>
  5. ^ Buss, D. M. (2005). The murderer next door: Why the mind Is designed to kill. New York: Penguin Press.
  6. ^ Tanner, C J. "Numerical Assessment Affects Aggression and Competitive Ability: a Team-Fighting Strategy for the Ant Formica Xerophila." Proceedings. Biological Sciences / the Royal Society (2006).<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17015327&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsum>.
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    ^ WebMD, Violent Video Games Linked to Aggressive Behavior WebMD, Lead Exposure May Increase Violent Behavior eMedicineHealth, Alzheimer Disease eMedicineHealth, Panic Attacks .

    ^ A thoughtful review and reinterpretation of the emergence of suicidal and aggressive behavior during antidepressant treatment places this clinical issue in perspective.

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (2000), Vol. 78, No. 4, 772-790 <http://www.apa.org/journals/features/psp784772.pdf>.
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    • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Child Development, 79(5), 1185-1229.
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    • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Others Both male and female mice that lack a functional tailless protein, an orphan nuclear receptor, are dramatically aggressive (Monaghan et al.
    • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Male nNOS-/-residents engaged in three to four times more aggressive encounters than WT mice in the intruder-resident model (Nelson et al.
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    Behaviour 132 (1995): 107-125. 7 Dec. 2006 <http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3448932>.
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  • Hines, Denise A., and Kimberly J. Saudino. ."Gender Differences in Psychological, Physical, and Sexual Aggression Among College Students Using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales."^ It is possible that the scoring system used to estimate the intensity of fighting and/or the 4-min duration of the test was not sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in aggression.
    • ILAR Journal Online, Volume 41(3) 2000: Mouse Behavioral Models in Biomedical Research 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC dels.nas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Violence is used only when describing human behavior and denotes physical aggression by one person against another.

    ^ A survey of the literature indicates the many different senses in which "aggression" is used.
    • AGGRESSION AND THE CONFLICT HELIX 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hawaii.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Violence and Victims 18 (2003): 197-217. 7 Dec. 2006 <http://www.atypon-link.com/SPC/doi/abs/10.1891/vivi.2003.18.2.197?cookieSet=1&journalCode=vivi>.
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    Canadian Journal of Zoology 70 (1992): 1069-1077. 7 Dec. .2006 Functional Aspects of Maternal Aggression in Mammals.
  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network (2004).^ To understand it, the research should focus on the cultural context of aggression and its function in the maintenance and development of the culture.
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  • Thomas, E. M. (1958).^ The current interest in the role of certain antidepressants in aggression treatment is based on the crucial role of serotonergic regulation of impulsive aggression against self and others.

    ^ The biological approach seeks the sources of aggression in our phylogenetic nature, mainly through the ethological study of human beings as members of the animal kingdom.
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    ^ Yes, the dominance versus submissiveness component , 22 which manifests the behavior associated with aggression in both primates and humans.
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    The harmless people. New York: Vintage Books.
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Psi2.png Subject classification: this is a psychology resource .
25%.svg Completion status: this resource is ~25% complete.
.This page is intended to help people to learn about the psychology of aggression.^ We hope you found our information about AGGRESSION side effects helpful.
  • AGGRESSION Side Effect 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recognizing subtle dominance aggression behavior Much has been written about dogs seeing people as part of their pack.
  • Sacramento Aggression Dog Training-Dog Dominance Trainers Sacramento. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.doganswers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in order for an owner to find the right sort of Dog Aggression Training to help solve the problem they first need to understand a little about the types of aggression a [...
  • Dog Obedience Training Secrets for Dog Aggression at DogTrainingAggression.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dogtrainingaggression.com [Source type: General]

Feel free to contribute.

Contents

Examples

.This section aims to provide some examples of different types of aggression, each of which could be discussed further.^ Some type of aggression in your life.

^ Types of aggression There are many different types of aggression.
  • Encyclopedia of the American Pit Bull Terrier : Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ukcpitbull.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That could give her an advantage if there is trouble and it might make it seem more like it is "her" house, which might slow Toby's aggression some.
  • Aggression Between Cats 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

Cyberbullying

Bullying Irfe.jpg
.
Aggression is not necessarily physical or direct.
^ This chapter will address the question of violence and aggression by a consideration of physical acts that are directed by an individual toward other persons with the goal of causing them physical harm, or towards the self with the goal of suicide.
  • Neurobiology of Suicide and Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

Bullying, for example, can take place not only only in the playground (where it may be direct (overt) or indirect (covert, e.g., spreading rumours with an intent to negatively influence a person's social status), but also via electronic mediums, such as mobile phones and the internet.

Fighting

Fighting is an aggressive way to exert power and influence.

Rioting

Rioting usually involves aggressive, chaotic crowd behaviour directed towards authorities.

Genocide

Mummified victims of the Rwandan Genocide (1994) at Murambi Technical School. Genocide is an example of violent interpersonal aggression undertaken collectively by human ethnic and/or cultural groups in an effort to systematically kill members of other ethnic/cultural groups.
Genocide is a sad and unnecessary

Social learning

According to Social Learning Theory, aggression is learned, as are other social behaviours.

Street fight

A fight is an example of interpersonal aggression. .This face-to-face verbal and physical fight took place between some human beings on a street in Beijing, China, August 18, 2007, and attracted several onlookers, including a passer-by with a camera.^ In humans, aggression can denote verbal aggression, physical aggression against objects, or physical aggression against people.

^ Lorenzs view: According to Konard Lorenz , aggression that causes physical harm to others springs from a fighting instinct that humans share with other organisms.
  • Nursing Management of Aggression 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC currentnursing.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the past several years, roll-over warning devices have been placed on some of the ramps leading to and from the Beltway.
  • Final Report Capital Beltway Update: Beltway User Focus Groups 15 September 2009 4:04 UTC www.nhtsa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You can see some more photos of this incident on flickr.com.

War

War involves persistent, intentional, collective aggression between groups, such as nations, who attempt to exert power and influence through use of military weaponary, but often also via political, economic, and socially strategies.

See also

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Aggression at Wikipedia.
Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Category:Aggression

External links

Girard's mimetic/scapegoating model of community violence


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also aggression

German

Noun

Aggression f. (genitive Aggression, plural Aggressionen)
  1. aggression

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Area, which are similar to those in the above article.








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