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The Agnivanshi are people belonging to the Agnivansha. According to legend, they are descended from Agni, the Vedic God of Fire. The Agnivanshi lineage is one of the three lineages into which the Kshatriya caste of Hindus is divided, the other two races being the Suryavanshi (descended from Surya, the Hindu Sun God) and the Chandravanshi, descended from Chandra, the Hindu Moon God.


The Agnikunda legend

The Agnikunda legend gives an account of the origin of the Agnivanshi Kshatriyas. In fact, it attempts to explain the origin of some of the Rajputs. There are several versions of the legend.

The Bhavishya Purana version of the legend begins with the puranic legend wherein Parashurama, an avatara of Vishnu, exterminated the traditional kshatriyas of the land. Later, the legend says, sage Vasishta performed a great Yajna or fire-sacrifice, to seek from the gods a provision for the defense of righteousness on earth. In answer to his prayer, a youth arose from the Agnikunda or fire-altar -- the first Agnivanshi Rajput. According to different versions of the legend, one or three or four of the Rajput clans originated from the Agnikunda, including the Naru Rajputs (Naru means Fire), Pratiharas (Pariharas), Chauhans (Chahamanas), Solankis, and Paramaras (Parmars)(Rahevar)(Rever).

This legend is explained up to some extent if one tries to look into Bhavishya Purana [1]. The Purana is written in future tense and relevant part is like this in Sanskrit, English translation is given also:

Sanskrit English
Bindusar-stato-abhavat There will be Bindusara.
Pitustulyam krit rajyam-Ashok-stanmo-abhavat Like his father, who ruled, there will be Ashoka from him.
Etasminet kaletu Kanyakubjo-Dwijottamah At that time there will be an elite Brahmin in Kanyakubja clan.
Arbudam shikharam prapya-Bramh-homam-tho karot He will get Mount Abu and perform Bramh-hom.(A ceremony to please lord Bramha.)

(There will be Bindusara)
Pitustulyam krit Rajyam-ashok-stanmo-abhavat
(Like the father, there will be Ashoka and his sons who will rule)
Etsminet kaletu kanyakubjo-dwijottamah
(At that time there will be a Brahmin in Kanykubj clan)
Arbudam Shikharam prapya-bramh-homam-tho karot
(To achieve he will do "Bramh Hom" at Mount Abu)
Vedmantra prabhavacch-jatash-chatwari Kshtriya
(With the influence of Ved mantra four Kshatriyas will be born)
Pramar-ssamvedi cha Chaphani-yajurvidah
(From Samved "Pramara" and from Yajurved "Chaphani" will be)
Trivedi Chu tatha shuklo-athrva sa Pariharkah
(From three Vedas there will be "Chu" and from Atharva Veda there will be "Pariharak")
Erawat kule jatan-gajana-ruhyate prathak
(And there will be an elephant also from the family of Erawat)

This version clearly mentions 1.That an Yagna was held at Mount Abu 2. The time of Yagna was during rule of Ashoka's sons. 3.Four kshatriyas were born of this Yagna. They were Parihar (Pratihara). Parmar(Paramara)Rahevar(Rever), Chauhani(Chauhan), Chu (Chalukya)

At that time India was under attack from Indo-Greek kings. Ashoka during his later rule was under influence of Buddhism. Brahmins wanted to revive Hinduism, so it's no wonder they did everything they could. Pusyamitra Sunga murdered the last Mauryan emperor. Although he did everything to revive Hinduism, persecution of Buddhists is disputed.

It is universally accepted that Buddhism a religion originated from India remained and prospered in other countries, but lost grounds in India. This was due to revival of Hinduism in India.

The Pratiharas established the first Rajput kingdom in Marwar in southwestern Rajasthan in the 6th centurythe greatest kingdom after Ashoka and Harshvardhan, the Chauhans at Ajmer in central Rajasthan, the Solankis in Gujarat, and the Paramaras in Malwa.

It should be noted that Bhavishya Purana text, as avaialble today, is regarded to have later additions, some as late as 1850 CE.[2].

This legend shows how the true history of India is hidden under the thick veil of Brahmanic and Bardic fiction. [3]

Fortunately, large number of inscriptions and texts have come to light in the past one and half centuries that allow us to trace the history of Rajputs and the evolution of the legend in detail.

The Agni-kunda story was first given in Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta, a fictional romance where the hero is identifiable as Sindhuraj, the patron of Padmagupta. In Nava-sahasanka-charita the progenitor Paramara is created from fire by Vashishtha.

During the decline of the Dhar Paramaras, the story was included in royal inscriptions.

Later, the story was expanded to include two or three other Rajput clans.

Eventually some of the scholars, proposed that all of the Rajputs were created from the Agnikunda.

Agnikunda myth chronology

  • 1005 CE: Padmagupta writes Navasahasanka-charita during the rule of Parmar Sindhuraj (about 995-1055) of Dhara. He mentions creation of Paramar from Agnikinda by Vashista, for the first time[4].
  • 1000-1055: Bhoja: no mention of Agnikunda in his copperplates or inscriptions.
  • 1042: Vasantgarh inscription mentiones Paramara origin from Agnikunda.
  • 1070-1093: Udayaditya, Udayapur prashasti mentions Paramara origin from Agnikunda.
  • uncertain date: Prithviraj Raso composed[5]. Oldest copies of do not mention the Agnikunda legend.
  • Uncertain date: Unknown text that was later consulted for Aine-Akbari.
  • Aine-Akbari by Abul Fazl(1551-1602) mentions creation of a Dhanji from an Agnikunda, somewhere in Deccan, to fight Buddhism. He comes to Malava and established his rule. When Puraraj, fifth in line from him, died childless, a Paramara is selected to succeed him.
  • uncertain date: Agnikunda legend inserted in Prithviraj Raso, where three clans, Parihar, Chalukya and Parwar are mentions as having been created from the Agnikunda.
  • Uncertain date: Agnikunda legend in Bhavishya Purana. It mentions four clans Paramar, Chauhan, Chalukya and Parihar were created to annihilate the Buddhists during the time of Ashoka[6].
  • 1832: Tod presents his theory that the Agnikunda sympolizes elevation of Huns etc. to kshatriyahood, and thus all the Rajaputs are descendants of central Asians like Huns.
  • 1954: Todd's view is repeated by Basham in his "The wonder that was India". By now the view becomes accepted.

Early Parmara Chronology

949: First known Paramara copperplate found at Harsola. Mentions Paramara Siyaka as a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Akalavarsha. It mentions Paramaras being of the same Kula as the Rashtrakutas.

975, 986: Vakpati Munja assumes Rashtrakuta name Amoghavarsha and titles Srivallabha and Prathvivallabha, indicating he regarded himself to be a succesor of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta.

Thus there is no mention of Agnikunda in the early records, and Paramaras appear to be a branch of Rashtrakutas, as proposed by D.C. Ganguli.

Prominent Parihar or Pratihar Veers

DEWAN SHATRUGHAN SINGH and his wife RANI RAJENDRA KUMARI are two great Indian freedom fighters and Dewan Saheb was the father of the freedom movement in the whole of Bundelkhand, Dewan Shatrughan Singh is also known as 'Bundelkhand Gandhi' & 'Bundelkhand Kesri'. These were the two fountain heads of the freedom movement in all of Bundelkhand. They also were the main patrons of revolutionaries like Chandrashekhar Azad who frequented their Castle in their native village of Maungrauth. The Rani defeated the sitting UP Chief Minister C.B. Gupta as an independent candidate. They were also the main inspiration behind the Bhoodaan movement in Bundelkhand and Maungraut changed the history of the movement by becoming the first complete Gramdaan.

Numerous scholars have done PhD's on the life of these 2 great Indian patriots. There is an annual mela on the birthday of these two stalwarts held annually in Maungrauth in December and is attended by over 40,000 people. They opened numerous colleges and libraries in the Bundelkhand region and none were named after them. The district hospital of Hamirpur is named after Dewan Sahib after his death.

Despite being from one of the most affluent families in Central India this couple sacrificed everything for the nation and donated their lands to the poor even prior to 1947. They were in British jails for the freedom struggle for over 9 years each. They are now the subject of folk tales and songs highlighting their bravery and hailing them as symbols of Bundelkhandi valor.

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See also


  1. ^ Bhavishya Purana, Prashasti Sarga Parva Khand 1, chapter 6, Shloka 44 to 47
  2. ^ Bhavishya Purana, B.K. Chaturvedi, Diamond Books (P) Ltd.
  3. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 309.
  4. ^ H.V. Trivedi, "Inscriptions of the Paramaras(Rahevars), Chandellas, Kachchhapaghatas and two minor Dynasties", part 2 of the 3-part Vol III of Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, 1974 (published in 1991).
  5. ^ A. K. Warder "An Introduction to Indian Historiography", Popular Prakashan 1972
  6. ^ Thakur Udaynarayan Singh , "Kshatriya Vamshavali" (in Hindi), Khemaraj Shrikrishnadas, 1989.

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