Agoraphobia: Wikis

  
  
  

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Agoraphobia
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F40.
F40.00 Without panic disorder, F40.01 With panic disorder
ICD-9 300.22 Without panic disorder, 300.21 With panic disorder
MeSH D000379
.Agoraphobia (from Greek aγορά, "marketplace"; and φόβος/φοβία, -phobia) is an anxiety disorder, traditionally thought to involve a fear of public places and open spaces.^ There is a misconception that the term agoraphobia refers to a fear of open spaces.
  • Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC anxiety.stjoes.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agoraphobia is the fear of being alone or in public places...
  • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder related to fear.

.However, it is now believed that agoraphobia develops as a complication of panic attacks.^ The panic attacks have gotten worse by now.
  • Being Agoraphobic - Casinomeister's Online Casino and Poker Forum 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.casinomeister.com [Source type: General]

^ Agoraphobia often develops as a response to panic attacks.
  • Agoraphobia | Lifescript.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people develop agoraphobia after having panic attacks.
  • Agoraphobia | Lifescript.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]
  • Tufts Medical Center - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.tufts-nemc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC stjosepheureka.myhospitalwebsite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .But there is evidence that the implied one-way causal relationship between spontaneous panic attacks and agoraphobia in DSM-IV appears incorrect.^ There are also symptoms of agoraphobia that are not necessarily related to panic attacks.
  • Patient information leaflet - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agoraphobia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conclusions The implied one-way causal relationship between spontaneous panic attacks and agoraphobia in DSM–IV appears incorrect.
  • Agoraphobia in adults: incidence and longitudinal relationship with panic -- BIENVENU et al. 188 (5): 432 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The DSM–IV implies that agoraphobia is almost always a consequence of spontaneous panic attacks (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 , 2000 ).
  • Agoraphobia in adults: incidence and longitudinal relationship with panic -- BIENVENU et al. 188 (5): 432 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Agoraphobia may arise by the fear of having a panic attack in a setting from which there is no easy means of escape.^ You may be so fearful of having a panic attack that you can't venture into public.
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ You may also be afraid of having a panic attack where you wouldn’t be able to get help.
  • Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a fear of feeling trapped with no means of easy escape.
  • AGORAPHOBIA « Lolcats 'n' Funny Pictures of Cats – I Can Has Cheezburger? 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC icanhascheezburger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternately social anxiety problems may also be an underlying cause.^ Commonly used drugs include: Antidepressants Benzodiazepines or other anti-anxiety medicines Benzodiazepines may cause dependence.

^ Causes The exact cause of agoraphobia is unknown, but it often accompanies other conditions, such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse, social phobia, and specific phobia.
  • Agoraphobia - Orlando & Central Florida Urgent Care - Patient Education Library 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC centracare.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Panic disorder with agoraphobia ( type of Panic disorder ) Social phobia Specific phobia ( type of Phobias ) Clinical depression Delusional disorder - may cause avoidant behavior.
  • Symptoms of Agoraphobia - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

As a result, sufferers of agoraphobia avoid public and/or unfamiliar places, especially large, open, spaces such as shopping malls or airports where there are few 'places to hide'. In severe cases, the sufferer may become confined to his or her home, experiencing difficulty traveling from this "safe place."

Contents

Definition

.Not to be confused with agraphobia, agoraphobia is a condition where the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar or where he or she perceives that they have little control.^ Agoraphobia is a condition where the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar or where he or she perceives that they have little control.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Agoraphobia arises from an internal anxiety condition that has become so in tense that the suffering individual fears going anywhere or doing anything where these feelings of panic have repeatedly occurred before.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, sufferers of agoraphobia may avoid public and/or unfamiliar places.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

.Triggers for this anxiety may include wide open spaces, crowds (social anxiety), or traveling (even short distances).^ Triggers for this anxiety may include crowds, wide open spaces or traveling, even short distances.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Includes social anxiety and shyness.
  • Anxiety Attacks / Phobias / Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anxiety manifests primarily in two or more of the following: crowds, public places, travelling alone or away from home.
  • Agoraphobia | Doctor | Patient UK 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Agoraphobia is often, but not always, compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public.^ Agoraphobia is often compounded by social phobia, as the fear of having a panic attack may also cause people to become fearful of their appearance and condition in a public setting.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Agoraphobia is the intense fear of being trapped and having a panic attack in a public place.
  • Phobias - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agoraphobia is often caused by the occurrence of panic attacks.
  • Agoraphobia information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.thefamilygp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is also sometimes called 'Social Agoraphobia' which may be a type of social anxiety disorder also sometimes called "social phobia". Not all agoraphobia is social in nature, however.^ Social phobia (Social anxiety disorder) (44 reviews) .
  • Xanax for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Social phobia (Social anxiety disorder) (83 reviews) .
  • Klonopin for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder sometimes associated with panic attacks.
  • Psychologist - Psychologist omega - anxiety - Agoraphobia - Therapy online - Couple�s problems. Psychologist Madrid Spain. 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC psychologists-omega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some agoraphobics have a fear of open spaces.^ There is a misconception that the term agoraphobia refers to a fear of open spaces.
  • St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.stjoes.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC anxiety.stjoes.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A clinical definition is "a fear of open spaces, especially those in which getaway may be difficult, which leads to avoidance of the situation".
  • Agoraphobia | Doctor | Patient UK 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, today's definition has a much more expanded meaning that also includes a fear of any sort of open space, public or otherwise.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Agoraphobia is also a defined as "a fear, sometimes terrifying, by those who have experienced one or more panic attacks."^ Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder sometimes associated with panic attacks.
  • Psychologist - Psychologist omega - anxiety - Agoraphobia - Therapy online - Couple�s problems. Psychologist Madrid Spain. 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC psychologists-omega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people develop agoraphobia after experiencing a panic attack in one of these situations.

^ In agoraphobia the individual fears having a panic attack.
  • Clinician Support - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC crufad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In these cases, the sufferer is fearful of a particular place because they have experienced a panic attack at the same location in a previous time.^ For many, it seems that panic attacks are brought on by particular places.

^ Happily, few people experience all of these each time they have a panic attack.

^ Panic Attacks Resource for people suffering from Panic Attacks.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fearing the onset of another panic attack, the sufferer is fearful or even avoids the location.^ It stops the panic attack from even happening.
  • Xanax for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Do you suffer from Panic Attacks & Disorder?
  • Agoraphobia Cure - Banish Panic Attacks 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Panic Attacks Resource for people suffering from Panic Attacks.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The sufferer is now considered to suffer from Agoraphobia. .The sufferer can sometimes go to great lengths to avoid the locations where they have experienced the onset of a panic attack.^ Do you suffer from Panic Attacks & Disorder?
  • Agoraphobia Cure - Banish Panic Attacks 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Panic Attacks Resource for people suffering from Panic Attacks.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great quick read on Panic Attacks .
  • Avoidance Junkie - Agoraphobia Blog 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.avoidancejunkie.com [Source type: Original source]

.Agoraphobia, as described in this manner, is actually a symptom professionals check for when making a diagnosis of panic disorder.^ A diagnosis of panic disorder is typically given as occurring with, or without agoraphobia.
  • Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Nayar U - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agoraphobia may or may not occur with panic disorder.
  • Agoraphobia - Orlando & Central Florida Urgent Care - Patient Education Library 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC centracare.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia.
  • Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Nayar U - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other syndromes like obsessive compulsive disorder or post traumatic stress disorder can also cause agoraphobia, basically any irrational fear that keeps one from going outside can cause the syndrome.^ Anxiety disorders include panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias (social phobia, agoraphobia, and specific phobia).
  • NIMH · The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Description Agoraphobia is just one type of phobia, or irrational fear.
  • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ It's a fear, just like any other fear.
  • Being Agoraphobic - Casinomeister's Online Casino and Poker Forum 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.casinomeister.com [Source type: General]

[3]

Gender differences

.Agoraphobia occurs about twice as commonly among women as it does in men.^ "Is agoraphobia more common in men or women?".
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agoraphobia occurs about twice as commonly among women as it does in men.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia occurs commonly in patients in primary care settings.
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The gender difference may be attributable to social-cultural factors that encourage, or permit, the greater expression of avoidant coping strategies by women.^ The gender difference may be attributable to social-cultural factors that encourage, or permit, the greater expression of avoidant coping strategies by women.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO GENDER. Gender role socialization has been suggested as an explanation for the fact that the majority of patients with agoraphobia are women.
  • Agoraphobia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prognosis, Prevention, Resources 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other theories include the ideas that women are more likely to seek help and therefore be diagnosed, that men are more likely to abuse alcohol as a reaction to anxiety and be diagnosed as an alcoholic, and that traditional female sex roles encourage women to react to anxiety by engaging in dependent and helpless behaviors.^ Other theories include the ideas that women are more likely to seek help and therefore be diagnosed, that men are more likely to abuse alcohol as a reaction to anxiety and be diagnosed as an alcoholic, and that traditional female sex roles prescribe women to react to anxiety by engaging in dependent and helpless behaviors.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Is agoraphobia more common in men or women?".
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panic disorder is more frequently diagnosed in women than in men.
  • St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.stjoes.ca [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Research results have not yet produced a single clear explanation as to the gender difference[citation needed] in agoraphobia.^ Research results have not yet produced a single clear explanation as to the gender difference in agoraphobia.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The exact cause of agoraphobia is unknown, but researchers believe that the condition could be the result of a combination of genetic and psychological factors.
  • Patient information leaflet - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, one group of German researchers reported good results in treating patients with agoraphobia with individual high-density exposure therapy.
  • Agoraphobia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prognosis, Prevention, Resources 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

Causes and contributing factors

.The causes of agoraphobia are currently unknown.^ Causes The exact cause of agoraphobia is unknown, but it often accompanies other conditions, such as anxiety, depression, substance abuse, social phobia, and specific phobia.
  • Agoraphobia - Orlando & Central Florida Urgent Care - Patient Education Library 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC centracare.org [Source type: Academic]

.It has been linked however to the presence of other anxiety disorders, a stressful environment or substance abuse.^ Social phobia is often associated with other anxiety disorders, depression, or substance abuse.
  • Phobias - symptoms, Definition, Description, Demographics, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depressive disorders often co-occur with anxiety disorders and substance abuse.
  • NIMH · The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Anxiety disorders frequently co-occur with depressive disorders or substance abuse.
  • NIMH · The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Chronic use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines has been linked to causing agoraphobia.^ Medications that have been used with patients diagnosed with agoraphobia include the benzodiazepine tranquilizers, the MAO inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and the selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, or SSRIs.
  • Agoraphobia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prognosis, Prevention, Resources 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Agoraphobia often accompanies another anxiety disorder, such as panic disorder or a specific phobia.
  • Agoraphobia : Wilmington, Delaware DE 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One such approach links the development of agoraphobia with modernity.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .When benzodiazepine dependence has been treated and after a period of abstinence, agoraphobia symptoms gradually abate.^ Agoraphobia can be successfully treated in many cases through a very gradual process of graduated exposure therapy combined with cognitive therapy and sometimes anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Benzodiazepines are effective in treating panic disorder symptoms, but they are less effective than antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy.
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]
Research has uncovered a linkage between agoraphobia and difficulties with spatial orientation.[8][9][10] .Individuals without agoraphobia are able to maintain balance by combining information from their vestibular system, their visual system and their proprioceptive sense.^ Normal individuals are able to maintain balance by combining information from their vestibular system, their visual system and their proprioceptive sense.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another version relates agoraphobia to the mother-daughter relationship, maintaining that mothers tend to give daughters mixed messages about becoming separate individuals.
  • Agoraphobia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prognosis, Prevention, Resources 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MEDICAL BOOKS ONLINE! Review excerpts from medical books online, free, without registration, for more information about the symptoms of Agoraphobia .
  • Symptoms of Agoraphobia - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.A disproportionate number of agoraphobics have weak vestibular function and consequently rely more on visual or tactile signals.^ Individuals who fear large crowds, fear leaving the house, or fear open spaces may have weak vestibular functioning and consequently rely more on visual or tactile signals .
  • Natural Agoraphobia Remedy - Calm Fears of Leaving the House & Crowds 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A disproportionate number of agoraphobics have weak vestibular function and consequently rely more on visual or tactile signals.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

.They may become disoriented when visual cues are sparse as in wide open spaces or overwhelming as in crowds.^ They may become disoriented when visual cues are sparse as in wide open spaces or overwhelming as in crowds.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Triggers for this anxiety may include crowds, wide open spaces or traveling, even short distances.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ The general misconception is that the fear is triggered in open places; but for many people, they happen at home, in houses of worship, or in crowded supermarkets.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

.Likewise, they may be confused by sloping or irregular surfaces.^ Likewise, they may be confused by sloping or irregular surfaces.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Compared to controls, in virtual reality studies, agoraphobics on average show impaired processing of changing audiovisual data.^ Compared to controls, in virtual reality studies, agoraphobics on average show impaired processing of changing audiovisual data.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In these studies, 61 percent of patients were panic-free after six to 12 weeks of treatment, compared with 41 percent of control patients.
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[12]

Alternate theories

Attachment theory

.Some scholars [13][14] have explained agoraphobia as an attachment deficit, i.e., the temporary loss of the ability to tolerate spatial separations from a secure base.^ Main article: Attachment theory Some scholars [12] [13] have explained agoraphobia as an attachment deficit, i.e., the temporary loss of the ability to tolerate spatial separations from a secure base.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent empirical research has also linked attachment and spatial theories of agoraphobia [14].
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Space and the secure base in agoraphobia: a qualitative survey", Area, 40, 3, 357 - 382.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Recent empirical research has also linked attachment and spatial theories of agoraphobia.^ Recent empirical research has also linked attachment and spatial theories of agoraphobia [14].
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Attachment theory Some scholars [12] [13] have explained agoraphobia as an attachment deficit, i.e., the temporary loss of the ability to tolerate spatial separations from a secure base.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research has uncovered a linkage between agoraphobia and difficulties with spatial orientation.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Spatial theory

.In the social sciences there is a perceived clinical bias [17] in agoraphobia research.^ In the social sciences there is a perceived clinical bias [15] in agoraphobia research.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Panic disorder with agoraphobia ( type of Panic disorder ) Social phobia Specific phobia ( type of Phobias ) Clinical depression Delusional disorder - may cause avoidant behavior.
  • Symptoms of Agoraphobia - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In agoraphobia and specific phobia, the focus is fear itself; with social phobia, the person's focus is on how others are perceiving him/her.
  • Agoraphobia - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Demographics, Diagnosis, Treatments, Prognosis, Prevention, Resources 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.minddisorders.com [Source type: Academic]

.Branches of the social sciences, especially geography, have increasingly become interested in what may be thought of as a spatial phenomenon.^ Branches of the social sciences, especially geography, have increasingly become interested in what may be thought of as a spatial[16].
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with this disorder may become housebound for years, which is likely to hurt social and interpersonal relationships.
  • Agoraphobia : Wilmington, Delaware DE 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.christianacare.org [Source type: Academic]

One such approach links the development of agoraphobia with modernity.[18]

Diagnosis

.Most people who present to mental health specialists develop agoraphobia after the onset of panic disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1998).^ Treatments for Panic disorder / agoraphobia .
  • Klonopin for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Xanax for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Celexa for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Panic disorder / agoraphobia (197 reviews) .
  • Klonopin for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Most people who have agoraphobia practice progressive muscle relaxation.

.Agoraphobia is best understood as an adverse behavioral outcome of repeated panic attacks and subsequent anxiety and preoccupation with these attacks that leads to an avoidance of situations where a panic attack could occur.^ Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder sometimes associated with panic attacks.
  • Psychologist - Psychologist omega - anxiety - Agoraphobia - Therapy online - Couple�s problems. Psychologist Madrid Spain. 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC psychologists-omega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This anxiety usually leads to avoidance of a variety of feared situations.
  • Clinician Support - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC crufad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This anxiety is often compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public.
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

[19] .In rare cases where agoraphobics do not meet the criteria used to diagnose Panic Disorder, the formal diagnosis of Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder is used (Primary Agoraphobia).^ Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia occurs commonly in patients in primary care settings.
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A diagnosis of panic disorder is typically given as occurring with, or without agoraphobia.
  • Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Nayar U - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments for Panic disorder / agoraphobia .
  • Xanax for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Celexa for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

[20]

Association with panic attacks

.Agoraphobia patients can experience sudden panic attacks when traveling to places where they fear they are out of control, help would be difficult to obtain, or they could be embarrassed.^ Come to find out it was panic attacks.
  • Being Agoraphobic - Casinomeister's Online Casino and Poker Forum 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.casinomeister.com [Source type: General]

^ Or you may avoid places where escape would be difficult or help would be unavailable if you had a panic attack.
  • Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At least 75% of patients with agoraphobia experience panic disorder as well.
  • Phobic Disorders: eMedicine Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.During a panic attack, epinephrine is released in large amounts, triggering the body's natural fight-or-flight response.^ During this phase, adrenaline is released into the bloodstream in large amounts for several minutes causing the classic "fight or flight" response .
  • Natural Agoraphobia Remedy - Calm Fears of Leaving the House & Crowds 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens during a panic attack?
  • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ So read up on anxiety, panic disorder, and the fight-or-flight response experienced during a panic attack.
  • Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A panic attack typically has an abrupt onset, building to maximum intensity within 10 to 15 minutes, and rarely lasts longer than 30 minutes.^ This went from a 10 to a 0 within two minutes.
  • Using EFT for Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.emofree.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A panic attack typically has an abrupt onset, building to maximum intensity within 10 to 15 minutes, and rarely lasts longer than 30 minutes.
  • Agoraphobia - a knol by Samuel Barrack 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These episodes--called panic attacks--can last from minutes to hours.
  • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Symptoms of a panic attack include palpitations, a rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, vomiting, dizziness, tightness in the throat and shortness of breath.^ Autonomic signs and symptoms include shortness of breath, tachycardia, sweating, and abdominal complaints.
  • Symptoms of Agoraphobia - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Have you been experienceing Panic Attack Symptoms?
  • Agoraphobia Cure - Banish Panic Attacks 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Signs and symptoms of panic attacks and panic disorder .
  • Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many patients report a fear of dying or of losing control of emotions and/or behavior.^ Fear of losing control .
  • Clinician Support - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC crufad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agoraphobics may fear having anxiety attacks, "losing control", or embarrassing themselves in such situations.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Review - The Worry Free Life provides a wealth of practical information for anyone who wants to take control of their emotions, thoughts and behaviors.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

Treatments

.Treatment options for agoraphobia and panic disorder are similar.^ Available effective treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia .
  • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ Treatment and support for panic attacks and panic disorder .
  • Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatments for Panic disorder / agoraphobia .
  • Klonopin for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Xanax for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

Cognitive behavioral treatments

.Exposure treatment can provide lasting relief to the majority of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia.^ Available effective treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia .
  • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcoholic patients with panic disorder should be referred for standard alcohol treatment.
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Show all 148 treatments for Panic disorder / agoraphobia .
  • Klonopin for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Xanax for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Celexa for Panic disorder / agoraphobia - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

.Disappearance of residual and subclinical agoraphobic avoidance, and not simply of panic attacks, should be the aim of exposure therapy.^ Panic attacks are in a way the motor that drives the agoraphobic avoidance.
  • Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Nayar U - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This anxiety is often compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public.
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Second, the avoidance of situations developed subsequent to the panic attack for the fear of the consequence of having a heart attack.
  • Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Nayar U - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Similarly, Systematic desensitization may also be used.^ Systematic desensitization or graded real-life exposure, called "exposure therapy," is a behavioral technique used to treat phobias.
  • Agoraphobia Cure - Banish Panic Attacks 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Session 6: Systematic Desensitization is perhaps the best known, and one of the most effective psychological techniques ever used for the treatment of phobias.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Systematic Desensitization, which is perhaps the best known and one of the most effective psychological techniques ever used for the treatment of phobias.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

.Cognitive restructuring has also proved useful in treating agoraphobia.^ Agoraphobia can be successfully treated in many cases through a very gradual process of graduated exposure therapy combined with cognitive therapy and sometimes anti-anxiety or antidepressant medications.
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ The majority of individuals with agoraphobia can be successfully treated with cognitive-behavioural programmes, some are relieved by medication (see Chapter 2: Medication).
  • Clinician Support - Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC crufad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other types of therapies that are used to treat Agoraphobics include: Cognitive Therapy, Assertiveness Training, Biofeedback, Hypnosis, Meditation, Relaxation and Couples Therapy.
  • Agoraphobia Cure - Banish Panic Attacks 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.This treatment uses thought replacing with the goal of replacing one's irrational, counter-factual beliefs with more accurate and beneficial ones.^ Agoraphobia Treatment Treatment with Psychotherapy There are many forms of treatment available for agoraphobia and the goal of each one is to help the phobic person to function effectively.
  • Agoraphobia Cure - Banish Panic Attacks 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Session 6: Systematic Desensitization is perhaps the best known, and one of the most effective psychological techniques ever used for the treatment of phobias.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Systematic Desensitization, which is perhaps the best known and one of the most effective psychological techniques ever used for the treatment of phobias.
  • Hypnosis CD's For Agoraphobia Phobias | Neuro-VISION 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.neuro-vision.us [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Relaxation techniques are often useful skills for the agoraphobic to develop, as they can be used to stop or prevent symptoms of anxiety and panic.^ How do panic symptoms develop?
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This anxiety is often compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public.
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

^ Agoraphobics may experience panic attacks in situations where they feel trapped, insecure, out of control or too far from their personal comfort zone.
  • Agoraphobia & Social Anxiety Support Group - DailyStrength 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

Psychopharmaceutical treatments

.Anti-depressant medications most commonly used to treat anxiety disorders are mainly in the SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) class and include sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxetine.^ The medications used for panic attacks and panic disorder include: .
  • Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commonly used drugs include: .
  • Agoraphobia | Lifescript.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Product Description - Anxiety and depression are among the most serious medical disorders today.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Benzodiazepine tranquilizers, MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants are also commonly prescribed for treatment of agoraphobia.^ Several classes of drugs have been used with variable degree of success in the management of panic disorder and agoraphobia: antidepressants including the tricyclic drugs, serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), as well as antianxiety drugs like benzodiazepines.
  • Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Al-Haddad MK, Sequeira RP, Nayar U - J Postgrad Med 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ SSRIs = selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; TCAs = tricyclic antidepressants .
  • Treatment of Panic Disorder - February 15, 2005 - American Family Physician 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The following are some of the most commonly recommended treatment approaches for Agoraphobia.
  • Help for Agoraphobics - Agoraphobia Causes & Agoraphobia Symptoms 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Alternative treatments

.Eye movement desensitization and reprogramming (EMDR) has been studied as a possible treatment for agoraphobia, with poor results.^ EMDR EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) is a fascinating technique for dealing with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and other intense traumas which are often part of agoraphobia.
  • Agoraphobia Articles 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ The treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA) could further be improved if the results of clinical studies were put into practice.
  • Available effective treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Investigations in the USA and Canada also showed a lack of concordance between results of clinical studies and the current state of treatment [5; 8; 23; 24].
  • Available effective treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.priory.com [Source type: Academic]

[23] .As such, EMDR is only recommended in cases where cognitive-behavioral approaches have proven ineffective or in cases where agoraphobia has developed following trauma.^ The following are some of the most commonly recommended treatment approaches for Agoraphobia.
  • Help for Agoraphobics - Agoraphobia Causes & Agoraphobia Symptoms 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EMDR EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) is a fascinating technique for dealing with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and other intense traumas which are often part of agoraphobia.
  • Agoraphobia Articles 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Participants with incident DIS/DSM–III agoraphobia at wave 2 (1982, n =3) were considered new cases only if they met DSM–III–R criteria at wave 3 as well ( n =1).
  • Agoraphobia in adults: incidence and longitudinal relationship with panic -- BIENVENU et al. 188 (5): 432 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC bjp.rcpsych.org [Source type: Academic]

[24]
.Many people with anxiety disorders benefit from joining a self-help or support group (telephone conference call support groups or online support groups being of particular help for completely housebound individuals).^ Introducing an Incomparable Source of Information, Natural Remedies and Emotional Support: NativeRemedies.com I would have to say NativeRemedies.com is the greatest online source for natural healing remedies, treatment and support for anxiety disorder, depression, and other emotional/physiological problems ever!
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While many people see a psychologist on a one-to-one basis, sometimes people see a psychologist in a group setting.
  • Psychologist - Psychologist omega - anxiety - Agoraphobia - Therapy online - Couple�s problems. Psychologist Madrid Spain. 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC psychologists-omega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This site also features online support by means of articles, depression discussions, self help tips, help groups, etc.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sharing problems and achievements with others as well as sharing various self-help tools are common activities in these groups.^ The book offers a broad range of self-care resources as well as information about how and when to seek outside help.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baumel tells how to assess the pros and cons of these various therapies and how to apply them to personal issues in this strong self-help guide.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CBT makes use of various techniques which may help the individual to better understand and manage symptoms as well as the maladaptive thoughts and behaviors that underlie them.
  • Help for Agoraphobics - Agoraphobia Causes & Agoraphobia Symptoms 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular stress management techniques and various kinds of meditation practices as well as visualization techniques can help people with anxiety disorders calm themselves and may enhance the effects of therapy.^ EMDR EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) is a fascinating technique for dealing with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and other intense traumas which are often part of agoraphobia.
  • Agoraphobia Articles 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Undiagnosed anxiety disorders related to depression : Patients with depression (see symptoms of depression ) may also have undiagnosed anxiety disorders (see symptoms of anxiety disorders )....
  • Agoraphobia Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Calm Within CD ™ is used to promote serenity and calmness through soothing sounds, progressive relaxation exercises and positive visualization techniques.
  • Natural Agoraphobia Remedy - Calm Fears of Leaving the House & Crowds 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So can service to others which can distract from the self-absorption that tends to go with anxiety problems.^ In addition, they will check that you do not have any other disorders or problems such as an anxiety disorder, depression or substance abuse.
  • Help for Agoraphobics - Agoraphobia Causes & Agoraphobia Symptoms 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More people suffer from anxiety than any other mental health problem.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, health problems such as anxiety, depression, fatigue and agoraphobia can have a variety of causes, some being quite complex and interwoven with other causes.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is also preliminary evidence that aerobic exercise may have a calming effect. .Since caffeine, certain illicit drugs, and even some over-the-counter cold medications can aggravate the symptoms of anxiety disorders, they should be avoided.^ Avoid caffeine and nicotine because they can increase anxiety.
  • Agoraphobia | Lifescript.com 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ In some cases they may even keep relationships going simply to avoid being alone, a situation that sometimes generates a huge dilemma for them: the very thought of breaking off the relationship is a source of great anxiety, but continuing it causes an equal amount of concern.
  • Psychologist - Psychologist omega - anxiety - Agoraphobia - Therapy online - Couple�s problems. Psychologist Madrid Spain. 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC psychologists-omega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, they will check that you do not have any other disorders or problems such as an anxiety disorder, depression or substance abuse.
  • Help for Agoraphobics - Agoraphobia Causes & Agoraphobia Symptoms 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Notable agoraphobes

  • Woody Allen (1935-), American actor, director, musician.[26]
  • Kim Basinger (1953-), American Actress.[27]
  • Paula Deen (1947-), American Chef.[28]
  • .
  • H.L. Gold (1914-1996), science fiction editor; as a result of trauma during his wartime experiences, his agoraphobia became so severe that for more than two decades he was unable to leave his apartment.^ People with agoraphobia frequently also experience panic attacks, but panic attacks, or panic disorder, are not a requ Read More Go to Site .
    • Agoraphobia - Education Resource - StudySphere 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Comorbid phobias are generally more severe than pure phobias.
    • Phobic Disorders: eMedicine Psychiatry 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Healing Anxiety/Depression Articles What I Went Through and How I Found Relief - I suffered severely from anxiety and depression for more than 30 years.
    • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Towards the end of his life he acquired some control over the condition.[29]
  • Brian Wilson (1942-), American singer and songwriter; Primary songwriter of the Beach Boys. A former recluse and agoraphobic who underwent bouts of schizophrenia.[30]
  • Daryl Hannah (1960-), American actress.[31]
  • Howard Hughes (1905-1976), American aviator, industrialist, film producer and philanthropist.[32]
  • Olivia Hussey (1951-), Anglo-Argentine Actress.[33][34]
  • Bolesław Prus (1847–1912), Polish journalist and novelist.[35]
  • Peter Robinson (1962-), British musician known simply as Marilyn.[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://helpguide.org/mental/panic_disorder_anxiety_attack_symptom_treatment.htm
  2. ^ Br J Psychiatry. 2006 May;188:432-8.
  3. ^ Psych Central: Agoraphobia Symptoms
  4. ^ Magee, W. J., Eaton, W. W. , Wittchen, H. U., McGonagle, K. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1996). Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey, Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 159–168.
  5. ^ Agoraphobia Research Center. "Is agoraphobia more common in men or women?". http://www.agoraphobia.ws/whogets.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  6. ^ Hammersley D, Beeley L (1996). "The effects of medication on counselling". in Palmer S, Dainow S, Milner P (eds.). Counselling: The BACP Counselling Reader. 1. Sage. pp. 211–4. ISBN 978-0803974777. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=wnIBEQKQi7IC. 
  7. ^ Professor C Heather Ashton (1987). "Benzodiazepine Withdrawal: Outcome in 50 Patients". British Journal of Addiction 82: 655–671. http://www.benzo.org.uk/ashbzoc.htm. 
  8. ^ R. Spiti: Primary Agoraphobia's specific Symptoms: from natural information to mental representations http://docs.google.com/View?id=dc45mkq9_18f6xcbnfddocID=dc45mkq9_1ftdhjn2d&revision=_latest
  9. ^ Yardley, L; Britton, J; Lear, S; Bird, J; Luxon, LM (1995 May). "Relationship between balance system function and agoraphobic avoidance.". Behav Res Ther. 33 (4): 435–9. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00060-W. PMID 7755529 : 7755529. 
  10. ^ Jacob, RG; Furman, JM; Durrant, JD; Turner, SM (1996). "Panic, agoraphobia, and vestibular dysfunction". Am J Psychiatry 153 (4): 503–512. PMID 8599398. 
  11. ^ Jacob, RG; Furman, JM; Durrant, JD; Turner, SM (1997 May-June). "Surface dependence: a balance control strategy in panic disorder with agoraphobia". Psychosom Med. 59 (3): 323–30. PMID 9178344 : 9178344. 
  12. ^ Viauddelmon, I; Warusfel, O; Seguelas, A; Rio, E; Jouvent, R (2006 October). "High sensitivity to multisensory conflicts in agoraphobia exhibited by virtual reality.". Eur Psychiatry 21 (7): 501–8. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.10.004. PMID 17055951 : 17055951. 
  13. ^ G. Liotti, (1996). Insecure attachment and agoraphobia, in: C. Murray-Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.). Attachment Across the Life Cycle.
  14. ^ J. Bowlby, (1998). Attachment and Loss (Vol. 2: Separation).
  15. ^ K. Jacobson, (2004). "Agoraphobia and Hypochondria as Disorders of Dwelling." International Studies in Philosophy 36, 31-44.
  16. ^ J. Holmes, (2008). "Space and the secure base in agoraphobia: a qualitative survey", Area, 40, 3, 357 - 382.
  17. ^ J. Davidson, (2003). Phobic Geographies
  18. ^ J. Holmes, (2006). "Building Bridges and Breaking Boundaries: Modernity and Agoraphobia", Opticon1826, 1, 1, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/opticon1826/archive/issue1
  19. ^ Barlow, D. H. (1988). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. Guilford Press. 
  20. ^ Spiti R.: Primary agoraphobia's specific symptoms: from natural information to mental representations http://docs.google.com/View?id=dc45mkq9_12fsn6p3hs
  21. ^ a b David Satcher etal. (1999). "Chapter 4.2". Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter4/sec2.html. 
  22. ^ Fava, G.A.; Rafanelli, C.; Grandi, S.; Cinto, S.; Ruini, C.; Mangelli, L; Belluardo, P (2001). "Long-term outcome of panic disorder with agoraphobia treated by exposure". Psychological Medicine (Cambridge University Press) 31 (5): 891–898. doi:10.1017/S0033291701003592. PMID 11459386. 
  23. ^ Goldstein, Alan J.; Goldstein, Alan J., de Beurs, Edwin, Chambless, Dianne L., Wilson, Kimberly A. (2000). "EMDR for Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia : Comparison With Waiting List and Credible Attention-Placebo Control Conditions". Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 68 (6): 947–957. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.947. 
  24. ^ Agoraphobia Resource Center. "Agoraphobia treatments - Eye movement desensitization and reprogramming". http://www.agoraphobia.ws/treatment-emdr.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  25. ^ National Institute of Mental Health. "How to get help for anxiety disorders". http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/anxiety-disorders/how-to-get-help-for-anxiety-disorders.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  26. ^ "Reconstructing Woody"
  27. ^ "Kim Basinger". Nndb.com. http://www.nndb.com/people/310/000025235. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  28. ^ [1]
  29. ^ "Editing H. L. Gold (section) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. 2009-02-05. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=H._L._Gold&action=edit&section=4. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  30. ^ Profile of Brian Wilson. The Independent. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  31. ^ Biography for Daryl Hannah. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  32. ^ Psychological Autopsy can help understand controversial deaths -- The Crime Library on truTV.com
  33. ^ Olivia Hussey - People Magazine – March 16, 1992
  34. ^ Olivia Hussey Biography - Internet Movie Database
  35. ^ Stanisław Fita, ed., Wspomnienia o Bolesławie Prusie (Reminiscences about Bolesław Prus), Warsaw, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy (State Publishing Institute), 1962, p. 113.
  36. ^ Whatever Happened to the Gender Benders?, Channel 4 documentary, United Kingdom.
. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Institute of Mental Health.^ Charney (who spearheaded the latest National Institute of Mental Health research plan on the disorders) and Nemeroff (a top-flight researcher and clinician at Emory University) stress that any treatment must be tailored to each individual.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mental illness classified as bipolar disorder or manic depression has a hold on about 2.3 million people or approximately one percent of the population according to the National Institute of Mental Health.
  • Agoraphobia-Finally a A Solution You Can Live With… 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.actnowcenter.com [Source type: General]

^ Charney is the chief of the Mood and Anxiety Disorder Research Program at the National Institute of Mental Health; Nemeroff is the chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Emory University's medical school.
  • Heal Anxiety Disorder, Depression and Agoraphobia Naturally 19 January 2010 9:51 UTC www.wholejoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


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