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.Agriculture is the production of food and goods through farming.^ According to the U.S. Department of Agricultures 2007 Census of Agriculture, New farms tend to have more diversified production, fewer acres, lower sales and younger operators.
  • SPIN in the City : A New Form of Farming That Can Transform Cities (By Miranda C. Spencer) 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.emagazine.com [Source type: News]

^ For many farmers, the low prices for many agricultural goods have not kept up with the increasing costs of farming.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blocking free trade in farm products and farm inputs will probably mean clearing tropical forest for food self-sufficiency in Asia.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization, with the husbandry of domesticated animals and plants (i.e. crops) creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated and stratified societies. .The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.^ Britain’s Royal Society has also just produced a study, Reaping the Benefits: Science and the Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A study of the professional competencies required for the teaching of agricultural science.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Department of Agricultural and Industrial Sciences consists of three major programs of study: Agricultural Sciences, Industrial Sciences and Technology, and Career and Technology Education.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Central to human society, agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite.[1][2]
.Agriculture encompasses a wide variety of specialties and techniques, including ways to expand the lands suitable for plant raising, by digging water-channels and other forms of irrigation.^ Irrigated land formed 42% of net sown area during the kharif season and 67% during the rabi season of 2002-03.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the years 1903 and 1904 petrol motors adapted for ploughing and other agricultural operations formed a prominent feature of the exhibits.

^ Nigeria has much less land suitable for irrigation and for cultivation of the new semi‑dwarf varieties of wheat and rice that were the backbone of the Green Revolution in India.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cultivation of crops on arable land and the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at the foundation of agriculture.^ Agricultural easements are voluntary legal agreements restricting non-agricultural development on farmland, with the land itself remaining on the tax rolls and under private ownership and management.

^ The National Land Policy reinforces the objectives of the Agricultural Policy especially in the treatment of shifting cultivation which contributes to land and soil degradation.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vegetable growers on large farms of approximately 100 acres or more usually practice "monoculture," large-scale cultivation of one crop on each division of land.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the past century there has been increasing concern to identify and quantify various forms of agriculture.^ Amidst much that is valueless there are some useful notices concerning the state of agriculture at the time in different parts of England.

^ There is also pressure arising from the ever increasing demand for woodfuels, fodder, timber and forest land for other uses, especially agriculture.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There hasn’t been a single new agricultural advancement in this century that hasn’t been opposed by some group, mostly environmentalists.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the developed world the range usually extends between sustainable agriculture (e.g.^ The Philippines, through the Department of Agriculture (DA), implements the Key Production Area (KPA) Development approach to sustainable agriculture.
  • Agenda 21 - Philippines 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All over the First World, government funding for agricultural research is being cut back, or shifted to low-yield “sustainable” farming.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Altieri, Miguel A. "Sustainable Agriculture Development in Latin America: Exploring the Possibilities."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.permaculture or organic agriculture) and intensive farming (e.g.^ Organic Agriculture Provisions [2002 Farm Bill] (ERS Analysis) USDA , Economic Research Service, 2002.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Biodynamic agriculture is an advanced organic farming system that is gaining increased attention for its emphasis on food quality and soil health.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compulsory modules include units of study in sustainable methods of agriculture and organic farming.
  • Agriculture, Farm, Animal, Distance Education Courses, Australian Correspondence School - ACS Distance Education 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.acs.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

industrial agriculture).
.Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, and at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.^ The fertilizer is called MegaZinc Plus, which is claimed to increase rice yield by a minimum of 20 cavans per hectare, increase resistance of rice plants to pest and diseases, increase tillering, induce uniform maturity of grains, and increase milling recovery.
  • Agriculture.ph Blog 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.agriculture.ph [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture.ph Blog 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC blog.agriculture.ph [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a normal setting, scientists’ ability to counter widespread plant diseases including fungi could be achieved by use of pesticides, by traditional plant breeding, and by genetic engineering.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After 50 years of widespread pesticide use and billions of research dollars, science is still looking for the first case of cancer caused by pesticide residues.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming (and similar practices applied to the chicken) have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production.^ Farming is just as much about management as it is about animal or crop production.
  • Agriculture, Farm, Animal, Distance Education Courses, Australian Correspondence School - ACS Distance Education 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.acs.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conducts applied research in regenerative, non-synthetic agriculture systems, emphasizing "practical technology to build rather than deplete local production resources as they are used."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thinking about the interactions within the farm ecosystem naturally leads to a series of holistic management practices that address the environmental, social, and financial aspects of the farm.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials.^ It is also the major source of food supply and raw material for the industrial sector.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many processed "luxury" foods are, from a nutritional point of view, inefficient usage of the raw material.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.In the 2000s, plants have been used to grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics,[5] and pharmaceuticals.^ Use a watering can on the new plant so it will start growing (not needed if you pay a nearby farmer to take care of your plants).
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Farming Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

[6] .Specific foods include cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat.^ Classification: Have students sort animal pictures into farm/not farm, farm/zoo, or other pictures into animals/food, fruits/vegetables, or living/non-living.
  • Old MacDonald's Farm at The Virtual Vine 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.thevirtualvine.com [Source type: General]

^ The problem for early man was that hunting and gathering provided a healthy diet rich in meat, eggs, fish and shellfish, fruits and vegetables—but not for very many people.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Replacing a weekly junk food meat based meal with a fresh vegetable based meal.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. .Other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins.^ Deppner says that in their program at Trees for the Future, they encourage communities to plant multipurpose fast growing trees that not only produce useful products within a short time but also encourage the growth of field crops, vegetables, and other vegetation around them.
  • Agriculture.ph Blog 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.agriculture.ph [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture.ph Blog 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC blog.agriculture.ph [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inside the greenhouse we use various found materials to create benches = places off the ground to put the plants.

^ From this Mini-Game you can not only get Seeds, but other items that are useful when Farming such as Gardener Payments and Garden Pies which will temporarily raise your Farming level by 3.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

Biofuels include methane from biomass, ethanol, and biodiesel. .Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the ornamental products.^ Crop production includes the growing of grains, such as wheat, corn, and barley; field crops, such as cotton and tobacco; vegetables and melons; fruits and nuts; and horticultural specialties, such as flowers and ornamental plants.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blocking free trade in farm products and farm inputs will probably mean clearing tropical forest for food self-sufficiency in Asia.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists have also created new GM crops not for consumption, but for the production of ornamental plants, such as drought resistant flowers for the purpose of creating new markets for economic opportunity.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2007, about one third of the world's workers were employed in agriculture.^ The world has less than one-third of the organic N to produce today’s crops, let alone tripling food output for 2050.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Agency estimate that America has only about one-fourth of the organic N needed to support its current crop output.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America’s agricultural research leadership fostered the high-yield Green Revolution in the Third World.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The services sector has overtaken agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide.^ (Agricultural Economic Report, 793) USDA , Economic Research Service, 2001.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (Agriculture Information Bulletin, 777) USDA , Economic Research Service, September 2002.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ While the working conditions in this industry sector vary by occupation and setting, there are some characteristics common to most agriculture, forestry, and fishing jobs.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Despite the size of its workforce, agricultural production accounts for less than five percent of the gross world product (an aggregate of all gross domestic products).^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stark reality, however, is that this proud tradition may be ending now, just as the world is facing its biggest agricultural challenge of all time.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They grade, sort, or classify unprocessed food and other agricultural products by size, weight, color, or condition.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Etymology

.The word agriculture is the English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "a field",[8] and cultūra, "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil".[9] Thus, a literal reading of the word yields "tillage of a field / of fields"...^ We must talk about conquering soil erosion with high yields (so there’s less farmland to erode) and conservation tillage (which radically reduces erosion per acre of farmland).
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SMI, B. Teaching Learning methods available: Correspondence Online E-Learning Read more & enrol: Soil Management (Agriculture) .
  • Agriculture, Farm, Animal, Distance Education Courses, Australian Correspondence School - ACS Distance Education 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.acs.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Overview

.Agriculture has played a key role in the development of human civilization.^ Lunar and astrological cycles play a key role in the timing of biodynamic practices, such as the making of BD preparations and when to plant and cultivate.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, as more farms are owned by either corporations or absentee owners, these agricultural managers will play a relatively larger role in the operation of farms.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Philippines, through the Department of Agriculture (DA), implements the Key Production Area (KPA) Development approach to sustainable agriculture.
  • Agenda 21 - Philippines 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture.^ Concepts dealing with isolation, resistance, sanitation, containment, transportation, and food safety issues and potential economic impact to the agricultural industry and others are major topics.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A final public policy issue that contributed to the agricultural revolution in east Arkansas had to do with labor relations.

^ Agricultural Mechanization majors often select areas available in the Industrial Sciences Program or SED. For those interested in a career in agricultural communications, a minor in Mass Communication is often selected.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Development of agricultural techniques has steadily increased agricultural productivity, and the widespread diffusion of these techniques during a time period is often called an agricultural revolution.^ The credit available through these channels is usually small and short term and limits farmers’ investments in the essential ingredients needed to increase their productivity.
  • Acumen Fund Blog · agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC blog.acumenfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strangely, while the HYV area witnessed a five-fold increase between 1970-71 and 1997-98, the total foodgrains production only doubled during this period, indicating that increase in HYV cultivation doesn’t increase production at the same rate in the post-green revolution period.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The agriculture of Great Britain, as a whole, advanced with rapid strides during this period; hint nowhere was the change so great as in Scotland.

.A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies.^ Nevertheless it was not till near the approach of the closing decade of the 19th century that the explanation of this longestablished point of agricultural practice was forthcoming.

^ The Agriculture Course lectures were taught by Steiner in response to observations from farmers that soils were becoming depleted following the introduction of chemical fertilizers at the turn of the century.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There hasn’t been a single new agricultural advancement in this century that hasn’t been opposed by some group, mostly environmentalists.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients with crop rotation and animal manure less necessary.^ Emphasis is placed on the integration of crops and livestock, recycling of nutrients, maintenance of soil, and the health and well being of crops and animals; the farmer too is part of the whole.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The organic movement is still trying to swindle the world into believing the world can get enough nitrogen from animal waste and green manure crops to produce our food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For 50 years, the critics of modern farming have held up organic crops fertilized with animal manure as the global ideal.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The percent of the human population working in agriculture has decreased over time.
.Synthetic nitrogen, along with mined rock phosphate, pesticides and mechanization, have greatly increased crop yields in the early 20th century.^ But due to the sheer weight of the marketplace and poor government policies, local and regional food systems of the early 20th century yielded to highly concentrated, chemically intensive systems of the post-World War II era.

^ Magic Secateurs increase crop yields by around 10% if wielded when harvesting and they can be stored with your leprechaun.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Farming Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

^ It has further been shown that, in the exercise of force by animals, there is a greatly increased expenditure of the non-nitrogenous constituents of food, but little, if any, of the nitrogenous.

.Increased supply of grains has led to cheaper livestock as well.^ Its unfitness for the production of mutton, and increasing supplies of fine clothing wool from other countries, soon led to its total rejection.

.Further, global yield increases were experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn (maize) were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution.^ Crop production includes the growing of grains, such as wheat, corn, and barley; field crops, such as cotton and tobacco; vegetables and melons; fruits and nuts; and horticultural specialties, such as flowers and ornamental plants.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By converting the photosynthesis of rice from the C3 form to a more efficient C4 form originally found in sorghum and corn, a high-yield rice crop can be fashioned.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This year, due to the high input (fertilizer, fuel) costs for corn, many are switching back to less pricey crops such as soybeans, wheat, and clover/alfalfa.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.The Green Revolution exported the technologies (including pesticides and synthetic nitrogen) of the developed world to the developing world.^ The organic movement is still trying to swindle the world into believing the world can get enough nitrogen from animal waste and green manure crops to produce our food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ America’s agricultural research leadership fostered the high-yield Green Revolution in the Third World.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given the right support and favourable market conditions, small farms also quickly adopt green revolution technology.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thomas Malthus famously predicted that the Earth would not be able to support its growing population, but technologies such as the Green Revolution have allowed the world to produce a surplus of food.^ As I mature, family support for my personal decisions allows me to take bold steps in this world.

^ The studies show that there is no way for Soil and Water Departments to predict what populations are interested in L& W technologies.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously, the world has only a small fraction of the organic manure needed to support food for today and into the future.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
Agricultural output in 2005.
.Many governments have subsidized agriculture to ensure an adequate food supply.^ The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization said that 550,000 tons of old, unused pesticides were threatening to poison food and water supplies worldwide.
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many governments in SSA have wished to intensify the agricultural use of land to feed growing populations.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, in many countries where high-yield agriculture has been especially successful, farmers are able to produce more food than their consumers want.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These agricultural subsidies are often linked to the production of certain commodities such as wheat, corn (maize), rice, soybeans, and milk.^ Crop production includes the growing of grains, such as wheat, corn, and barley; field crops, such as cotton and tobacco; vegetables and melons; fruits and nuts; and horticultural specialties, such as flowers and ornamental plants.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crops like corn, wheat and soybeans are starting to replace traditional petroleum-based ingredients in these new bio-products, making them easier on the environment and lessening our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels.

^ But bringing these countries into the EU also means doubling the number of EU farmers eligible for CAP payments, and they simply do not have the money to extend such generous subsidies to so many relatively productive farmers.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These subsidies, especially when instituted by developed countries have been noted as protectionist, inefficient, and environmentally damaging.^ Farmers experiencing severe crop damage would surely be willing to try fungicides if money were granted for its purchase in developing countries.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First discovered in Uganda in 1999, Ug99 is likely to infect wheat fields to catastrophic proportions, especially in some developing countries where wheat is a staple crop.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding, mechanization, water contamination, and farm subsidies.^ Water is also used for the production of electricity.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conducts applied research in regenerative, non-synthetic agriculture systems, emphasizing "practical technology to build rather than deplete local production resources as they are used."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, this listing does not address the large body of research published before 1940 when reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture began to become widely adopted.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Proponents of organic farming such as Sir Albert Howard argued in the early 1900s that the overuse of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers damages the long-term fertility of the soil.^ Misrepresentation: Synthetic fertilizer poisons soils.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main things about the Lunar Spellbook that are so great for Farming are two small Spells called Cure Plant and Fertile Soil .
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ The Fertile Soil Spell also gives you 18 Farming experience for each cast made.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.While this feeling lay dormant for decades, as environmental awareness has increased in the 2000s there has been a movement towards sustainable agriculture by some farmers, consumers, and policymakers.^ South Asia # Going Global criticizes Sri Lankan government's protective tariff on some agricultural items which are increasing the prices and the cost of living.

^ Winter classes for boys over sixteen years of age are held at centres in some counties, and there are winter schools of agriculture at Downpatrick , Monaghan and Mount Bellew (Co.

^ Amidst much that is valueless there are some useful notices concerning the state of agriculture at the time in different parts of England.

.In recent years there has been a backlash against perceived external environmental effects of mainstream agriculture, particularly regarding water pollution,[12] resulting in the organic movement.^ But there is no other line of defense for today’s American society against a future of hunger, malnutrition, and environmental desolation.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winter classes for boys over sixteen years of age are held at centres in some counties, and there are winter schools of agriculture at Downpatrick , Monaghan and Mount Bellew (Co.

^ In fact, contrary to very slow agricultural growth, India’s rural economy as a whole has grown on average by 7.3% year-over-year over the past decade, against 5.4% in the urban sector.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the major forces behind this movement has been the European Union, which first certified organic food in 1991 and began reform of its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2005 to phase out commodity-linked farm subsidies,[13] also known as decoupling.^ Europe’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is also in store for major changes.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small farmers are being sought to be subjected to contract farming, if not eased out of agriculture itself.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Agriculture and its researchers also need to point up the high risks of organic food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management and selective breeding.^ AGR 497 Integrated Pest Management.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such practices and factors deplete natural elements such as calcium and magnesium that neutralize soil acidity, causing stunted plant growth and susceptibility to pests and diseases.
  • Agriculture.ph Blog 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.agriculture.ph [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture.ph Blog 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC blog.agriculture.ph [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compost teas are gaining wider recognition in biodynamic and organic farming for their disease suppressive benefits as well as for their ability to serve as a growth-promoting microbial inoculant.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Recent mainstream technological developments include genetically modified food.^ The Rockefeller Foundation recently announced the success of its project to overcome two of the world’s largest sources of malnutrition with genetically-modified rice.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Topics include the policy making process and the analysis of commodities, conservation, food safety, international trade, rural development programs, and the interrelationship of agriculture and agribusiness.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Could genetically modified foods be a new source of allergens?
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In late 2007, several factors pushed up the price of grains consumed by humans as well as used to feed poultry and dairy cows and other cattle, causing higher prices of wheat (up 58%), soybean (up 32%), and maize (up 11%) over the year.^ With barely 20,000 dairy animals in 1992, the two counties now feed, milk, and clean up after 120,000 cows at 58 operating dairy farms, a number that by all accounts will double in a few short years.

^ Second, the logical offshoot of higher yields for farmers is lower prices for consumers.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.

[14][15] .Food riots took place in several countries across the world.^ The Fifth U.S.-Mongolia Business Forum took place simultaneously with the AG CONNECT Expo yesterday with several dozen delegates from Mongolia meeting with delegates from the United States to discuss how the two countries can better work together.

^ In the real world, this is not the case, and the market for any given food is quite elastic in most countries.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[16][17][18] .Contributing factors included drought in Australia and elsewhere, increasing demand for grain-fed animal products from the growing middle classes of countries such as China and India, diversion of foodgrain to biofuel production and trade restrictions imposed by several countries.^ Crop production includes the growing of grains, such as wheat, corn, and barley; field crops, such as cotton and tobacco; vegetables and melons; fruits and nuts; and horticultural specialties, such as flowers and ornamental plants.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commercial production of corn and cotton that produce the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt) for the resistance of crops to insects have been the subject of immense controversy and public criticism in Europe, India, Indonesia, and African countries such as Mali.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I do strongly believe that the increase in food prices is not due to biofuel demands, for there is not enough increase in biofuel demand to make a notable difference in food cost.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race Ug99 is currently spreading across Africa and into Asia and is causing major concern.^ Long-term solutions are irrelevant if Ug99 spreads quicker than anticipated, as suggested by Dr. Norman Borlaug of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (“BGRI”) .
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there is hope because plant resistances have been found to be somewhat effective against Ug99 and have already been successfully bred into certain wheat varieties for certain regions.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Optimal wheat yields can be achieved by ensuring fungicides are utilized early before Ug99 or other rusts have an opportunity to infiltrate farmers’ fields.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19][20][21] .Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded.^ Acid soils make up 30 to 40 percent of the world’s arable land, and about 43 percent of the arable land in the tropics.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.^ This cycle of beneficial growth must be perpetuated throughout the developing world if we are to fare well amidst increased populations and diminishing natural resources.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet current food production and population trends would drive Africa to clear a Texas worth of its wildlands over the next 20 years, and still leave 200 million malnourished Africans.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 1948 Article A continent slides to ruin By William Vogt SEE ALSO: Agriculture ; Environmental aspects ; Latin America ; Natural resources PDF IMAGES .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]

History

A Sumerian harvester's sickle made from baked clay (ca. 3000 BC).
.Since its development roughly 10,000 years ago,[24] agriculture has expanded vastly in geographical coverage and yields.^ A new theory was put forth that global warming began 8,000 years ago, when farmers began clearing forests for agriculture and grazing large herds of livestock, which increased carbon dioxide and methane levels; by AD 1700, according to the theory, human activity had increased the global temperature by 0.8 degrees Celsius, an increase roughly equal to that caused by industrial activity since then.
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the year 1904-1905 £10,600 was devoted by the Board of Agriculture to agricultural instruction and experiments.

.Throughout this expansion, new technologies and new crops were integrated.^ Crop diversification and integrated farming are promoted in suitable areas taking into account the physical limitations and the need for soil and water conservation Research and Technologies   .
  • Agenda 21 - Philippines 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Even then crops were modified through cross-breeding for better yields.^ With better inputs and management, crop yields rise, so no additional land is needed for food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For purposes of comparison it would be much better if the yields of corn crops were estimated in cwt.

.Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago, but have made great strides in the past century.^ Scientific developments have produced new questions and challenges such as those posed by genetically-altered crops.

^ The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.

^ The slopes of the hills were carefully terraced and irrigated wherever practicable, and on these slopes the vine and olive were cultivated with great success.

.The history of agriculture has played a major role in human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change.^ Concepts dealing with isolation, resistance, sanitation, containment, transportation, and food safety issues and potential economic impact to the agricultural industry and others are major topics.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, as more farms are owned by either corporations or absentee owners, these agricultural managers will play a relatively larger role in the operation of farms.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry sector plays a vital role in our economy and our lives.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wealth-concentration and militaristic specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures are commonplace in societies which practice agriculture.^ Today biodynamic agriculture is practiced on farms around the world, on various scales, and in a variety of climates and cultures.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Biodynamic agriculture, on the other hand, recognizes the existence of subtle energy forces in nature and promotes their expression through specialized "dynamic" practices.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In England the Agricultural Society was founded in 1838, with the motto " Practice with Science," and shortly afterwards incorporated by royal charter.

So, too, are arts such as epic literature and monumental architecture, as well as codified legal systems. .When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in their society were freed to devote themselves to projects other than food acquisition.^ Obviously farmers need food for their animals, and it does not make him a hypocrite, it just makes you a moron.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The cases originated in projects that pursued other goals than the intensification of land use.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your farms are highly efficient and produce exactly 100% of the food your country needs, and a surprise cold spell drops that to 80%, people will starve and die.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the development of agriculture made civilization possible.^ Altieri, Miguel A. "Sustainable Agriculture Development in Latin America: Exploring the Possibilities."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

Ancient origins

.The Fertile Crescent of Western Asia, Egypt, and India were sites of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in the wild.^ The world could increase its forest harvest ten-fold if we planted just 5 percent of today’s wild forests in high-yield tree plantations.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa's Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas.^ Similar surges of extinctions occurred when skilled hunters reached Australia and New Guinea.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Agricultural Reform and Development in China, edited by T. C. Tso, 297-313.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Altieri, Miguel A. "Sustainable Agriculture Development in Latin America: Exploring the Possibilities."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The eight so-called Neolithic founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer wheat and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax.^ Wheat, barley and spelt were the leading crops.

^ The group is also working to fund a Pulse Quality Lab to research new products and new uses of pulse crops and will work with growers to maintain U.S. acreage planted in peas and lentils.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wheat, barley, oats, beans, clover and other leguminous plants, turnips, sugar beet , mange's, potatoes and grass crops have thus been experimented upon.

.By 7000 BC, small-scale agriculture reached Egypt.^ Community Supported Agriculture, or CSA, is a direct marketing alternative for small-scale growers.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

From at least 7000 BC the Indian subcontinent saw farming of wheat and barley, as attested by archaeological excavation at Mehrgarh in Balochistan. By 6000 BC, mid-scale farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. .About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, with rice, rather than wheat, as the primary crop.^ But the progress of husbandry, evidenced by the production of larger and better crops with more certainty, is due to that rationalizing of agricultural practices which is the work of modern times.

^ Rather than let commoners run amuck with dangerous ideas about gunpowder and ships’ compasses,the elites shut everything down.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But high-yield wheat takes no more fertilizer per ton of food than low-yield wheat—high yields just grow the grain on far less land .
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chinese and Indonesian farmers went on to domesticate taro and beans including mung, soy and azuki. .To complement these new sources of carbohydrates, highly organized net fishing of rivers, lakes and ocean shores in these areas brought in great volumes of essential protein.^ Weekly Review By Paul Ford Source: Biology News Net .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

.Collectively, these new methods of farming and fishing inaugurated a human population boom that dwarfed all previous expansions and continues today.^ The eco-activists have claimed that organic-only farming could provide all the food needed—but only if humanity became vegetarian.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rev. Thomas Malthus’ famous question about whether humanity can continue to feed all the people was posed exactly 200 years ago.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now that you know all about the different equipment, crops and patches that are available for use in the Farming Skill, you'll want to know what methods to use to get the most out of them.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.By 5000 BC, the Sumerians had developed core agricultural techniques including large-scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, organized irrigation, and the use of a specialized labor force, particularly along the waterway now known as the Shatt al-Arab, from its Persian Gulf delta to the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates.^ The exceptions, it states are food crops used for their cellulose, including wheat, peanuts, and soy The GISP advocates risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Use the map to visit regional pages containing information about local breeders, special offers, events and organizations.
  • Alpaca Farms: Central Search of over 2000 Alpaca Breeders 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.alpacanation.com [Source type: General]

^ I cultivate a large organic garden, buy grass-fed beef from a local rancher, and when I'm feeling particularly flush with cash, frequent my local Whole Foods.

.Domestication of wild aurochs and mouflon into cattle and sheep, respectively, ushered in the large-scale use of animals for food/fiber and as beasts of burden.^ Average Annual Imports of Cattle, Sheep and Figs, and of Dead Meat, into the United Kingdom over eight 5-yearly Periods.

^ The organic movement is still trying to swindle the world into believing the world can get enough nitrogen from animal waste and green manure crops to produce our food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately, the choice of composting method will depend to a large extent on the scale of farming operation, equipment and financial resources on hand, and intended goals for compost end-use.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

The shepherd joined the farmer as an essential provider for sedentary and semi-nomadic societies. .Maize, manioc, and arrowroot were first domesticated in the Americas as far back as 5200 BC.[25] The potato, tomato, pepper, squash, several varieties of bean, tobacco, and several other plants were also developed in the New World, as was extensive terracing of steep hillsides in much of Andean South America.^ The new terraces stocked the water and allowed farmers to grow profitable crops like beans and other vegetables, along with fruit trees.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development economists say that the world will need at least 250 percent more farm output by 2050, and perhaps three times as much.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barley, on the other hand, is sown in a lighter surface soil, and, with its short period for root-development, relies in a much greater degree on the stores of plant-food within the surface soil.

The Greeks and Romans built on techniques pioneered by the Sumerians but made few fundamentally new advances. Southern Greeks struggled with very poor soils, yet managed to become a dominant society for years. The Romans were noted for an emphasis on the cultivation of crops for trade.

Middle Ages

.During the Middle Ages, farmers in North Africa, the Near East, and Europe began making use of agricultural technologies including irrigation systems based on hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, machines such as norias, water-raising machines, dams, and reservoirs.^ Conducts applied research in regenerative, non-synthetic agriculture systems, emphasizing "practical technology to build rather than deplete local production resources as they are used."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This course presents the principles of professional sales techniques used by food and agricultural firms.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The presumed solution is to make Midwest farmers radically cut their use of fertilizer, and to “crack down” on big livestock and poultry farms.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This combined with the invention of a three-field system of crop rotation and the moldboard plow greatly improved agricultural efficiency.^ It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.

^ History Of English Agriculture The " combined " or " common-field " system of husbandry practised by the village community or township (see Village Communities ) may be taken as the starting-point of English agriculture, in which, till the end of the 18th century, it is a dominant influence.

^ The on-field agricultural practices have been greatly supported by inventions and discoveries that have hit the science world.


Modern era

This photo from a 1921 encyclopedia shows a tractor ploughing an alfalfa field.
Satellite image of a farm in Minnesota.
Infrared image of the farm. To the untrained eye, this image appears a hodge-podge of colours without any apparent purpose. But farmers are now trained to see yellows where crops are infested, shades of red indicating crop health, black where flooding occurs, and brown where unwanted pesticides land on chemical-free crops.
After 1492, a global exchange of previously local crops and livestock breeds occurred. .Key crops involved in this exchange included the tomato, maize, potato, manioc, cocoa bean and tobacco going from the New World to the Old, and several varieties of wheat, spices, coffee, and sugar cane going from the Old World to the New.^ The exceptions, it states are food crops used for their cellulose, including wheat, peanuts, and soy The GISP advocates risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Around the world, some 400 million people currently suffer a chronic severe shortage of Vitamin A. About 14 million of these people go blind every year, including about 8 million children.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new terraces stocked the water and allowed farmers to grow profitable crops like beans and other vegetables, along with fruit trees.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most important animal exportation from the Old World to the New were those of the horse and dog (dogs were already present in the pre-Columbian Americas but not in the numbers and breeds suited to farm work).^ Most horse owners consider non-working animals as pets too.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ To make your Farming life easier, there are a number of NPCs around most of the Farming Patches who will do something to help you.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ This is the foundation for economic prosperity for all of the world’s farmers, especially those with the abundant resources in farming, geography and infrastructure as U.S. farmers have.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although not usually food animals, the horse (including donkeys and ponies) and dog quickly filled essential production roles on western-hemisphere farms.^ When the first human hunters arrived in the Western Hemisphere, they quickly wiped out dozens of huntable species, including North America’s versions of the elephant, camel, horse and ground sloth.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had been a part of an annual food writer tour run by AGCare and the Ontario Farm Animal Council of a farm in the [...

^ Parent RE: Switch grass and farmers on biofuel production By JonnyDough on 5/27/08 , Rating: 2 By JonnyDough on 5/27/2008 5:39:18 AM , Rating: 2 quote: When was the last time horses were the majority of the animal population on a farm.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

The potato became an important staple crop in northern Europe.[26] .Since being introduced by Portuguese in the 16th century,[27] maize and manioc have replaced traditional African crops as the continent's most important staple food crops.^ The mangel crop also is mainly English, the summer in most parts of Scotland being neither long enough nor warm enough to bring it to maturity.

^ 'The most important additions to the list of field crops were Italian rye-grass, winter beans, white Belgian carrot and alsike clover.

^ Also remember that the most important food crop is grains...and grains must be planted with grain itself.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[28]
.By the early 1800s, agricultural techniques, implements, seed stocks and cultivated plants selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages.^ This course presents the principles of professional sales techniques used by food and agricultural firms.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.

^ They selected a number of genes from wild relatives of the tomato family, a crop where yields have been rising by about 1 percent per year.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With the rapid rise of mechanization in the late 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the form of the tractor, farming tasks could be done with a speed and on a scale previously impossible. .These advances have led to efficiencies enabling certain modern farms in the United States, Argentina, Israel, Germany, and a few other nations to output volumes of high-quality produce per land unit at what may be the practical limit.^ We believe in this industry and the importance of selecting breedings to produce high quality fiber on animals with excellent conformation and health.
  • Alpaca Farms: Central Search of over 2000 Alpaca Breeders 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.alpacanation.com [Source type: General]

^ However, most biodynamic farms are located in Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If he is renting the land as “lakes” im sure that some people will be inclined to be organic while others may be non organic.
  • Can farming save Detroit? 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate represented a major breakthrough and allowed crop yields to overcome previous constraints.^ Two researchers from Mexico discovered a way to overcome the aluminum toxicity that cuts crops yields by up to 80 percent on the acid soils characteristic of the tropics.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the substitution of labor for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, water pollution, and farm subsidies.^ In addition, this listing does not address the large body of research published before 1940 when reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture began to become widely adopted.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization said that 550,000 tons of old, unused pesticides were threatening to poison food and water supplies worldwide.
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Agriculture Course lectures were taught by Steiner in response to observations from farmers that soils were becoming depleted following the introduction of chemical fertilizers at the turn of the century.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.In recent years there has been a backlash against the external environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic movement.^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there is no other line of defense for today’s American society against a future of hunger, malnutrition, and environmental desolation.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winter classes for boys over sixteen years of age are held at centres in some counties, and there are winter schools of agriculture at Downpatrick , Monaghan and Mount Bellew (Co.

.The cereals rice, corn, and wheat provide 60% of human food supply.^ The eco-activists have claimed that organic-only farming could provide all the food needed—but only if humanity became vegetarian.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Between 1700 and 1980, "the total area of cultivated land worldwide increased 466%" and yields increased dramatically, particularly because of selectively-bred high-yielding varieties, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation, and machinery.^ Irrigated land formed 42% of net sown area during the kharif season and 67% during the rabi season of 2002-03.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Strangely, while the HYV area witnessed a five-fold increase between 1970-71 and 1997-98, the total foodgrains production only doubled during this period, indicating that increase in HYV cultivation doesn’t increase production at the same rate in the post-green revolution period.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pressures on both land and water resources have been increasing but the scope for addition to net cropped area is not large.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] For example, irrigation increased corn yields in eastern Colorado by 400 to 500% from 1940 to 1997.[29]
However, concerns have been raised over the sustainability of intensive agriculture. .Intensive agriculture has become associated with decreased soil quality in India and Asia, and there has been increased concern over the effects of fertilizers and pesticides on the environment, particularly as population increases and food demand expands.^ In addition, this listing does not address the large body of research published before 1940 when reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture began to become widely adopted.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But I do strongly believe that the increase in food prices is not due to biofuel demands, for there is not enough increase in biofuel demand to make a notable difference in food cost.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ We in agriculture have a duty to help people understand that the intense increase in food demand I spoke of earlier will force even greater competition between farming and wildlife for land.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The monocultures typically used in intensive agriculture increase the number of pests, which are controlled through pesticides.^ Fairy Rings will take you near to a number of Farming Patches, however can only be used part way through Fairy Tale Part 2: Cure a Queen .
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ A comprehensive review of current cultural, biological, mechanical, and chemical techniques used in managing or controlling agricultural and residential pests.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hazards examined include machinery, livestock, controlled spaces, pesticides, and other issues common to the food, fiber, natural resources and agricultural industry.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Integrated pest management (IPM), which "has been promoted for decades and has had some notable successes" has not significantly affected the use of pesticides because policies encourage the use of pesticides and IPM is knowledge-intensive.^ AGR 497 Integrated Pest Management.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A comprehensive review of current cultural, biological, mechanical, and chemical techniques used in managing or controlling agricultural and residential pests.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some notable concepts and practices relating to soil and compost management from the biodynamic experience: .
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Although the "Green Revolution" significantly increased rice yields in Asia, yield increases have not occurred in the past 15–20 years.^ Virtually all of the warming that’s occurred in the past 120 years occurred before 1940, before much greenhouse gas was emitted by human industries and autos.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nigeria has much less land suitable for irrigation and for cultivation of the new semi‑dwarf varieties of wheat and rice that were the backbone of the Green Revolution in India.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of the two genes produced a 17 percent gain in the highest-yielding Chinese hybrids; the genes are thought to be complementary, and capable of raising rice yield potential by 20 to 40 percent.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .The genetic "yield potential" has increased for wheat, but the yield potential for rice has not increased since 1966, and the yield potential for maize has "barely increased in 35 years".[29] It takes a decade or two for herbicide-resistant weeds to emerge, and insects become resistant to insecticides within about a decade.^ Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.

^ Each of the two genes produced a 17 percent gain in the highest-yielding Chinese hybrids; the genes are thought to be complementary, and capable of raising rice yield potential by 20 to 40 percent.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organic farmers constantly brag that their fields contain somewhat more weed and insect species than high-yield fields.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] Crop rotation helps to prevent resistances.[29]
.Agricultural exploration expeditions, since the late nineteenth century, have been mounted to find new species and new agricultural practices in different areas of the world.^ Today biodynamic agriculture is practiced on farms around the world, on various scales, and in a variety of climates and cultures.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As conditions vary in different states and in different regions in the same state, agricultural labour and peasant organisations should take up particular demands according to the concrete conditions of their areas.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless it was not till near the approach of the closing decade of the 19th century that the explanation of this longestablished point of agricultural practice was forthcoming.

.Two early examples of expeditions include Frank N. Meyer's fruit- and nut-collecting trip to China and Japan from 1916-1918[30] and the Dorsett-Morse Oriental Agricultural Exploration Expedition to China, Japan, and Korea from 1929-1931 to collect soybean germplasm to support the rise in soybean agriculture in the United States.^ It is related that a visitor from the United States, talking to Sir John Lawes, said, " Americans have learnt more from this field than from any other agricultural experiment in the world."

^ However, modern farming in the United States accounts for only 2 percent of the country’s petroleum use, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Energy.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, China is estimated to import as much as 20,000 tons of french fries in 1997, with greater than 95 percent of this coming from the United States.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.In 2005, the agricultural output of China was the largest in the world, accounting for almost one-sixth of world share, followed by the EU, India and the USA, according to the International Monetary Fund.^ Agricultural research in USA, India and Nigeria .
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asia includes three of the four largest nations: China, India, and Indonesia.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world has less than one-third of the organic N to produce today’s crops, let alone tripling food output for 2050.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] More than 40 million Chinese farmers have been displaced from their land in recent years,[32] usually for economic development, contributing to the 87,000 demonstrations and riots across China in 2005.[33] Economists measure the total factor productivity of agriculture and by this measure agriculture in the United States is roughly 2.6 times more productive than it was in 1948.[34]
.Six countries - the US, Canada, France, Australia, Argentina and Thailand - supply 90% of grain exports.^ Presents "a comprehensive picture" of quantities of a country's food supply exported, fed to livestock, used for seed, manufactured, or lost during storage and transportation.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The export customer to target is the private buyer supplying the rapidly growing premium foods market in these countries.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .The United States controls almost half of world grain exports.^ Rank of the United States among the world's largest exporters of grain and importers of oil : 1 .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is related that a visitor from the United States, talking to Sir John Lawes, said, " Americans have learnt more from this field than from any other agricultural experiment in the world."

^ This is a 250,000 to 300,000 ton potato import market, with almost 90 percent of these coming from the United States.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous middle-sized countries, including Algeria, Iran, Egypt, and Mexico,[36] may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India.^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for oil crops (primarily soybeans and products), including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for feed grains, including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

^ The figure at right shows the total wheat imports of the “core” wheat importing nations (regular wheat importers, not including the former Soviet Union, India and China as these countries resort to imports only when their own production falls short), representing 80% of world wheat imports.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Crop production systems

Farmers work inside a rice field in Andhra Pradesh, India.
.Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer.^ Lumpers and splitters inhabit all the main disciplinary branches of technology studies in the social sciences (economics, sociology, philosophy, politics, anthropology).
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.

^ For further information on the routine and details of' farming, reference may be made to the articles under the headings of the various crops and implements.

[38][39] .Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial crops for a period of several years.^ The flocks were shorn twice annually (a practice common to several Asiatic countries), and the ewes yeaned twice a year.

^ We must talk about preventing forest losses to slash-and-burn farming (the cause of destruction for two-thirds of the tropical forest we’ve lost).
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This cultivation practice is vital since in this semi‑arid environment rainfed crops succeed only every 2 or 3 years.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new plot, returning after many more years (10-20).^ Many if not all farmers could make more money doing something else.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s also clear to see that most of the mothers are in their late twenties, many child bearing years left yet.
  • Can farming save Detroit? 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who knows, in 20 years we may discover some new form of power we never even thought of, but we need to work on the things we have now and look not just to the next 10 years, but for many many years to come after that.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.This fallow period is shortened if population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure) and some manual pest control.^ The discovery of the uses of the bare fallow and of manure, by making it possible to raise crops from the same area for an indefinite period, marks a stage of progress.

^ Fertilizers, Manures, and Nutrients .
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period.^ There was thus a withdrawal during the period of over 22 million acres from cereal cultivation.

.This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs.^ The topics of study include climatic requirements, growth characteristics, cultural practices, and pest control strategies.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Further industrialization lead to the use of monocultures, when one cultivar is planted on a large acreage.^ The group is also working to fund a Pulse Quality Lab to research new products and new uses of pulse crops and will work with growers to maintain U.S. acreage planted in peas and lentils.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The growth, year after year, on the same soil of one kind of plant unfits it for bearing further crops of the kind which has exhausted it, and renders them:_less vigorous and more liable to disease.

.Because of the low biodiversity, nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of pesticides and fertilizers.^ Only more expensive when the competition is subsidized by low oil prices which hide the true costs of using up this finite resource.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Vermicomposting, using earthworms to turn waste into nutrient-rich fertilizer, can be an economical, organic waste management practice.

^ It will no doubt increase the use of fertilizers and pesticides (which must be manufactured) and increase the dependence on the bioengineering of crops.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[39] .Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year, and intercropping, when several crops are grown at the same time are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures.^ The Book of Husbandry begins with a description of the plough and other implements, after which about a third part of it is occupied with the several operations as they succeed one another throughout the year.

^ The flocks were shorn twice annually (a practice common to several Asiatic countries), and the ewes yeaned twice a year.

^ It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.

[40]
.In tropical environments, all of these cropping systems are practiced.^ This cultivation practice is vital since in this semi‑arid environment rainfed crops succeed only every 2 or 3 years.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It wouldn't be practical to walk to all of these places, so Teleporting in various ways is advised.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.In subtropical and arid environments, the timing and extent of agriculture may be limited by rainfall, either not allowing multiple annual crops in a year, or requiring irrigation.^ The stark reality, however, is that this proud tradition may be ending now, just as the world is facing its biggest agricultural challenge of all time.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the progress of husbandry, evidenced by the production of larger and better crops with more certainty, is due to that rationalizing of agricultural practices which is the work of modern times.

^ This cultivation practice is vital since in this semi‑arid environment rainfed crops succeed only every 2 or 3 years.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all of these environments perennial crops are grown (coffee, chocolate) and systems are practiced such as agroforestry.^ It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.

^ This course is designed to cover the principles and techniques involved in the production and management of nursery and greenhouse crops such as ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, and perennials.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At five-year intervals the areas were: - These crops, therefore, which, except potatoes, are used mainly for stock-feeding, have like the corn crops been grown on gradually diminishing areas.

.In temperate environments, where ecosystems were predominantly grassland or prairie, highly productive annual cropping is the dominant farming system.^ Very little of the lime of the crops, however, goes off in the saleable products of the farm in the case of the self-supporting rotation under consideration.

^ The owners of these small farms cultivated them with much care, and rendered them highly productive.

^ Between 1998 and 2000-01, the average annual import of farm products rose by about 64 per cent, while exports declined by 7 per cent.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

[40]
.The last century has seen the intensification, concentration and specialization of agriculture, relying upon new technologies of agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), mechanization, and plant breeding (hybrids and GMO's).^ In addition, this listing does not address the large body of research published before 1940 when reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture began to become widely adopted.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Those three advances, along with selective plant and animal breeding, powered the early era of agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Agriculture Course lectures were taught by Steiner in response to observations from farmers that soils were becoming depleted following the introduction of chemical fertilizers at the turn of the century.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the past few decades, a move towards sustainability in agriculture has also developed, integrating ideas of socio-economic justice and conservation of resources and the environment within a farming system.^ (Special Reference Briefs, 91-10) USDA , National Agricultural Library, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, August 1991.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Dust Bowl created the Soil Conservation Service, pushed farmers to use contour farming, and the new chemical nitrogen available because of Haber-Bosch—and launched agricultural science and engineering on a new path toward increasing sustainability for farming.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are low-yield farming systems that can be improved through economic and societal reforms in a few places such as the Ukraine and Bangladesh.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41][42] .This has led to the development of many responses to the conventional agriculture approach, including organic agriculture, urban agriculture, community supported agriculture, ecological or biological agriculture, integrated farming and holistic management, as well as an increased trend towards agricultural diversification.^ We are not creating support for the farm community.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thinking about the interactions within the farm ecosystem naturally leads to a series of holistic management practices that address the environmental, social, and financial aspects of the farm.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The European Commission reported that the August heat wave was consistent with predictions about the pattern of global climate change and warned that many farming areas in Europe and North America may soon be unable to support agriculture .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

Crop statistics

.Important categories of crops include grains and pseudograins, pulses (legumes), forage, and fruits and vegetables.^ The new terraces stocked the water and allowed farmers to grow profitable crops like beans and other vegetables, along with fruit trees.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also remember that the most important food crop is grains...and grains must be planted with grain itself.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Let me count the ways: Crop Advisory Team Alerts: During the growing season, fruit, vegetable, field crop and landscape… .

.Specific crops are cultivated in distinct growing regions throughout the world.^ Garnering this market requires attention to quality and growing wheat varieties with specific characteristics targeted to regional diets.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In millions of metric tons, based on FAO estimate.
Top agricultural products, by crop types
(million metric tons) 2004 data
Cereals 2,263
Vegetables and melons 866
Roots and Tubers 715
Milk 619
Fruit 503
Meat 259
Oilcrops 133
Fish (2001 estimate) 130
Eggs 63
Pulses 60
Vegetable Fiber 30
Source:
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
[43]
Top agricultural products, by individual crops
(million metric tons) 2004 data
Sugar Cane 1,324
Maize 721
Wheat 627
Rice 605
Potatoes 328
Sugar Beet 249
Soybean 204
Oil Palm Fruit 162
Barley 154
Tomato 120
Source:
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
[43]

Livestock production systems

Ploughing rice paddies with water buffalo, in Indonesia.
.Animals, including horses, mules, oxen, camels, llamas, alpacas, and dogs, are often used to help cultivate fields, harvest crops, wrangle other animals, and transport farm products to buyers.^ Farm Mobile: Use a barn as the center of the mobile, then add farm animals, a tractor, a farmer, etc.
  • Old MacDonald's Farm at The Virtual Vine 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.thevirtualvine.com [Source type: General]

^ Pocketchart Punctuation: Cut out a pig and a cow using die-cuts (or any two farm animals will do).
  • Old MacDonald's Farm at The Virtual Vine 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.thevirtualvine.com [Source type: General]

^ Farm Families: Use the animal names to introduce Word Families ___ig .
  • Old MacDonald's Farm at The Virtual Vine 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.thevirtualvine.com [Source type: General]

.Animal husbandry not only refers to the breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk, eggs, or wool) on a continual basis, but also to the breeding and care of species for work and companionship.^ Currently, only about 4 percent of the First World’s population are even vegetarian, and most of these vegetarians consume lots of resource-costly eggs and dairy products.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) reports “where intakes of animal products are low, increases in meat (in particular), milk, and eggs in the diets of toddlers and school children have resulted in marked improvement in growth, cognitive development and health.” .
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Application of basic genetic principles, physiology, and nutrition to practical sheep, meat goat and angora goat production systems; management, health care and marketing of animals and fiber.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Livestock production systems can be defined based on feed source, as grassland - based, mixed, and landless.^ Project, a region-wide initiative to promote and support policies that will sustain and foster the region’s agricultural base and food production systems.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as shrubland, rangeland, and pastures for feeding ruminant animals.^ Judgment founded on knowledge and aided by careful observation, both in the field and in the feeding- shed , must be relied upon as the guide of the practical farmer.

^ The major emphasis in Animal Science prepares students for careers in the livestock and equine production and support industries.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Outside nutrient inputs may be used, however manure is returned directly to the grassland as a major nutrient source.^ However, we’re already using most of the world’s grasslands, and they have limited potential to produce more grass, due to poor rainfall and/or soil quality.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This system is particularly important in areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil, representing 30-40 million pastoralists.^ Acid soils make up 30 to 40 percent of the world’s arable land, and about 43 percent of the arable land in the tropics.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that the area sown more than once has been around 47-48 mha in recent times and the cropping intensity only around 1.30 to 1.35.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That number, 16 million square miles, is significant because it represents the world’s total forest area.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Mixed production systems use grassland, fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastic (one stomach; mainly chickens and pigs) livestock.^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for oil crops (primarily soybeans and products), including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

^ This book mainly focuses on vegetable production using organic farming techniques and glasshouse construction for retaining heat in winter season.

^ The group is also working to fund a Pulse Quality Lab to research new products and new uses of pulse crops and will work with growers to maintain U.S. acreage planted in peas and lentils.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Manure is typically recycled in mixed systems as a fertilizer for crops.^ For 50 years, the critics of modern farming have held up organic crops fertilized with animal manure as the global ideal.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Approximately 68% of all agricultural land is permanent pastures used in the production of livestock.^ In many cases it would be decided to let such land remain under grass indefinitely, and thus it would no longer be enumerated in the Agricultural Returns as temporary grass land, but would pass into the category of permanent grass land, or what is often spoken of as " permanent pasture."

^ Agriculture already uses about 37 percent of the earth’s land surface, and any land not already in a city or a farm is wildlife habitat.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attica was famous for its olives and figs, but general agriculture excelled in Peloponnesus , where, by means of irrigation and drainage, all the available land was utilized.

[45] .Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in OECD member countries.^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for oil crops (primarily soybeans and products), including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

^ But the progress of husbandry, evidenced by the production of larger and better crops with more certainty, is due to that rationalizing of agricultural practices which is the work of modern times.

^ Very little of the lime of the crops, however, goes off in the saleable products of the farm in the case of the self-supporting rotation under consideration.

In the U.S., 70% of the grain grown is fed to animals on feedlots.[40] .Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production and manure utilization becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution.^ In addition, this listing does not address the large body of research published before 1940 when reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture began to become widely adopted.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cover crop strategies include undersowing and catch cropping as well as winter cover crops and summer green manures.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the job site * the number one source relied upon by recruiting firms to find jobs for their own candidates?
  • Agriculture Farm Jobs Agricultural Farm Jobs Agriculture Dairy Careers 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.agriculturalcrossing.com [Source type: News]

Production practices

Road leading across the farm allows machinery access to the farm for production practices.
.Tillage is the practice of plowing soil to prepare for planting or for nutrient incorporation or for pest control.^ But, we’ve had only one Dust Bowl—when the natural plant nutrients in the Great Plains soils ran out.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Principles of sexual and asexual propagation of major turf species, soils and rooting media, nutrient management, irrigation, pest control, and selection of appropriate cultivars are covered in this course.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The topics of study include climatic requirements, growth characteristics, cultural practices, and pest control strategies.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Tillage varies in intensity from conventional to no-till. .It may improve productivity by warming the soil, incorporating fertilizer and controlling weeds, but also renders soil more prone to erosion, triggers the decomposition of organic matter releasing CO2, and reduces the abundance and diversity of soil organisms.^ The dusts add mineral components to the compost and the organic acids released during the decomposition process help solubilize minerals in the rock powders to make nutrients more available to plants.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Organic farmers constantly brag that their fields contain somewhat more weed and insect species than high-yield fields.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole organic movement began with the falsehood that synthetic fertilizer (actually, natural nitrogen captured from the air through an industrial process) would poison the soil.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46][47]
Pest control includes the management of weeds, insects/mites, and diseases. .Chemical (pesticides), biological (biocontrol), mechanical (tillage), and cultural practices are used.^ Buttel, Fredrick H. "Socioeconomic Impacts \and Social Implications of Reducing Pesticide and Agricultural Chemical Use in the United States," 153-181.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A comprehensive review of current cultural, biological, mechanical, and chemical techniques used in managing or controlling agricultural and residential pests.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Cultural practices include crop rotation, culling, cover crops, intercropping, composting, avoidance, and resistance. .Integrated pest management attempts to use all of these methods to keep pest populations below the number which would cause economic loss, and recommends pesticides as a last resort.^ AGR 497 Integrated Pest Management.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Machinery Management (75671) Pest Management (75672) Soil Management (75673) Nitrogen Management (75674) Livestock Management (Hogs) (75675) Economic Management (75676).
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Vermicomposting, using earthworms to turn waste into nutrient-rich fertilizer, can be an economical, organic waste management practice.

[48]
.Nutrient management includes both the source of nutrient inputs for crop and livestock production, and the method of utilization of manure produced by livestock.^ The organic movement is still trying to swindle the world into believing the world can get enough nitrogen from animal waste and green manure crops to produce our food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principles of confinement livestock management will be considered including intensive herd management, precise production schedules, herd health, ventilation systems, biosecurity, waste management and building design.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With better inputs and management, crop yields rise, so no additional land is needed for food.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nutrient inputs can be chemical inorganic fertilizers, manure, green manure, compost and mined minerals.^ Herbal teas and liquid manures aim to influence the phyllosphere; composts, tillage, and green manures influence the rhizosphere.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The decomposition of green manures in soils parallels the composting process in that distinct phases of organic matter breakdown and humus buildup are moderated by microbes.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Woods End publishes noteworthy manuals on compost, soil organic matter, and green manures.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

[49] .Crop nutrient use may also be managed using cultural techniques such as crop rotation or a fallow period.^ This course is designed to cover the principles and techniques involved in the production and management of nursery and greenhouse crops such as ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, and perennials.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Companion planting, a specialized form of crop rotation commonly used in biodynamic gardening, entails the planned association of two or more plant species in close proximity so that some cultural benefit (pest control, higher yield) is derived.
  • Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (The harrow was necessary for weed control as early farmers used only half the land each crop season and clean-fallowed the other half.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50][51] .Manure is used either by holding livestock where the feed crop is growing, such as in managed intensive rotational grazing, or by spreading either dry or liquid formulations of manure on cropland or pastures.^ We aren’t really trained or equipped for it; and, we have crops to grow, livestock to feed and agribusinesses to run.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He has also been published in USA Today magazine, Regulation magazine, Feed Management, and scientific publications such as Environmental Health Perspectives and the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you bitch about farmers using crops for non-food purposes, then you turn around and feed crops to animals that serve no real purpose?
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Water management is where rainfall is insufficient or variable, which occurs to some degree in most regions of the world.^ However, we’re already using most of the world’s grasslands, and they have limited potential to produce more grass, due to poor rainfall and/or soil quality.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I simply pointed out, that a lot of countries in Europe are doing quite well - with some of the happiest and least fearful populations in the world - with a degree of socialist ideology.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ North Carolina’s Black River, which drains the most intensive hog production region in America, is still rated an “outstanding resource water” by the state.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] Some farmers use irrigation to supplement rainfall. .In other areas such as the Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada, farmers use a fallow year to conserve soil moisture to use for growing a crop in the following year.^ Despite what many people might think, it doesn't rain all that much in the Great Plains, so to grow corn there and get a bumper crop, you must irrigate.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ But farmers have used herbicides and tractors to invent conservation tillage, which cuts soil erosion per acre by 65 to 95 percent.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, we’ve had only one Dust Bowl—when the natural plant nutrients in the Great Plains soils ran out.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] Agriculture represents 70% of freshwater use worldwide.[53]

Processing, distribution, and marketing

.In the United States, food costs attributed to processing, distribution, and marketing have risen while the costs attributed to farming have declined.^ The exceptions, it states are food crops used for their cellulose, including wheat, peanuts, and soy The GISP advocates risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The Washington, D.C.-based group’s mission is to increase U.S. canola and promote conditions favorable to greater production, marketing, processing and utilization of canola in the United States , including equalizing farm program eligibility and benefits; establishing and expanding federal crop insurance coverage for canola; expanding the availability of crop protection products; and increasing canola research funding.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, modern farming in the United States accounts for only 2 percent of the country’s petroleum use, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Energy.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is related to the greater efficiency of farming, combined with the increased level of value addition (e.g.^ But this intense increase in food demand will force even greater competition between farming and wildlife for land.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

more highly processed products) provided by the supply chain. .From 1960 to 1980 the farm share was around 40%, but by 1990 it had declined to 30% and by 1998, 22.2%.^ While overall wheat imports doubled over the past 30 years, U.S. share of imports steadily declined.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Market concentration has increased in the sector as well, with the top 20 food manufacturers accounting for half the food-processing value in 1995, over double that produced in 1954. As of 2000 the top six US supermarket groups had 50% of sales compared to 32% in 1992. Although the total effect of the increased market concentration is likely increased efficiency, the changes redistribute economic surplus from producers (farmers) and consumers, and may have negative implications for rural communities.^ But supermarket sales of organic ornamental plants are not keeping up with this trend; organic herbs and flowers have been marketed primarily through the Internet, community agriculture groups, and local farmers markets.

^ Farmer, J.D. 2000, Microbial controls on mineralization processes in modern hydrothermal environments, Abstract (http://www.asmusa.org), American Society for Microbiology, 100th General Meeting , May 21-25, Los Angeles.
  • farmer 22 September 2009 11:30 UTC jfarmer.asu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Economic efficiency (my definition) of food production means the supply equals the demand.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[54]

Crop alteration and biotechnology

.Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization.^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crops can then be sown in due time, which in wet years, and with the usual teams of horses kept on a farm, is not always practicable.

.Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests.^ Fix the Economy, make it worth while for more farmers- to grow FOOD, versus FUEL Build Nuclear Plants..
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Fortunately, mankind has shown enormous ingenuity in achieving food-sufficiency, from the early invention of clubs, spears and flint skinning knives through the development of agriculture, and right up to today’s pursuit of virus-resistant (and thus higher-yielding) crop varieties through biotechnology.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously, this is another important step in creating animals with greater tolerance for pests and diseases, better feed conversion ratios and other practical advantages.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Significant advances in plant breeding ensued after the work of geneticist Gregor Mendel. .His work on dominant and recessive alleles gave plant breeders a better understanding of genetics and brought great insights to the techniques utilized by plant breeders.^ (Purdue University) Purdue University scientists led an effort to sequence the soybean genome, giving researchers a better understanding of the plant's genes and how to use them to improve its characteristics.

^ Purdue University scientists led an effort to sequence the soybean genome, giving researchers a better understanding of the plant's genes and how to use them to improve its characteristics.

^ The key, the post concludes is to gain a better understanding of how the carbon cycle works in bacteria.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Crop breeding includes techniques such as plant selection with desirable traits, self-pollination and cross-pollination, and molecular techniques that genetically modify the organism.^ Those three advances, along with selective plant and animal breeding, powered the early era of agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This course is designed to cover the principles and techniques involved in the production and management of nursery and greenhouse crops such as ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, and perennials.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[55] .Domestication of plants has, over the centuries increased yield, improved disease resistance and drought tolerance, eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants.^ By Motoman on 5/26/08 , Rating: 4 By Motoman on 5/26/2008 1:30:55 PM , Rating: 4 ...any biofuel "solution" that involves planting & harvesting a dedicated crop is a magnificently bad idea?
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Two researchers from Cornell University reasoned that more than a century of inbreeding the world’s crop plants had significantly narrowed the genetic base of our crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the ensuing decades, crop yields were tripled with improved seeds, industrial fertilizer, irrigation pumps and pesticides.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants.^ Those three advances, along with selective plant and animal breeding, powered the early era of agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Plant selection and breeding in the 1920s and 1930s improved pasture (grasses and clover) in New Zealand.^ Those three advances, along with selective plant and animal breeding, powered the early era of agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wheat, barley, oats, beans, clover and other leguminous plants, turnips, sugar beet , mange's, potatoes and grass crops have thus been experimented upon.

^ I suppose it depends on whether the addition land needed for the cow costs more than the time and effort involved in planting new grass-seed.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

Extensive X-ray an ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts (i.e. primitive genetic engineering) during the 1950s produced the modern commercial varieties of grains such as wheat, corn (maize) and barley.[56][57]
.The green revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield many folds by creating "high-yielding varieties". For example, average yields of corn (maize) in the USA have increased from around 2.5 tons per hectare (t/ha) (40 bushels per acre) in 1900 to about 9.4 t/ha (150 bushels per acre) in 2001. Similarly, worldwide average wheat yields have increased from less than 1 t/ha in 1900 to more than 2.5 t/ha in 1990. South American average wheat yields are around 2 t/ha, African under 1 t/ha, Egypt and Arabia up to 3.5 to 4 t/ha with irrigation.^ CIMMYT says the new wheats have yielded up to 18 tons of grain per hectare, 50 percent more than any other wheats!
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.

^ The general average for the United Kingdom might then recede to rather less than 28 bushels of 60 lb per bushel, which was for a long time the accepted average - unless, of course, improved methods of cultivating and manuring the soil were to increase its general wheat-yielding capacity.'

.In contrast, the average wheat yield in countries such as France is over 8 t/ha.^ A large expansion in the acreage of the wheat crop would probably be attended by a decline in the average yield per acre, for when a United Kingdom, 1895-1904.

^ Although enormous single crops of mangels [[Table X]].--Decennial Average Yields in Great Britain of Wheat, Barley and Oats-Bushels per acre.

^ By dividing the total production, say of wheat, in each county by the number of acres of wheat as returned by the occupiers on June 4, the estimated average yield per acre is obtained.

.Variations in yields are due mainly to variation in climate, genetics, and the level of intensive farming techniques (use of fertilizers, chemical pest control, growth control to avoid lodging)..^ The presumed solution is to make Midwest farmers radically cut their use of fertilizer, and to “crack down” on big livestock and poultry farms.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soil and Water Conservation Society of America, no friend of agribusiness, has declared modern high-yield farming the most sustainable in history in large part because of its unprecedented ability to minimize farming’s land requirements while sustaining soil fertility, preventing soil erosion and controlling pests through integrated pest management.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The initial reaction cited in Science was distress that this would encourage high levels of fertilizer use.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58][59][60]

Genetic Engineering

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) are organisms whose genetic material has been altered by genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. .Genetic engineering has expanded the genes available to breeders to utilize in creating desired germlines for new crops.^ They don't have a plan to create new nuclear power plants, which are the cleanest and most efficient power sources available.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The new process could expand availability of the drug by reducing its cost, which now retails for as about $8 per dose.

^ Other suggestions in the study are genetically engineering non-food cellulose source crops such as switchgrass to be taller.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.After mechanical tomato-harvesters were developed in the early 1960s, agricultural scientists genetically modified tomatoes to be more resistant to mechanical handling.^ These trials taking place, with few intermissions, year after year serve to direct the public mind to the development, which is continually in progress, of the mechanical aids to agriculture.

^ However, the current trade disputes over beef growth hormones and genetically modified foods are a vitally important aspect of the agricultural trade debate.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently, genetic engineering is being employed in various parts of the world, to create crops with other beneficial traits.^ The mangel crop also is mainly English, the summer in most parts of Scotland being neither long enough nor warm enough to bring it to maturity.

^ The greater part of the nitrogen of the cereals is, however, sold off the farm; but perhaps not more than to or 15% of that of either the root-crop or the clover (or other forage leguminous crop) is sold off in animal increase or in milk.

^ Two researchers from Cornell University reasoned that more than a century of inbreeding the world’s crop plants had significantly narrowed the genetic base of our crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Herbicide-tolerant GMO Crops

.Roundup-Ready seed has a herbicide resistant gene implanted into its genome that allows the plants to tolerate exposure to glyphosate.^ (Purdue University) Purdue University scientists led an effort to sequence the soybean genome, giving researchers a better understanding of the plant's genes and how to use them to improve its characteristics.

^ But if herbicide-tolerant biotech corn is soaked in a systemic herbicide before planting, the witchweed invading the sprouting corn plant may killed internally.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purdue University scientists led an effort to sequence the soybean genome, giving researchers a better understanding of the plant's genes and how to use them to improve its characteristics.

.Roundup is a trade name for a glyphosate based product, which is a systemic, non-selective herbicide used to kill weeds.^ But if herbicide-tolerant biotech corn is soaked in a systemic herbicide before planting, the witchweed invading the sprouting corn plant may killed internally.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Project, a region-wide initiative to promote and support policies that will sustain and foster the region’s agricultural base and food production systems.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charlock is a most persistent cruciferous weed, but if sprayed when young with the solution named it is killed, the corn plants being uninjured.

.Roundup-Ready seeds allow the farmer to grow a crop that can be sprayed with glyphosate to control weeds without harming the resistant crop.^ (The harrow was necessary for weed control as early farmers used only half the land each crop season and clean-fallowed the other half.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ground continued to be cropped so long as it produced two seeds; the best farmers were contented with four seeds, which was more than the general produce.

^ I don't begrudge people being able to make a profit - and I can't say that I really can "blame the farmer" for growing the crop he can make the most profit from.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Herbicide-tolerant crops are used by farmers worldwide.^ But farmers have used herbicides and tractors to invent conservation tillage, which cuts soil erosion per acre by 65 to 95 percent.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (The harrow was necessary for weed control as early farmers used only half the land each crop season and clean-fallowed the other half.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you bitch about farmers using crops for non-food purposes, then you turn around and feed crops to animals that serve no real purpose?
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Today, 92% of soybean acreage in the US is planted with genetically-modified herbicide-tolerant plants.^ But if herbicide-tolerant biotech corn is soaked in a systemic herbicide before planting, the witchweed invading the sprouting corn plant may killed internally.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] With the increasing use of herbicide-tolerant crops, comes an increase in the use of glyphosate based herbicide sprays. .In some areas glyphosate resistant weeds have developed, causing farmers to switch to other herbicides.^ (The harrow was necessary for weed control as early farmers used only half the land each crop season and clean-fallowed the other half.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62][63] .Some studies also link widespread glyphosate usage to iron deficiencies in some crops, which is both a crop production and a nutritional quality concern, with potential economic and health implications.^ This led to higher infant mortality, shorter life spans, more infectious diseases, widespread iron deficiency anemiam and bone mineral disorders.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group is also working to fund a Pulse Quality Lab to research new products and new uses of pulse crops and will work with growers to maintain U.S. acreage planted in peas and lentils.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Atlanta-based group, funded by a mandatory one percent assessment on U.S. peanut crops, works to support and expand existing markets, develop new markets and facilitate economical production of high-quality, domestic peanuts for consumers worldwide.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]

Insect-Resistant GMO Crops

.Other GMO crops utilized by growers include insect-resistant crops, which have a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which produces a toxin specific to insects.^ The world’s poorer soils are terrible for crop production, but harbor our largest reservoir of wild plant species and their genes.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minors in Horticulture and Crop Science, Animal Science, Equine Science, Agricultural Mechanization and Agribusiness are available for those majoring in other specific agricultural disciplines.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These crops protect plants from damage by insects; one such crop is Starlink.^ At one point in history, a farmer might have to hold back 1/4 or more of his entire crop, simply to plant the following year.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The U.S. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Agency estimate that America has only about one-fourth of the organic N needed to support its current crop output.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Agricultural Practices, Plant Stress, and Crop Susceptibility to Insect Attack."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

Another is cotton, which accounts for 63% of US cotton acreage.[65]
.Some believe that similar or better pest-resistance traits can be acquired through traditional breeding practices, and resistance to various pests can be gained through hybridization or cross-pollination with wild species.^ Obviously, this is another important step in creating animals with greater tolerance for pests and diseases, better feed conversion ratios and other practical advantages.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture and agricultural researchers must talk about saving wildlands and wild species with better seeds.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same researchers selected two promising genes from wild relatives of the rice plant — a crop where no yield gains had been achieved since the Chinese pioneered hybrids some 15 years ago.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In some cases, wild species are the primary source of resistance traits; some tomato cultivars that have gained resistance to at least nineteen diseases did so through crossing with wild populations of tomatoes.[66]

Costs and Benefits of GMOs

.Genetic engineers may someday develop transgenic plants which would allow for irrigation, drainage, conservation, sanitary engineering, and maintaining or increasing yields while requiring fewer fossil fuel derived inputs than conventional crops.^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this is one possible method, the study suggests that another more promising method would be to genetically engineering plants to store cellulose digesting enzymes within safe compartments within the cell.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Even a bad season in one hemisphere would be mostly covered by existing stores, and the slack taken up by increased planting for the season in the opposite hemisphere.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Such developments would be particularly important in areas which are normally arid and rely upon constant irrigation, and on large scale farms.^ This would allow farming to flourish on a smaller scale...bringing back the small family farm.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

However, genetic engineering of plants has proven to be controversial. .Many issues surrounding food security and environmental impacts have risen regarding GMO practices.^ "Achieving a Secure Energy Future: Environmental and Economic Issues."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

For example, GMOs are questioned by some ecologists and economists concerned with GMO practices such as terminator seeds,[67][68] which is a genetic modification that creates sterile seeds. .Terminator seeds are currently under strong international opposition and face continual efforts of global bans.^ While ethanol certainly fairly deserves criticism for its current implementation, these new efforts promise a new responsible face for the ethanol industry.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ EU and U.S. Organic Markets Face Strong Demand Under Different Policies ,” by Carolyn Dimitri and Lydia Oberholtzer.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[69] .Another controversial issue is the patent protection given to companies that develop new types of seed using genetic engineering.^ The group helps protect and advance corn producers; interests, including increasing ethanol demand through a Renewable Fuels Standard; funding R&D to develop new uses for corn; and working to promote competitiveness and global market access.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This new guide on food composition data explains the issues and pitfalls in sourcing and using data on food.

Since companies have intellectual ownership of their seeds, they have the power to dictate terms and conditions of their patented product. Currently, ten seed companies control over two-thirds of the global seed sales.[70] .Vandana Shiva argues that these companies are guilty of biopiracy by patenting life and exploiting organisms for profit[71] Farmers using patented seed are restricted from saving seed for subsequent plantings, which forces farmers to buy new seed every year.^ Terms of Use We at InfoFarm and the National Agricultural Librarywish you a beautiful holiday season anda new year of peace and happiness!

^ Change your seed every year at Michaelmas, for the seed grown on other land will bring you more than that grown on your own."

^ Farmers use natural gas to capture 80 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer per year from the air.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since seed saving is a traditional practice for many farmers in both developing and developed countries, GMO seeds legally bind farmers to change their seed saving practices to buying new seed every year.^ Among the subjects deserving notice may be mentioned the practice of steeping and liming seed corn as a preventive of smut; changing every year the species of grain, and bringing seed corn from a distance; ploughing down green crops as manure; and feeding horses with broken oats and chaff.

^ Change your seed every year at Michaelmas, for the seed grown on other land will bring you more than that grown on your own."

^ We should add refineries- not a new one in over 20 years" It's been just over thirty years since we built a new refinery in the US, actually.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[62][71]
Locally adapted seeds are an essential hertitage that has the potential to be lost with current hybridized crops and GMOs. .Locally adapted seeds, also called land races or crop eco-types, are important because they have adapted over time to the specific microclimates, soils, other environmental conditions, field designs, and ethnic preference indigenous to the exact area of cultivation.^ Being once sown, it will last five years; the land, when ploughed, will yield, three or four years together, rich crops of wheat, and after that a crop of oats, with which clover seed is to be sown again.

^ Facility design and construction, water management, soil modification, and unique management practices commonly applied to golf courses and other sports turfs will be covered.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ 'The most important additions to the list of field crops were Italian rye-grass, winter beans, white Belgian carrot and alsike clover.

[72] .Introducing GMOs and hybridized commercial seed to an area brings the risk of cross-pollination with local land races Therefore, GMOs pose a threat to the sustainability of land races and the ethnic heritage of cultures.^ Change your seed every year at Michaelmas, for the seed grown on other land will bring you more than that grown on your own."

.Once seed contains transgenic material, it becomes subject to the conditions of the seed company that owns the patent of the transgenic material.^ [This book contains a wealth of material on so many subjects it's hard to classify under one heading.
  • Suggested Reading 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.mutualist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]
.There is also concern that GMOs will cross-pollinate with wild species and permanently alter native populations’ genetic integrity; there are already identified populations of wild plants with transgenic genes.^ The Mexican researchers have since gotten the citric acid gene to work in rice plants, and hope that it can be used widely in crop species for the tropics.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also reasoned that the world’s gene banks contained a large number of genes from wild relatives of our crop plants.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world’s poorer soils are terrible for crop production, but harbor our largest reservoir of wild plant species and their genes.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

GMO gene flow to related weed species is a concern, as well as cross-pollination with non-transgenic crops. .Since many GMO crops are harvested for their seed, such as rapeseed, seed spillage in is problematic for volunteer plants in rotated fields, as well as seed-spillage during transportation.^ Presents "a comprehensive picture" of quantities of a country's food supply exported, fed to livestock, used for seed, manufactured, or lost during storage and transportation.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The fields were fenced in from seed-time to harvest, after which the fences were taken 1 Translation by Clement - Mullet (Paris, 1864).

^ The Mexican researchers have since gotten the citric acid gene to work in rice plants, and hope that it can be used widely in crop species for the tropics.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]

Food safety and labeling

.Food security issues also coincide with food safety and food labeling concerns.^ Concepts dealing with isolation, resistance, sanitation, containment, transportation, and food safety issues and potential economic impact to the agricultural industry and others are major topics.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Ethical Issues Concerning the Potential Climate Change on Food Production."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Currently a global treaty, the BioSafety Protocol, regulates the trade of GMOs.^ The role for world trade is clear in this context, the trick is knocking down the trade barriers currently hampering the growth in global trade and limiting trade relationships.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EU currently requires all GMO foods to be labeled, whereas the US does not require transparent labeling of GMO foods.^ If all of the US interstates, FL and CA lawn clipping where combined, I'm sure it would total more then all of the food grown in the US..
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Just because something is labeled as organic does not mean it is superior, safer or healthier than conventional food.” .
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since there are still questions regarding the safety and risks associated with GMO foods, some believe the public should have the freedom to choose and know what they are eating and require all GMO products to be labeled.^ In terms of subject, only publications pertinent to organic production, food and marketing are represented.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many vegetarians choose to eat an animal-free diet because they believe cows, hogs, chickens and goats have the same desire for life as humans.

^ The National Food processors Association asked the USDA to require that the organic labels include a statement saying the products are no more safe or nutritious than conventional foods.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75]

Environmental impact

.Agriculture imposes external costs upon society through pesticides, nutrient runoff, excessive water usage, and assorted other problems.^ Agricultural engineers have created a far more water-efficient and cost-efficient irrigation system than the traditional dams and ditches.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Assessment of Manure-Application Effects Upon the Runoff Water Quality by Algal Assays and Chemical Analyses."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ BOOKS, PAPERS, AND ARTICLES Curriculum Development Low-Input, Sustainable Agriculture Pollution Problems Soil Erosion and Conservation Water Resources Fertilizers, Manures, and Nutrients Pesticides and Pest Management Biotechnology Agriculture and Landscape Ecology Others VIDEOS DATABASE RESOURCES RELATED WEB SITES FACULTY ORGANIZATIONS ADDITIONS .
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

A 2000 assessment of agriculture in the UK determined total external costs for 1996 of £2,343 million, or £208 per hectare.[76] .A 2005 analysis of these costs in the USA concluded that cropland imposes approximately $5 to 16 billion ($30 to $96 per hectare), while livestock production imposes $714 million.^ Efficiency in agricultural is defined in terms of production per acre (or hectare).
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Ultimately, we must expect that Third World per capita consumption of livestock products will equal that in the First World today.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77] .Both studies concluded that more should be done to internalize external costs, and neither included subsidies in their analysis, but noted that subsidies also influence the cost of agriculture to society.^ Agricultural trade has been stifled by more than $300 billon per year in rich-country farm subsidies that would be essentially unnecessary if we had free trade.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selection, valuation, wear analysis, and maintenance of power units for agricultural and industrial applications including those powered by alternative fuels will be covered.
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.shsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies show both benefited, but the biggest gains went to billions of consumers worldwide through lower-cost food abundance.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both focused on purely fiscal impacts. .The 2000 review included reported pesticide poisonings but did not include speculative chronic effects of pesticides, and the 2004 review relied on a 1992 estimate of the total impact of pesticides.^ The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.

Livestock issues

.A senior UN official and co-author of a UN report detailing this problem, Henning Steinfeld, said "Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today's most serious environmental problems".[78] Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet.^ I would not call that an "environmental" problem at all, I'd call it a political one, like you said.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ In the majority report it was stated " that, in order to place agricultural lands in their right position as compared with other ratable properties, it is essential that they should be assessed to all local rates in a reduced proportion of their ratable value."

^ Palm oil is one of the world's most traded and versatile agricultural commodities.

[79] .It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases, responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents.^ The Rockefeller Foundation recently announced the success of its project to overcome two of the world’s largest sources of malnutrition with genetically-modified rice.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. .It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2,) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2.^ Virtually all of the warming that’s occurred in the past 120 years occurred before 1940, before much greenhouse gas was emitted by human industries and autos.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 17,000 scientists in climate-related fields have signed a petition sponsored by the Oregon Center for Science and Medicine denying any human-caused global warming on the planet today.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also generates 64% of the ammonia, which contributes to acid rain and acidification of ecosystems. .Livestock expansion is cited as a key factor driving deforestation, in the Amazon basin 70% of previously forested area is now occupied by pastures and the remainder used for feedcrops.^ (If we factor in today’s larger demand and the land saved by high-efficiency confinement livestock, modern farming may well be saving wildlands equal to the world’s total forest area-about 16 million square miles.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] Through deforestation and land degradation, livestock is also driving reductions in biodiversity.

Land transformation and degradation

.Land transformation, the use of land to yield goods and services, is the most substantial way humans alter the Earth's ecosystems, and is considered the driving force in the loss of biodiversity.^ Agriculture already uses about 37 percent of the earth’s land surface, and any land not already in a city or a farm is wildlife habitat.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And we're still importing oil because it's still the most cost-effective (and currently most eco-friendly) way to drive our cars.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The greatest threat to the Earth’s biodiversity is habitat loss through the conversion of natural ecosystems in developing countries to agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Estimates of the amount of land transformed by humans vary from 39–50%.[80] .Land degradation, the long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, is estimated to be occurring on 24% of land worldwide, with cropland overrepresented.^ Worldwide, there are only small amounts of additional good land that can be brought into production; for example, parts of Brazil and Sudan.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .The UN-FAO report cites land management as the driving factor behind degradation and reports that 1.5 billion people rely upon the degrading land.^ I suppose the fact that Africa's arable lands have been so poorly managed that they've turned to desert has nothing to do with the fact that the people who rely on them for farming are starving to death?
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization).^ "Soil Erosion and Land Degradation: The Global Risks."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

[40]

Eutrophication

.Eutrophication, excessive nutrients in aquatic ecosystems resulting in algal blooms and anoxia, leads to fish kills, loss of biodiversity, and renders water unfit for drinking and other industrial uses.^ The greatest threat to the Earth’s biodiversity is habitat loss through the conversion of natural ecosystems in developing countries to agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And do not forget that this land will have to support China’s rapidly growing urban population, industries and infrastructure, as well as compete with non-agricultural uses for water.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Excessive fertilization and manure application to cropland, as well as high livestock stocking densities cause nutrient (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) runoff and leaching from agricultural land.^ The public is being told that vital plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are environmental threats.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (If we factor in today’s larger demand and the land saved by high-efficiency confinement livestock, modern farming may well be saving wildlands equal to the world’s total forest area-about 16 million square miles.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this land is well-suited for raising livestock, provided you don't overpopulate the grazing area.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

These nutrients are major nonpoint pollutants contributing to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems.[82]

Pesticides

.Pesticide use has increased since 1950 to 2.5 million tons annually worldwide, yet crop loss from pests has remained relatively constant.^ The Mexican researchers have since gotten the citric acid gene to work in rice plants, and hope that it can be used widely in crop species for the tropics.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This one off-the-shelf adaptation of a biotech transformation could add millions of tons to Africa’s annual grain production.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farmers use natural gas to capture 80 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer per year from the air.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83] .The World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths.^ My peer-reviewed estimate is that with 1950s crop yields, the world would have needed another 12 million square miles of cropland to produce the 1992 food supply.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated 100,000 cattle have died in Kenya due to lack of water, and Kenya's government estimates 10 million people face food… .

[84] Pesticides select for pesticide resistance in the pest population, leading to a condition termed the 'pesticide treadmill' in which pest resistance warrants the development of a new pesticide.[85] .An alternative argument is that the way to 'save the environment' and prevent famine is by using pesticides and intensive high yield farming, a view exemplified by a quote heading the Center for Global Food Issues website: 'Growing more per acre leaves more land for nature'.[86][87] However, critics argue that a trade-off between the environment and a need for food is not inevitable,[88] and that pesticides simply replace good agronomic practices such as crop rotation.^ However, all farming is an intrusion on nature.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They produce more food by farming more acres, and/or more animals and/or getting higher yields.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short, producing more food per hectare helped save large areas of land for nature.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]

Climate Change

.Climate change has the potential to affect agriculture through changes in temperature, rainfall (timing and quantity), CO2, solar radiation and the interaction of these elements.^ From our daily weather forecasts to the news about climate change temperature is and integral part of our daily lives.

^ "Ethical Issues Concerning the Potential Climate Change on Food Production."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Climate Change Issues; Animal Agriculture; Crop Insurance; Energy Prices; and Crop Reports .

[40][89] Agriculture can both mitigate or worsen global warming. .Some of the increase in CO2 in the atmosphere comes from the decomposition of organic matter in the soil, and much of the methane emitted into the atmosphere is caused by the decomposition of organic matter in wet soils such as rice paddies.^ (The phytate in rice tied up the iron in their bodies no matter how much iron they consumed; the new rice has phytase to free the iron.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soil organic matter declined with repeated plowing and cropping.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agboola, A. A. "Organic Matter and Soil Fertility Management in the Humid Tropics of Africa."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

[90] .Further, wet or anaerobic soils also lose nitrogen through denitrification, releasing the greenhouse gas nitric oxide.^ The whole organic movement began with the falsehood that synthetic fertilizer (actually, natural nitrogen captured from the air through an industrial process) would poison the soil.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[91] .Changes in management can reduce the release of these greenhouse gases, and soil can further be used to sequester some of the CO2 in the atmosphere.^ Further they could be used to sequester carbon.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[90]

Distortions in modern global agriculture

.Differences in economic development, population density and culture mean that the farmers of the world operate under very different conditions.^ In some third-world nations, the ratio is more like 2:1....meaning half the entire population has to be farming, simply to keep up.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ These are the very areas where the populations are growing most rapidly, where incomes are rising most rapidly, where the food gaps are expanding most rapidly — and where most of the world’s biodiversity is located.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the foundation for economic prosperity for all of the world’s farmers, especially those with the abundant resources in farming, geography and infrastructure as U.S. farmers have.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A US cotton farmer may receive US$230[92] in government subsidies per acre planted (in 2003), while farmers in Mali and other third-world countries do without.^ Third World countries.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One canola plant can remove 12 grams of salt, and there can be 20,000 canola plants per acre.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agricultural trade has been stifled by more than $300 billon per year in rich-country farm subsidies that would be essentially unnecessary if we had free trade.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When prices decline, the heavily subsidised US farmer is not forced to reduce his output, making it difficult for cotton prices to rebound, but his Mali counterpart may go broke in the meantime.^ Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.

^ It seems counter-intuitively, the rising food price actually makes farmers switch to biofuel production.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ With declining prices for farm produce came that year of unhappy memory, 1879, when persistent rains and an almost sunless summer ruined the crops and reduced many farmers to a state of destitution.

.A livestock farmer in South Korea can calculate with a (highly subsidized) sales price of US$1300 for a calf produced.^ The recent increase in food prices could very well due to that fact that farmers who do farm are producing less due to recent dry conditions and that farmers who are subsidized not to farm are not producing to help make up for the loss in production.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ For the longest time, farmers are subsidized for their crop, or to not yield crop, so as to protect the price of the yielded crops.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[93] .A South American Mercosur country rancher calculates with a calf's sales price of US$120–200 (both 2008 figures).^ For 2008, AFBF will focus on continuing to support the productivity and resiliency of American farmers and ranchers.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American tradition of high-yield agricultural research lay behind this country’s recent world-leading investments in agricultural biotechnology, both public and private.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .With the former, scarcity and high cost of land is compensated with public subsidies, the latter compensates absence of subsidies with economics of scale and low cost of land.^ But high-yield wheat takes no more fertilizer per ton of food than low-yield wheat—high yields just grow the grain on far less land .
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 3 million acres of U.S. public forest that have burned this year are a stark testament to the high environmental cost of the “let it burn” policy—yet the Sierra Club is now demanding an end to all tree harvest on U.S. public lands.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Peoples Republic of China, a rural household's productive asset may be one hectare of farmland.^ May we respectfully add one more: Bring all your people onboard in the collective efforts necessary to achieve your goals in 2008.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] .In Brazil, Paraguay and other countries where local legislature allows such purchases, international investors buy thousands of hectares of farmland or raw land at prices of a few hundred US$ per hectare.^ CIMMYT says the new wheats have yielded up to 18 tons of grain per hectare, 50 percent more than any other wheats!
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best-quality land could support no more than one animal unit per hectare, and low-quality land might need 15 hectares per animal unit.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In short, producing more food per hectare helped save large areas of land for nature.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96][97][98]

Energy and Agriculture

.Since the 1940s, agricultural productivity has increased dramatically, due largely to the increased use of energy-intensive mechanization, fertilizers and pesticides.^ In addition, this listing does not address the large body of research published before 1940 when reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture began to become widely adopted.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But the progress of husbandry, evidenced by the production of larger and better crops with more certainty, is due to that rationalizing of agricultural practices which is the work of modern times.

^ The quantities of dead meat imported increased with great rapidity from 1891 to 1905, a circumstance largely due to the rise of the trade in chilled and frozen meat.

.The vast majority of this energy input comes from fossil fuel sources.^ One of farming’s major fossil fuel uses is unique.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This seem to me more like a propaganda from the big oil companies to scare the public to help them stop the move to biofuel, for the vast majority of their refineries are only for fossil fuel.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Batteries are still a couple of orders of magnitude away (by energy per weight and space) from fossil fuels last time I checked.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Between 1950 and 1984, the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, with world grain production increasing by 250%[99][100] as world population doubled.^ Currently, only about 4 percent of the First World’s population are even vegetarian, and most of these vegetarians consume lots of resource-costly eggs and dairy products.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all, Asia will have nearly half the world’s population by the year 2040, yet a significantly smaller amount of the world’s agricultural resources.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This one off-the-shelf adaptation of a biotech transformation could add millions of tons to Africa’s annual grain production.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern agriculture's heavy reliance on petrochemicals and mechanization has raised concerns that oil shortages could increase costs and reduce agricultural output, causing food shortages.^ But I do strongly believe that the increase in food prices is not due to biofuel demands, for there is not enough increase in biofuel demand to make a notable difference in food cost.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ So, stop blaming biofuel for the increase in food cost.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The two most prominent causes assigned for the depression were bad seasons and foreign competition, aggravated by the increased cost of production and the heavy losses of live stock.

Agriculture and food system share (%) of total energy
consumption by three industrialized nations
Country Year Agriculture
(direct & indirect)
Food
system
United Kingdom[101] 2005 1.9 11
United States of America[102] 1996 2.1 10
Sweden[103] 2000 2.5 13
.Modern or industrialized agriculture is dependent on fossil fuels in two fundamental ways: 1) direct consumption on the farm and 2) indirect consumption to manufacture inputs used on the farm.^ One of farming’s major fossil fuel uses is unique.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eco-activists condemn modern agriculture for using “too much fossil fuel.” in agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What this means is that virtually every forest tree and creature on the planet today owes its existence to high-yield farming, agricultural researchers, and farm input suppliers!
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Direct consumption includes the use of lubricants and fuels to operate farm vehicles and machinery; and use of gas, liquid propane, and electricity to power dryers, pumps, lights, heaters, and coolers.^ One of farming’s major fossil fuel uses is unique.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.American farms directly consumed about 1.2 exajoules (1.1 quadrillion BTU) in 2002, or just over 1 percent of the nation's total energy.^ Agriculture already uses about 37 percent of the earth’s land surface, and any land not already in a city or a farm is wildlife habitat.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, only about 4 percent of the First World’s population are even vegetarian, and most of these vegetarians consume lots of resource-costly eggs and dairy products.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All today’s urban consumers know about farming is what they’ve been told by farmers and activists.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .Indirect consumption is mainly oil and natural gas used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides, which accounted for 0.6 exajoules (0.6 quadrillion BTU) in 2002.[105] The energy used to manufacture farm machinery is also a form of indirect agricultural energy consumption, but it is not included in USDA estimates of U.S. agricultural energy use.^ USDA , Agricultural Research Service, 2002?
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The presumed solution is to make Midwest farmers radically cut their use of fertilizer, and to “crack down” on big livestock and poultry farms.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ARS Press Release) USDA , Agricultural Research Service, February 22, 2002.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Together, direct and indirect consumption by U.S. farms accounts for about 2 percent of the nation's energy use.^ However, modern farming in the United States accounts for only 2 percent of the country’s petroleum use, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Energy.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, for the time being we should use fossil fuels and renewable energy sources together, but oil eventually runs out.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Never mind that nitrogen fertilizer use on Midwest farms plateaued two decades ago while corn yields have since risen 20 percent.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Direct and indirect energy consumption by U.S. farms peaked in 1979, and has gradually declined over the past 30 years.^ While overall wheat imports doubled over the past 30 years, U.S. share of imports steadily declined.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106]
.Food systems encompass not just agricultural production, but also off-farm processing, packaging, transporting, marketing, consumption, and disposal of food and food-related items.^ In terms of subject, only publications pertinent to organic production, food and marketing are represented.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Blocking free trade in farm products and farm inputs will probably mean clearing tropical forest for food self-sufficiency in Asia.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Special Reference Briefs, 2000-03) USDA , National Agricultural Library, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, 2000.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Agriculture accounts for approximately one-fifth of food system energy use in the United States.^ The exceptions, it states are food crops used for their cellulose, including wheat, peanuts, and soy The GISP advocates risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Well correction, the sun will one day run out, but in that particular scenario what energy sources we are using becomes a moot point.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States would need the manure from nearly one billion additional cattle to replace its current N fertilizer use.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107]
Oil shortages could impact this food supply. .Some farmers using modern organic-farming methods have reported yields as high as those available from conventional farming without the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.^ Vermicomposting, using earthworms to turn waste into nutrient-rich fertilizer, can be an economical, organic waste management practice.

^ This book mainly focuses on vegetable production using organic farming techniques and glasshouse construction for retaining heat in winter season.

^ Agricultural researchers used organic and mineral fertilizers on three different species of plants with mixed results.

.However, the reconditioning of soil to restore nutrients lost during the use of monoculture agriculture techniques made possible by petroleum-based technology takes time.^ However, we’re already using most of the world’s grasslands, and they have limited potential to produce more grass, due to poor rainfall and/or soil quality.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, modern farming in the United States accounts for only 2 percent of the country’s petroleum use, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Energy.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But decades of farming gradually used up the nutrients that had accumulated in those soils under centuries of heavy grazing and defecating by bison, antelope, birds, and grasshoppers.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108][109][110][111]
.In 2007, higher incentives for farmers to grow non-food biofuel crops[112] combined with other factors (such as over-development of former farm lands, rising transportation costs, climate change, growing consumer demand in China and India, and population growth)[113] to cause food shortages in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Mexico, as well as rising food prices around the globe.^ A shortage of grains (and hence a price rise) would result in higher grain prices.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Farmers tell them there’s a food surplus and that farm prices are too low.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without demand, where's the incentive for the farmers to switch?
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[114][115] .As of December 2007, 37 countries faced food crises, and 20 had imposed some sort of food-price controls.^ So unless you propose that we shotgun your dog scooter in the face to keep food prices down, I think you should rethink your response.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Some of these shortages resulted in food riots and even deadly stampedes.^ Finally, modern storage techniques and global trade mean that a single bad season is unlikely to result in food shortages.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[16][17][18]
.The biggest fossil fuel input to agriculture is the use of natural gas as a hydrogen source for the Haber-Bosch fertilizer-creation process.^ One of farming’s major fossil fuel uses is unique.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eco-activists condemn modern agriculture for using “too much fossil fuel.” in agriculture.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Farmers use natural gas to capture 80 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer per year from the air.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116] .Natural gas is used because it is the cheapest currently available source of hydrogen.^ Farmers use natural gas to capture 80 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer per year from the air.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[117][118] .When oil production becomes so scarce that natural gas is used as a partial stopgap replacement, and hydrogen use in transportation increases, natural gas will become much more expensive.^ Only more expensive when the competition is subsidized by low oil prices which hide the true costs of using up this finite resource.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for oil crops (primarily soybeans and products), including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

^ This electricity is probably also produced by natural gas, coal, or oil.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.If the Haber Process is unable to be commercialized using renewable energy (such as by electrolysis) or if other sources of hydrogen are not available to replace the Haber Process, in amounts sufficient to supply transportation and agricultural needs, this major source of fertilizer would either become extremely expensive or unavailable.^ Presents "a comprehensive picture" of quantities of a country's food supply exported, fed to livestock, used for seed, manufactured, or lost during storage and transportation.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Well correction, the sun will one day run out, but in that particular scenario what energy sources we are using becomes a moot point.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ While in the long term, an purely electric car would be nice from an energy consumption point of view, we're going to need liquid fuels for things such as aircraft until we can find something with an equivalent energy density.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.This would either cause food shortages or dramatic rises in food prices.^ A shortage of grains (and hence a price rise) would result in higher grain prices.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ It seems counter-intuitively, the rising food price actually makes farmers switch to biofuel production.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ This would push up the prices of many staple foods as well as meat.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

Mitigation of effects of petroleum shortages

.One effect oil shortages could have on agriculture is a full return to organic agriculture.^ Palm oil is one of the world's most traded and versatile agricultural commodities.

^ The U.S. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Agency estimate that America has only about one-fourth of the organic N needed to support its current crop output.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In light of peak-oil concerns, organic methods are more sustainable than contemporary practices because they use no petroleum-based pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers.^ Conducts applied research in regenerative, non-synthetic agriculture systems, emphasizing "practical technology to build rather than deplete local production resources as they are used."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We can do BOTH. Parent (1 Hidden) RE: Q&A By jeff834 on 5/26/08 , Rating: 2 By jeff834 on 5/26/2008 7:44:32 PM , Rating: 2 Well it seems pretty obvious to me that drilling for more oil is no less of a "bandaid" solution than any others.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The National Food processors Association asked the USDA to require that the organic labels include a statement saying the products are no more safe or nutritious than conventional foods.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some farmers using modern organic-farming methods have reported yields as high as those available from conventional farming.^ The presumed solution is to make Midwest farmers radically cut their use of fertilizer, and to “crack down” on big livestock and poultry farms.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-yield farmers increasingly use some form of conservation tillage, which eliminates plowing, cuts water runoff and soil erosion by up to 95 percent, retains up to twice as much water in the soils, and encourages far more soil microbes and earthworms.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108][109][110][111] .Organic farming may however be more labor-intensive and would require a shift of the workforce from urban to rural areas.^ Agricultural trade has been stifled by more than $300 billon per year in rich-country farm subsidies that would be essentially unnecessary if we had free trade.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-yield agriculturists also need to ensure that organic food and farming is presented accurately to the urban public.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a 20 percent worldwide increase in cropland requirements would force the plow-down of another 1.2 million square miles of wildlife habitat—equaling one-fourth of Europe’s land area.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119]
.It has been suggested that rural communities might obtain fuel from the biochar and synfuel process, which uses agricultural waste to provide charcoal fertilizer, some fuel and food, instead of the normal food vs fuel debate.^ Amidst much that is valueless there are some useful notices concerning the state of agriculture at the time in different parts of England.

^ Vermicomposting, using earthworms to turn waste into nutrient-rich fertilizer, can be an economical, organic waste management practice.

^ Agricultural researchers used organic and mineral fertilizers on three different species of plants with mixed results.

.As the synfuel would be used on-site, the process would be more efficient and might just provide enough fuel for a new organic-agriculture fusion.^ We include purchasing information on more recently published books, which might be difficult to locate through interlibrary loan; also, the Cornell University Online Catalog is especially useful for locating agriculture documents.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of this historic information, which predates the common use of the term “organic agriculture,” is directly applicable to current organic systems.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Agricultural engineers have created a far more water-efficient and cost-efficient irrigation system than the traditional dams and ditches.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120][121]
.It has been suggested that some transgenic plants may some day be developed which would allow for maintaining or increasing yields while requiring fewer fossil-fuel-derived inputs than conventional crops.^ Thus the cereal crops, when grown in rotation, yield more produce for sale in the season of growth than when grown continuously.

^ The Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture just published in Science the conclusion that organic farming is “practical,” since their 21-year side-by-side tests showed the organic crops yielded “only” 20 percent less than the conventional crops.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paraduenture some men would say that this shuld be against the common weale, bicause the shepeherdes, heerdmen and swyne-herdes shuld than be put out of wages.

[122] The possibility of success of these programs is questioned by ecologists and economists concerned with unsustainable GMO practices such as terminator seeds,[123][124] and a January 2008 report shows that GMO practices "fail to deliver environmental, social and economic benefits."[125] While there has been some research on sustainability using GMO crops, at least one hyped and prominent multi-year attempt by Monsanto Company has been unsuccessful, though during the same period traditional breeding techniques yielded a more sustainable variety of the same crop.[126] .Additionally, a survey by the bio-tech industry of subsistence farmers in Africa to discover what GMO research would most benefit sustainable agriculture only identified non-transgenic issues as areas needing to be addressed.^ The forage needed for so many cattle would take most of the world’s scarce farmland.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Protection Agency estimate that America has only about one-fourth of the organic N needed to support its current crop output.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difference between farmers and most other industries is that farmers have an extremely powerful lobby, and get themselves subsidized to a degree no other industry today can come close to matching.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

[127] .Nevertheless, some governments in Africa continue to view investments in new transgenic technologies as an essential component of efforts to improve sustainability.^ Skywax.com has a new approach to web design thanks to some patented technology.

[128]

Policy

.Agricultural policy focuses on the goals and methods of agricultural production.^ Project, a region-wide initiative to promote and support policies that will sustain and foster the region’s agricultural base and food production systems.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integrating Sustainable Agriculture, Ecology and Environmental Policy Binghampton, NY: Food Products Press, 1992.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Committee on Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture, National Research Council.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

At the policy level, common goals of agriculture include:
.
  • Conservation
  • Economic stability
  • Environmental impact
  • Food quality: Ensuring that the food supply is of a consistent and known quality.
  • Food safety: Ensuring that the food supply is free of contamination.
  • Food security: Ensuring that the food supply meets the population's needs.^ Economic efficiency (my definition) of food production means the supply equals the demand.
    • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The marriage made in economic and environmental heaven is between the unmet demand for high-quality diets in densely populated Asian countries and the surplus productivity of North America, South America, and Europe.
    • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As the top of the food chain we need to realize our responsibility to control our OWN population.
    • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    [129][130]
  • Poverty Reduction

See also

Lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ "For sustainable architecture, think bug". NewScientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527481.300-for-sustainable-architecture-think-bug.html?page=1. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  2. ^ B. Hölldobler & E.O. Wilson (1990). The Ants. Cambridge MA: Belknap. 
  3. ^ "Human Health Issues | Pesticides | US EPA". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/health/human.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  4. ^ "EU Scientists Confirm Health Risks of Growth Hormones in Meat". Organicconsumers.org. http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  5. ^ Brickates Kennedy, Val (October 16, 2007). "Plastics that are green in more ways than one". The Wall Street Journal (New York). http://www.marketwatch.com/story/bioengineers-aim-to-cash-in-on-plants-that-make-green-plastics. 
  6. ^ "Growing Plants for Pharmaceutical Production vs. for Food and Feed Crops". bio.org. Washington DC: Biotechnology Industry Organization. http://www.bio.org/healthcare/pmp/factsheet5.asp. Retrieved October 2, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Key Indicators of the Labour Market Programme". International Labour Organization. September 7, 2009. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/kilm/index.htm. 
  8. ^ Latin Word Lookup
  9. ^ Latin Word Lookup
  10. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei; Bradsher, Keith (December 8, 2005). "Sometimes a Bumper Crop Is Too Much of a Good Thing". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/08/business/worldbusiness/08farmers.html. 
  11. ^ Schneider, Keith (September 8, 1989). "Science Academy Recommends Resumption of Natural Farming". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/09/08/us/science-academy-recommends-resumption-of-natural-farming.html. 
  12. ^ The World Bank (1995), Overcoming Agricultural Water Pollution in the European Union.
  13. ^ European Commission (2003), CAP Reform.
  14. ^ "At Tyson and Kraft, Grain Costs Limit Profit". The New York Times. Bloomberg. September 6, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/06/business/06tyson.html?n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/W/Wheat. 
  15. ^ McMullen, Alia (January 7, 2008). "Forget oil, the new global crisis is food". Financial Post (Toronto). http://www.financialpost.com/story.html?id=213343. 
  16. ^ a b Watts, Jonathan (December 4, 2007). "Riots and hunger feared as demand for grain sends food costs soaring", The Guardian (London).
  17. ^ a b Mortished, Carl (March 7, 2008)."Already we have riots, hoarding, panic: the sign of things to come?", The Times (London).
  18. ^ a b Borger, Julian (February 26, 2008). "Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits", The Guardian (London).
  19. ^ McKie, Robin; Rice, Xan (April 22, 2007). "Millions face famine as crop disease rages", The Observer' (London).
  20. ^ Mackenzie, Debora (April 3, 2007). "Billions at risk from wheat super-blight". New Scientist (London) (2598): 6–7. http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19425983.700-billions-at-risk-from-wheat-superblight.html. 
  21. ^ Leonard, K.J. Black stem rust biology and threat to wheat growers, USDA ARS
  22. ^ Sample, Ian (August 31, 2007). "Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land", The Guardian (London).
  23. ^ "Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025", mongabay.com, December 14, 2006.
  24. ^ Hamilton, Richard (June 2009). "Agriculture's Sustainable Future: Breeding Better Crops". Scientific American (New York). http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=agricultures-sustainable-future. 
  25. ^ "Farming older than thought", University of Calgary, February 19, 2007.
  26. ^ "The Impact of the Potato", History Magazine.
  27. ^ Super-Sized Cassava Plants May Help Fight Hunger In Africa. The Ohio State University
  28. ^ "Maize Streak Virus-Resistant Transgenic Maize: an African solution to an African Problem", scitizen.com, August 7, 2007.
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External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to Selassie's speech on Agriculture article)

From Wikisource

Agriculture
by Haile Selassie, translated by Haile Selassie I Press
Information about this edition
undated speech
.
Since Ethiopia's economy is predominantly agricultural, agriculture must play a large role in the plans which have been drawn up, at our command, for our empire's development.
^ Since its inception, the Mongolian People's Republic has devoted considerable resources to developing crop production in what was a predominantly nomadic, pastoral economy.
  • Mongolia - Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In rain forest areas in, say, India and the Amazon, tribal communities have practiced slash and burn agriculture up to our days.
  • agricultural revolution@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an approach to agriculture in which the whole of creation (the cosmos)--the air, water, soil, sun and moon are interconnected and thus play a role in every action taken upon our land.
  • AmByth Estate - Farming Principles 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.ambythestate.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the duty of all to apply the skill of their minds to the factories, the trading centres and the roads and communications which are also evidence of Ethiopia's prosperity, of Ethiopia's strength.^ US Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry - Committed to bringing strength and prosperity back to farm families and rural communities.
  • Kids Online Resources - Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.kidsolr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Kid Science Link - Agriculture Index 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.kidsciencelink.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They work in harmony with my folks, all equals in strength and skill.
  • GrassfedCooking.com: Agrarian Domesticity 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.grassfedcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ We are a community-initiated, certified organic farm growing crops organically, raising livestock sustainably, and applying environmental stewardship in all our farming activities.
  • Good Tree Farm of New Egypt - A community-initiated, sustainable agriculture, certified organic farm. 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC goodtreefarms.com [Source type: General]

.During the past year (1958) the abrupt cessation of rainfall during the growing season caused considerable damage to Ethiopia's crops.^ In the growing season all the crops were planted.

^ Turkey 's fertile soil, adeguate climate , and abundant rainfall permit growing almost any kinds of crops.
  • Turkish Agriculture - All About Turkey 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.allaboutturkey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Federal Government currently defines a farm, for statistical purposes, as any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products (crops and livestock) were sold or normally would have been sold during the year under consideration.

.This experience has demonstrated that the rivers of our country should be devoted to irrigation, so that the food needs of our ever growing population will no longer be left at the mercy of the whims and caprices of the elements.^ A growing population needs more land.
  • Is "Sustainable Agriculture" an Oxymoron? 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC patternliteracy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organics may be a little more expensive, but there is a growing population that is willing to pay a premium for food that they consider healthier, more humane, and better tasting.
  • Entry level jobs in Agriculture | One Day, One Job 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.onedayonejob.com [Source type: News]

^ This book is crucial to the debate over our future--no environmentalist, policymaker, planner, organizer, or politician should be without it.
  • Values of Agrarian Landscapes Across Europe and North America 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC store.rtcmarket.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fruits of the farmer's labour must be enjoyed by him whose toil has produced the crop.^ Students at the laboratory have undertaken a project that utilizes robots to take the thinking and manual labor out of producing specialty crops such as fruit and vegetables.
  • Agriculture - Gizmag Tag 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gizmag.com [Source type: General]

^ The program has encouraged Mexican farmers to produce crops like wheat and sorghum as well as fruits and vegetables instead of the more profitable corn and beans.
  • Mexico Agriculture, Information about Agriculture in Mexico 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.nationsencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Bounty to Parched Earth In the 1960s and early 1970s, Afghan farmers produced abundant cereals, fruits, vegetables, and meats for domestic consumption and export.
  • Nourishing Afghanistan's Agricultural Sector [Archive] - GlobalSecurity.org Forum 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC forum.globalsecurity.org [Source type: News]

.The uses of trees are many and varied.^ Tree Farms are varied in nature and contain many different habitats and stages of forest regeneration, from seedlings to mature timber.
  • American Tree Farm System - About Tree Farming:What is Tree Farming? 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.treefarmsystem.org [Source type: General]

^ The tropical tree has many uses and benefits, both in the garden and in the home.
  • Growing Pigeon Peas, An Incredibly Versatile Permaculture Plant 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.tropicalpermaculture.com [Source type: General]

.Groves of trees protect our fields and plantations from being desiccated by the desert winds which blow from neighbouring regions During the summer months, they provide moisture and shade.^ That way they provide shelter for the tree, but they don't shade it.
  • Growing Pigeon Peas, An Incredibly Versatile Permaculture Plant 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.tropicalpermaculture.com [Source type: General]

^ On most days, the only sounds are the calls of birds and the rustling of wind in the trees and the only traffic we contend with are the deer and turkey that share the land with our livestock.
  • Welcome to Greenwood Farms 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC greenwoodfarms.com [Source type: General]

^ Forest farming is the cultivation of high-value specialty crops under the protection of a forest canopy that has been modified to provide the correct shade level.
  • USDA National Agroforestry Center (NAC) 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.unl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If trees are not presently planted to replace those being cut down from time to time, our constant efforts to conserve and develop the wealth of our country through the welfare of present and future generations will be rendered ineffective and futile.^ Least-developed countries do not have to cut their tariffs.
  • WTO | Understanding the WTO - Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.wto.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Ramsey County Historical Society inspires current and future generations to learn from and value their history by engaging in a diverse program of presenting, publishing and preserving."
  • The Gibbs Museum, St. Paul, Minnesota 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.rchs.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of our crops are planted several times throughout the year in an effort to stagger maturity.
  • Cotton Hills Farm - Lowrys, South Carolina 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.cottonhillsfarm.com [Source type: General]

.We are greatly grieved to observe the many thousands of gashas of rich forest land being destroyed every year by reckless timber-cutting, thoughtless forest burning, unregulated forest grazing and other misuses of our forest wealth, due to popular ignorance and desire for temporary advantage on the part of our people.^ Our haunt changes every year.

^ Who destroys our forests?

^ In rain forest areas in, say, India and the Amazon, tribal communities have practiced slash and burn agriculture up to our days.
  • agricultural revolution@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The existence or non-existence of forest wealth in a country is one of the most important factors influencing its development and progress.^ Temperature is one of the most important and controlling factors in wine grape development.

^ Agriculture is the most important sector in The Gambian economy and one of the priority areas of development, particularly in the new global climate of price escalation of staple food items and oil.
  • GIPFZA - Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gipfza.gm [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The land has long been managed for game hunting and for farming; and the large country estates have had a controlling influence over the nature of building and development in the area.

.The increasing pace of deforestation and the growing dearth of timber in Ethiopia, caused by unregulated tree-cutting and the failure to replace these by new plantings, give us occasion for anxiety that a severe economic problem will confront the coming generation.^ From these plants, we will grow our gardens.

^ Come and cut your own tree!
  • Feezers Farm | Choose & Cut Christmas Trees - Baltimore County, Howard County, Carroll County 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC feezersfarm.com [Source type: General]

^ Not the tree-cutting company, not the tree-using company, but the tree-growing company.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is essential that steps be taken here and now to stop this wastage and check this destruction.^ Being well prepared is the first step; here are more essential suggestions.
  • Ancient Farming - Methods of Ancient Farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC glclk.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, farm program and conservation experts can step in and put a stop to the prevailing consequence-free condition for natural resource destruction in agriculture.
  • Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC iwla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And now USA Today on young farmers has taken the next step in the evolution of recogninition that this may just be more than a rare oddity.

.In these days when all nations of the world, in recognition of the tremendous importance of forest wealth, have launched intensive programmes for forest conservation and re-forestation, it behoves our county also to take the appropriate measures to solve this problem.^ In rain forest areas in, say, India and the Amazon, tribal communities have practiced slash and burn agriculture up to our days.
  • agricultural revolution@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of our fields includes undisturbed areas for wildlife to thrive, and we're working with local conservation organizations to maintain riparian habitats.
  • Boistfort Valley Farm: Certified Organic Produce Grown Locally & Delivered Fresh! 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC boistfortvalleyfarm.com [Source type: General]

^ All classes take place on the farms, during the heat of the day when it is difficult to be out in the field.
  • visionsinaction.org - agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.visionsinaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is our wish and our desire that each and every citizen of our country follow the example we set on this Arbour Day in planting this tree, and himself plant as many trees as he can, for his own benefit as well as for the benefit of future generations.^ Feeding Our Future By feeding young people well, we are feeding and nourishing our own future.
  • Farming the Future - Kenny Ausubel | Center for Ecoliteracy 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.ecoliteracy.org [Source type: News]

^ Our two greenhouses allow for some warm weather vegetables, as well as early and late season plantings.
  • Nettles Farm 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC nettlesfarm.com [Source type: General]

^ The Department is focused on making sure future Iowans can experience the same high quality of life that past generations have enjoyed in our state.

.Without agricultural expansion, industrial growth is impossible.^ (A) Industrial growth and expansion from 1820 to 1840.

^ Agriculture is the largest industry in East Anglia and our growth in this sector has meant that we look after the affairs of clients who farm, in aggregate, over 250,000 acres.
  • Larking Gowen Chartered Accountants, Norfolk | Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.larking-gowen.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Higher-value agriculture such as greenhouse and nursery crops has been a growth industry for the state and county, and traditional crops continue to produce more on less land with less manpower.

.Great strides, it is true, have been made in introducing industries into Ethiopia in recent years.^ With the development and adoption of reduced tillage systems over the past 20 years, significant strides have been made in reducing soil erosion and water quality degradation.
  • Climate Friendly Farming: Dryland Component 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC cff.wsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years the BC government has encouraged the industry to expand through increasing the area under tenure, engaging First Nations and developing new areas of the coast.
  • Shellfish Farming | Georgia Strait Alliance 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.georgiastrait.org [Source type: News]

^ Man-made lagoons on industrial farms hold millions of gallons of liquid waste, from which contaminants can leach into groundwater.
  • Factory Farming, what is factory farm? - The Issues - Sustainable Table 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.sustainabletable.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But in any less-developed agrarian country possessing only limited possibilities for selling the products of its factories in world export markets, industry can grow only if there exists an increasingly prosperous rural consumer population.^ Furthermore it provides the market for industrial products.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ F or the country to be self sufficient in food and livestock production to the extent possible, and to be relatively free of serious plant and animal pests and diseases.

^ Farm Bureau stated that would damage the ability of farmers to feed a growing world population and create conditions for rising consumer prices .

.Industrialisation is not an alternative to the development of agriculture; rather, the development of agriculture is the essential pre-condition to the growth of industry.^ Community Supported Agriculture The Association sees Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and biodynamic farms and gardens as an essential resource for healthy, nutritious food, environmentally wise farming or gardening, and community development.
  • The Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association | Biodynamic Farming and Gardening Association 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.biodynamics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We promote the economic growth and development of Virginia agriculture, provide consumer protection and encourage environmental stewardship.
  • Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.vdacs.virginia.gov [Source type: News]

^ Opponents point out that most agriculture in developed nations is produced by industrial corporations (agribusinesses) which are hardly deserving of sympathy, and that the alternative to exploitation is poverty.
  • Agriculture - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measures will shortly be proposed to Parliament for action to be taken to preserve, for the benefit of present and future generations, the nation's forests which are not only valuable in themselves as a source of wood, but act as nature's guardian against the forces of erosion, which, unchecked, can transform fertile areas into barren and sterile desert.^ Other areas, such as the very fertile Nile Valley and the Tigris-Euphrates Fertile Crescent, were big enough and had a sufficiently dependable source of water so that they remained productive until the present day, though even these areas have undergone a decline in fertility and might be barren if not for modern agricultural techniques.

^ "The Ramsey County Historical Society inspires current and future generations to learn from and value their history by engaging in a diverse program of presenting, publishing and preserving."
  • The Gibbs Museum, St. Paul, Minnesota 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.rchs.com [Source type: General]

^ The plan is meant to be a tool for education, a launching point for discussions, and a seed for future actions benefiting the social, environmental, and economic future of Washington and its agricultural industry.
  • Future of Farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC agr.wa.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This translation is hosted with different licensing information than from the original text.^ When originally conceived, the CSA was set up differently than it is now.
  • Community Supported Agriculture - LocalHarvest 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.localharvest.org [Source type: General]

The translation status applies to this edition.
Original:
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain because it was first created in Ethiopia.^ The public domain (ager publicus) was at first small, but was gradually extended whole by the right of conquest till it embraced a large portion of the whole peninsula.

^ Because the great bulk of the land expropriated would be incorporated into the public domain, holdings could be acquired only on the basis of life grant or by rental.
  • THE AGRARIAN REFORM LAW - CIA document 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under Title XI of the 1960 Ethiopian Civil Code, copyright exists only during the lifetime of the author.^ As Fukuoka says, the real truth, the real beauty and the real good exist only in Nature and not in the faked human civilization.

^ It normally pertains to athe existing pattern of the resource-use & crops -mix under which only the existing plan is executed, supervised & carried out.
  • FARM MANAGEMENT 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.krishiworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letters written by Sir James Caird to The Times during 1850, and republished in 1852 under the title English Agriculture in 1850-1851, give a general review of English agriculture at the time.

.In addition, any potential Ethiopian copyrights are non-binding in the United States, according to Circ.^ Access Fund A national, non-profit organization dedicated to supporting climbers` interests in the United States while preserving America`s diverse climbing resources.
  • The EnviroLink Network - Agriculture 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC www.envirolink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The EnviroLink Network - Sustainable Agriculture 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC www.envirolink.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the current civilian service provided by GPS, the United States is committed to implementing a second and a third civil signal on GPS satellites.
  • Global Positioning System 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.gps.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Non-White born in United States 2,317 .

38a of the US Copyright Office.
Translation:
PD-icon.svg This work is in the .public domain worldwide because it has been so released by the copyright holder.^ Because the great bulk of the land expropriated would be incorporated into the public domain, holdings could be acquired only on the basis of life grant or by rental.
  • THE AGRARIAN REFORM LAW - CIA document 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Original source]


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Contents

Introduction

.Agriculture (a term which encompasses farming and ranching) is the process of producing food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals.^ Farmers market are an agriculture business marketing channel for farming businesses and other agricultural producers.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Agriculture refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An agriculture cooperative, or farm coop, involves a group of farmers who produce food or other agricultural goods.
  • Agriculture Cooperatives Information | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

Agri is from Latin ager, meaning "a field", and culture is from Latin cultura, meaning "cultivation" in the strict sense of tillage of the soil. .A literal reading of the English word yields: tillage of the soil of a field.^ The word agriculture is the English adaptation of Latin agricultūra , from ager , "a field", Thus, a literal reading of the word yields "tillage of a field / of fields".
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We must talk about conquering soil erosion with high yields (so there’s less farmland to erode) and conservation tillage (which radically reduces erosion per acre of farmland).
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern usage, the word agriculture covers all activities essential to food/feed/fiber production, including all techniques for raising and processing livestock.^ Modern agriculture is a vast area of activity.
  • Agriculture 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC www.harley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ African countries could begin integrating their economies in the agricultural sector since they are all essentially agrarian - just in the same way as European integration started from the industrial sector with the pooling of coal and steel production ...
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Agricultural Sector 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

^ New Zealand group of diverse agricultural technology companies including suppliers of dairy and milking equipment, livestock feed for raising cattle and sheep, to animal health remedies, farm machinery, pasture grass intake and performance data, and a lot more; all of whom distribute around the world.
  • New Zealand Business Economy - Agriculture : New Zealand Business Economy & Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newzealandnz.co.nz [Source type: News]

.Agriculture is also short for the study of the practice of agriculture—more formally known as agricultural science.^ The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ By the 21st century the direct dating of plant remains had become the normal practice in serious studies of the origins of agriculture, replacing the indirect methods used in the past.
  • origins of agriculture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry sector is expected to continue to produce more through the use of increasingly productive machinery and increased use of science.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The history of agriculture is a major element of human history, agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide social change, including the specialization of human activity: when farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in the tribe or nation or empire were freed to devote themselves to something other than food acquisition.^ Farmers market are an agriculture business marketing channel for farming businesses and other agricultural producers.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that foods produced and sold in America have a higher nutritional content than those we import from overseas.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ For other countries, especially those who import food and have a history of drought/crop failures, it would be more problematic.
  • Green Car Congress: Research Suggests Food-Crop Yields Under Future Greenhouse-Gas Conditions Will Be 50% Lower than Expected 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.42% of the world's laborers are employed in agriculture, making it by far the most common occupation.^ America’s agricultural sector is the most productive in the world.
  • Department of Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the most common dietary deficiency disease in the world.
  • BSCI 124 Lecture Notes - Origin of Agriculture 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.life.umd.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As the tributes to Borlaug continue, one networking organization that should be pivotal to addressing world hunger is poised to make far-reaching changes to the way it works.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

.Agriculture may often cause environmental problems because it changes natural environments and produces harmful by-products.^ MAF is about agriculture, horticulture and forestry, safe food, a protected environment, the wise use of the land, the creation of clean, green product and the economic success of those who produce it.
  • New Zealand Business Economy - Agriculture : New Zealand Business Economy & Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newzealandnz.co.nz [Source type: News]

^ Clearly the nature of modern agricultural structure and contemporary policies have decidedly influenced the context of agricultural technology and production, which in turn has led to environmental problems of a first and second order.

^ This paper, thus, looks at the measures that may be undertaken both at the farm and national levels in order to adapt the Zimbabwean agricultural sector to climate change.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

Some of the negative effects are:
  • Surplus of nitrogen and phosphorus in rivers and lakes
  • Detrimental effects of herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, and other biocides
  • Conversion of natural ecosystems of all types into arable land
  • Consolidation of diverse biomass into a few species
  • Soil erosion
  • Depletion of minerals in the soil
  • Particulate matter, including ammonia and ammonium off-gasing from animal waste contributing to air pollution
  • Weed Science - feral plants and animals
  • Odor from agricultural waste
  • Soil salination
.Agriculture is cited as a significant adverse impact to biodiversity in many nations' Biodiversity Action Plans, due to reduction of forests and other habitats when new lands are converted to farming.^ New lands and crops - - Agricultural recession .
  • origins of agriculture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such gains in productivity undermine any claims that U.S. biofuel production will require new lands in other nations to come into production.
  • Corn Commentary » Farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC corncommentary.com [Source type: General]

^ Our roles as providers of the nation’s food and fiber and stewards of the land remain the same but just as we rely on new technologies to become more efficient as producers, we find we now need to find new ways to use them to communicate with each other.
  • Oklahoma Agriculture Blog 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC agblog.ok.gov [Source type: General]

.Some critics also include agriculture as a cause of current global climate change.^ This event presents sponsors with a once-only opportunity to forge a ground floor alliance with leaders in Climate Change in Agriculture.

^ Thus, pricing policy can be used to steer the agricultural sector in a direction more adaptable to climate change.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The past decade has witnessed phenomenal changes in global climate.
  • Coffee Agriculture (INeedCoffee.com) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ineedcoffee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the United Nations, the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.^ Another six are pasture for the two cows, three pigs, six sheep, and fifty or so chickens.
  • Organic Farming | n+1 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC nplusonemag.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though most of our farmers live on subsistence agriculture, the sector remains the main contributor to our gross domestic product.
  • allAfrica.com: Gambia: Boosting the Agricultural Sector (Page 1 of 1) 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ Three decades earlier, record heat in the Soviet Union disrupted the wheat harvest, causing a worldwide tripling of wheat prices — an early foreshadowing of how local problems can ripple through a globalized agricultural economy.
  • Agriculture | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents.^ Agricultural production around the world is responsible for nearly as much greenhouse gas emissions as all forms of transportation put together, so it shouldn’t be surprising that the food choices we make have a big impact on the climate,” the organizers say, linking to some choice misinformation on their website.
  • AgWired » Farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC agwired.com [Source type: General]

^ An inventory of emissions by source and removal by sinks of greenhouse gases in the country has been completed based on 1990 data.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ARS microbiologist Cletus Kurtzman—here examining yeast specimens—is one of the curators of the world's largest publicly accessible collection of microbes.

By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. .It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2).^ Despite the uncertainties of potential climate change, a scientific consensus is emerging that increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 could alter global temperatures and precipitation patterns.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, since the vertical farm is still a theoretical construct, it is difficult to predict all of the potential benefits that may arise from producing food in this manner.
  • Vertical farming - Encyclopedia of Earth 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmentalists urge that global warming is an immediate problem and that all nations should act quickly.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Agricultural policy focuses on the goals and methods of agricultural production.^ Agricultural policy focuses on the goals and methods of agricultural production.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Agriculture is affected in many ways by a wide range of government policies that influence input costs, product pricing and marketing arrangements.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the policy level, common goals of agriculture include: .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

At the policy level, common goals of agriculture include:
  • Food safety: Ensuring that the food supply is free of contamination.
  • Food security: Ensuring that the food supply meets the population's needs.
  • Food quality: Ensuring that the food supply is of a consistent and known quality.
  • Conservation
  • Environmental impact
  • Economic stability

Getting started

Farming mammals

Farming game

Farming plants

Organic farming

Perma culture

Subsidies

.An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the supply of such commodities on international markets.^ Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers .
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, government subsidies may supplement a farmer's income.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The money and non-money income form operators realize from farming as a return for labor, investment, and management after production expenses have been paid.
  • Agriculture Glossary 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cahe.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of such commodities include wheat, feed grains (grain used as fodder, such as maize, sorghum, barley, and oats), cotton, milk, rice, peanuts, sugar, tobacco, and oilseeds such as soybeans.^ These agricultural subsidies are often linked to the production of certain commodities such as wheat , corn ( maize ), rice , soybeans , and milk .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crop production includes the growing of grains, such as wheat, corn, and barley; field crops, such as cotton and tobacco; vegetables and melons; fruits and nuts; and horticultural specialties, such as flowers and ornamental plants.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Key crops involved in this exchange included the tomato , maize , potato , manioc , cocoa and tobacco going from the New World to the Old, and several varieties of wheat , spices , coffee , and sugar cane going from the Old World to the New.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

.The U.S. Department of Agriculture is required by law to subsidize over two dozen commodities.^ The Highlands Act includes a special review process for agricultural and horticultural activities and related development in the Highlands Preservation Area and required the Department of Agriculture to promulgate rules for that purpose.
  • Department of Agriculture | Rule Proposals 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.nj.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The board would include the Ohio Department of Agriculture director, two farmers appointed by the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate, and 10 members appointed by the governor.
  • Corporate Farming | Center for Rural Affairs 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cfra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Department of Justice and at least two state attorneys general are trying to determine whether Monsanto's business strategies and licensing agreements violate U.S. antitrust laws.
  • Farming // Current 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

.Between 1996 and 2002, an average of $16 billion/year was paid by programs authorized by federal legislation dating back to the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, the Agricultural Act of 1949, and the Commodity Credit Corporation, among others.^ I recommend: Learn more about the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act and how it relates to the use of a pesticide from the U.S. House of Representatives and its glossary from the House Committee on Agriculture.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ And, as Garnaut sees it paid for between 25-50 years, it can help Agriculture prepare for and even prosper in the dryer, hotter future we are assured is coming.

^ The Market Access Program (MAP), formerly the Market Promotion Program, uses funds from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) to help U.S. producers, exporters, private companies, and other trade organizations finance promotional activities for U.S. agricultural products.
  • Oregon Department of Agriculture Grants and business resources 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The beneficiaries of the subsidies have changed as U.S. agriculture changes. .In the 1930s, about 25% of the U.S. population resided on the nation's 6,000,000 small farms.^ In some third-world nations, the ratio is more like 2:1....meaning half the entire population has to be farming, simply to keep up.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The main things about the Lunar Spellbook that are so great for Farming are two small Spells called Cure Plant and Fertile Soil .
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ The whole number of deaths upon a population of seven millions and an half will be about 220,000 annually.
  • AGRARIAN JUSTICE 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC geolib.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1997, 157,000 large farms accounted for 72% of farm sales, with only 2% of the U.S. population residing on farms.^ Two fifths of the livestock population is concentrated in Arusha, Shinyanga, and Mwanza regions, which account for only one fifth of the human population.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, modern farming in the United States accounts for only 2 percent of the country’s petroleum use, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Office of Energy.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the large influence of multinational companies in promoting sales of agrochemicals cannot be ignored as a barrier to sustainable farming.

.Proponents of agricultural subsidies argue that they are necessary because of the unusual nature of the agricultural industry.^ Changes in policy-making are necessary, Beddington argues, because a global food, water, and energy shortage will culminate by 2030.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can’t be because they fear it will be used as a tool of multinational corporations to monopolize agriculture—it was funded by a philanthropic charitable foundation and will be given away to farmers free.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now it's just retarded and unnecessary, but probably won't go away because the farmers like their free money and the agricultural industry has a powerful lobby.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.For one, a big part of crop yield, and therefore price, is based upon the weather both at home and abroad in remote parts of the world.^ Therefore, a farmer must be aware of commodity prices in national and international markets to use for guidance, while tracking the costs associated with each particular crop.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It simply states that the world urgently needs higher yields based on sustainable advances in biology, ecology, chemistry, and technology.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world has less than one-third of the organic N to produce today’s crops, let alone tripling food output for 2050.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the uncertain nature of the weather, price subsidies are necessary to ensure that farmers receive a liveable wage.^ The labor requirements of organic farmers in this study were similar to those of conventional farmers for corn and small grains, but higher for soybeans because more hand weeding was necessary.
  • organic farming Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about organic farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These loans are inherently riskier to microfinance institutions because they are longer in duration, sensitive to weather conditions and international food prices, and limit loan diversification.
  • Acumen Fund Blog · agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC blog.acumenfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Larger farms tend to receive more commodity program payments because most payments are tied to a farm’s current or historical production, but whether payments have contributed to farm growth is uncertain.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

.One criticism of subsidy comes from conservatives and libertarians arguing that subsidies are against the will of the free market.^ Many libertarians and not a few conservatives, at least in the Anglo nations, claim to be staunch proponents of free enterprise.

^ On the other hand, African farmers don't get any subsidies, so they are hit hard when cotton prices fall in the free market.

^ The natural corollary to libertarian anti-statism is the defense of the free market in economic affairs.

.For example, poor store owners don't receive relief from the market, and therefore neither should poor farmers.^ Therefore, a farmer must be aware of commodity prices in national and international markets to use for guidance, while tracking the costs associated with each particular crop.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I agree in total that certification in India should be heavily subsidised by the government so that the poor Indian farmer is in a position to also get maximum advantages of globalisation.
  • Organic Farming in India 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.ecoworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, African farmers don't get any subsidies, so they are hit hard when cotton prices fall in the free market.

.Furthermore, justification of subsidies from the uncertain nature of the weather can be countered by considering that many other areas of economy experience equivalent risks for which the free market can provide solutions, e.g.^ Furthermore it provides the market for industrial products.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like many other experiences during my time here in India, it was quite the reality check.
  • Acumen Fund Blog · agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC blog.acumenfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the economy and markets collapsed, many had lost their land or were reduced to poverty conditions.

insurance.
.Economists strongly rebuke the benefits of reduced retail prices derived from subsidising over-production.^ The rule sets forth the requirements for the proper display of current retail prices for milk and milk products offered for sale to the public.
  • Department of Agriculture | Rule Proposals 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.nj.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the release price of P 4 (less than the previous domestic price) the domestic production of corn is reduced while the domestic consumption of corn increases.
  • CHAPTER 7: A MAYALAND AGRICULTURAL SECTOR MODEL 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If the government were to subsidize car manufacturers to produce more cars then this would indeed lower the showroom price, but it would be the consumer's own money collected through taxes that would be used to fund the over-production.^ Use the Internet to compare products and prices.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ By contrast, consumer GPS receivers, originally developed for recreational uses (such as fishing, hiking, and auto trips) are much more affordable because they are mass-produced for a wider market.
  • Precision Farming Tools: Global Positioning System (GPS) - Virginia Cooperative Extension 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, an organic farm that made heavy use of farm machinery and indoor production facilities (requiring artificial heat and light), and shipped to far-off markets, would still be a major consumer of energy resources.
  • Organic farming - PermaWiki 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC permaculture.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It would be impossible for the lower retail costs to outweigh the additional production costs, otherwise the manufacturers could simply implement this technique themselves.^ The new process could expand availability of the drug by reducing its cost, which now retails for as about $8 per dose.

^ Mass production of biochar could capture and sock away carbon that otherwise would wind up in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas.

^ Parent (3 Hidden) RE: Q&A By nofranchise on 5/27/08 , Rating: -1 By nofranchise on 5/27/2008 4:27:08 AM , Rating: -1 quote: Increase our domestic oil production to lower the cost of gasoline.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

Policy

.Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.^ AGRICULTURE POLICY Wheat imports: Subverting procurement Despite the high price of imported wheat, the government prefers this option to paying Indian farmers a higher support price for their crops.
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A final public policy issue that contributed to the agricultural revolution in east Arkansas had to do with labor relations.

^ The Emerging Markets Program is a market access program that provides funding for technical assistance activities intended to promote exports of U.S. agricultural commodities and products to emerging markets in all geographic regions, consistent with U.S. foreign policy.
  • Oregon Department of Agriculture Grants and business resources 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Governments usually implement agricultural policies with the goal of achieving a specific outcome in the domestic agricultural product markets.^ Agricultural policy focuses on the goals and methods of agricultural production.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AGRICULTURE POLICY Farmers sour on sugar cane The handling of sugar production, sale and external trade by the government shows a complete absence of strategic planning on an issue that critically affects the aam aadmi .
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AGRICULTURE POLICY Wheat imports: Subverting procurement Despite the high price of imported wheat, the government prefers this option to paying Indian farmers a higher support price for their crops.
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Outcomes can range from guaranteed supply level, price stability, product quality, product selection, land use or employment.^ Use the Internet to compare products and prices.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Surface water levels are reported to have been decreasing because of loss of vegetation cover and changes in land use patterns, resulting from population increases.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for oil crops (primarily soybeans and products), including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

Governments pay subsidies to encourage domestic production of a good. .Such subsidies are necessary when a government wants to alter the free-market outcome in product markets.^ Food safety and marketing will be featured as will production practices such as soil building and irrigation,” said Micah Anderson, ODAFF plasticulture coordinator.
  • Oklahoma Agriculture Blog 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC agblog.ok.gov [Source type: General]

^ Agriculture is affected in many ways by a wide range of government policies that influence input costs, product pricing and marketing arrangements.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Scientists have also created new GM crops not for consumption, but for the production of ornamental plants, such as drought resistant flowers for the purpose of creating new markets for economic opportunity.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The subsidies transfer some costs of production from producers to the government, allowing production at above-market costs.^ Working capital to operate a value-added business venture that will allow producers to better compete in domestic and international markets.
  • Oregon Department of Agriculture Grants and business resources 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture is affected in many ways by a wide range of government policies that influence input costs, product pricing and marketing arrangements.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program Purpose : The Cooperator program is designed to create, expand, and maintain foreign markets for U.S. agricultural commodities and products through cost-share assistance.
  • Oregon Department of Agriculture Grants and business resources 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effect of Western food subsidies [360$ billion] is overwhelmingly to reduce world prices.^ Food shortages must be prevented because when supply becomes scarce prices will begin to increase throughout the world.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Economist, July 2, 2009 The world food crisis of 2007-08 showed that food prices are not influenced solely, or even mainly, by cyclical factors.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ The world will need more than twice as much food by 2050 to feed a peak population of 8 billion affluent humans and their pets.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For decades the 3rd world has earned only half the free market price for food, its primary product.^ In terms of subject, only publications pertinent to organic production, food and marketing are represented.
  • Organic Farming and Marketing: Publications from the USDA, 1977-2006 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Food shortages must be prevented because when supply becomes scarce prices will begin to increase throughout the world.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blocking free trade in farm products and farm inputs will probably mean clearing tropical forest for food self-sufficiency in Asia.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Consumption subsidies can also be used to alter markets. .A consumption subsidy offsets a portion of the purchase price of a product.^ Income growth, climate change, high energy prices, globalization, and urbanization are transforming food consumption, production, and markets.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ At the release price of P 4 (less than the previous domestic price) the domestic production of corn is reduced while the domestic consumption of corn increases.
  • CHAPTER 7: A MAYALAND AGRICULTURAL SECTOR MODEL 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The traditional price support was continued, but to qualify for a subsidy, farmers had to take a designated amount of cotton acreage out of production.

Price floors or ceilings set a minimum or maximum price for a product. .Price controls alter free-market outcomes by encouraging over-production by a price floor or over-consumption by a price ceiling.^ Farmers, faced with limits on cotton, turned to soybean production with a passion; market prices were high through most the 1960s and 1970s.

^ Scientists have also created new GM crops not for consumption, but for the production of ornamental plants, such as drought resistant flowers for the purpose of creating new markets for economic opportunity.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free market means that the prices of crops are determined by supply and demand.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.A government can erect trade barriers to limit the quantity of goods imported (in the case of a quota) or enact tariffs to raise the domestic price of imported products.^ But factors like insufficient rainfall, small plots of land and government regulation of the market are impacting sugar production in India and therefore driving up the price, making imported sugar a more affordable option in India.

^ Examines supply, use, prices, and trade for oil crops (primarily soybeans and products), including supply and demand prospects in major importing and exporting countries.

^ Agriculture is affected in many ways by a wide range of government policies that influence input costs, product pricing and marketing arrangements.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

These barriers give preference to domestic producers.
.Some argue that nations have an interest in assuring there is sufficient domestic production capability to meet domestic needs in the event of a global supply disruption.^ There is, thus, a need for sustained scientific research to enable the prediction of the impacts of climate change with more confidence, especially at the regional and national levels.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Isolated" national research facilities need no longer be cut off from the global information swim.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This support provides the assurance of a stable domestic food supply and associated production sector.
  • Department of Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Significant dependence on foreign food producers makes a country strategically vulnerable in the event of war, blockade or embargo.^ If your farms are highly efficient and produce exactly 100% of the food your country needs, and a surprise cold spell drops that to 80%, people will starve and die.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The dependence on oil and vulnerability of the U.S. food supply has conventionally-grown and shipped food.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The restrictions are making it harder for impoverished importing countries to afford the food they need.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

.Maintaining adequate domestic capability allows for food self-sufficiency that lessens the risk of supply shocks due to geopolitical events.^ Blocking free trade in farm products and farm inputs will probably mean clearing tropical forest for food self-sufficiency in Asia.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Undeniably, a reliable food supply has allowed for a healthier life style for most of the civilized world, while the very act of farming has created new health hazards.
  • Vertical farming - Encyclopedia of Earth 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are fully capable of producing enough food to adequately support every person on the planet, using only a fraction of its arable land.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Agricultural policies may be used to support domestic producers as they gain domestic and international market share.^ Agriculture Policy May 2007 .
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AGRICULTURE POLICY Wheat imports: Subverting procurement Despite the high price of imported wheat, the government prefers this option to paying Indian farmers a higher support price for their crops.
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, the agricultural output of China share followed by the EU, India and the USA, according to the International Monetary Fund .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

.This may be a short term way of encouraging an industry until it is large enough to thrive without aid.^ The WAAS system is still under development and can be off-line without notice but the signal is widely available and for short-term "pass-to-pass" are very repeatable.
  • Precision Farming Tools: Global Positioning System (GPS) - Virginia Cooperative Extension 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Contractors may place bids with farmers to harvest labor-intensive crops such as fruit, nuts, and vegetables or perform other short-term tasks.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of herbicides to kill weeds, instead of plowing them under, may present a short-term solution to this problem.
  • Organic farming - PermaWiki 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC permaculture.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Or it may be an ongoing subsidy designed to allow a product to compete with or undercut foreign competition.^ Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program Purpose : The Cooperator program is designed to create, expand, and maintain foreign markets for U.S. agricultural commodities and products through cost-share assistance.
  • Oregon Department of Agriculture Grants and business resources 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC oregon.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two most prominent causes assigned for the depression were bad seasons and foreign competition, aggravated by the increased cost of production and the heavy losses of live stock.

^ The traditional price support was continued, but to qualify for a subsidy, farmers had to take a designated amount of cotton acreage out of production.

.This may produce a net gain for a government despite the cost of interventions because it allows a country to build up an export industry or reduce imports.^ Despite this, the government provided new ranchers with 15-year tax holidays, investment tax credits, exemptions from export taxes and import duties, and loans with interest substantially below market rates.
  • Topics in Sustainable Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ocf.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are Pesticides&Fertilizer producer In Iran ,we would like to export our production to your country ,for your more information ,please call us.
  • Agriculture Manufacturers Export Sales Agent Directory 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC www.exportid.com [Source type: General]

^ The number of Seeds from each individual task may seem like petty cash, but when you do hundreds of assignments, the number of Seeds that you obtain can build up dramatically.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.Subsidising farming may encourage people to remain on the land and obtain some income.^ A foundation course for people exploring opportunities for maximising farm income while responding to environmental issues and changes.
  • Agriculture, Farm, Animal, Distance Education Courses, Australian Correspondence School - ACS Distance Education 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.acs.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If he is renting the land as “lakes” im sure that some people will be inclined to be organic while others may be non organic.
  • Can farming save Detroit? 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With these goals, some friends and I began to cultivate a piece of land which became known as Alemany Farm .
  • Civil Eats » farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC civileats.com [Source type: General]

.This might be relevant to a third world country with many peasant farmers, but it may also be a consideration to more developed countries such as Poland.^ Third World countries.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To a certain degree, this is still the case in many third world countries.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Like it or not, the world is on a trend to have more activists, in more countries.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has a very high unemployment rate, much farmland and retains a large rural population growing food for their own use.^ To grow as many shrimp as possible and maintain overcrowded populations, large amounts of artificial feed and chemical additives, including chlorine, are added to this destructive cocktail.
  • Shrimp farming | Greenpeace International 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ Domestication of wild aurochs and mouflon into cattle and sheep, respectively, ushered in the large-scale use of animals for food/fiber and as beasts of burden.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the 2000s, plants have been used to grow biofuels , biopharmaceuticals , bioplastics , Specific foods include cereals , vegetables , fruits , and meat .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

Price controls may be used to assist poor citizens. .Many countries have used this method of welfare support as it delivers cheap food to the poorest without the need to assess people to give them financial aid.^ Presents "a comprehensive picture" of quantities of a country's food supply exported, fed to livestock, used for seed, manufactured, or lost during storage and transportation.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pocket POD Express is a guitar multi effects processor that delivers an essential collection of guitar tones and effects without the need for an amplifier.
  • Line 6 - POD Farm - Audio Software Plugins for Guitar and Bass 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC line6.com [Source type: General]

^ If you do not have enough personal money on it, you can try using financial support from government agencies.

See green economists. .Some argue that small gardens and greenhouses should be favored, especially if produce is consumed locally.^ Consumers in the new local food movement who count food miles call themselves " locavores "; increased interest in home and community gardening.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While small independent producers and consumers initially drove the rise of organic farming, increasingly organic market growth has led to the participation of agribusiness interests.
  • Organic farming - PermaWiki 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC permaculture.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, in many countries where high-yield agriculture has been especially successful, farmers are able to produce more food than their consumers want.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some argue for tax, tariff and trade rules to exempt such production for local use, especially family farm or farm co-op production, and strongly deny that agricultural and industrial policy should be linked, or should be subject to the same law.^ They must be aware of any laws that govern the use of such inputs in the farm's locality.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some farm owners prefer to purchase new equipment for their farms, knowing that the length of time that you can use the product far outweighs the potential savings from purchasing cheaper equipment.
  • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Proponents of organic farming such as Sir Albert Howard feeling lay dormant for decades, as environmental awareness has increased in the 2000s there has been a movement towards sustainable agriculture by some farmers, consumers, and policymakers.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

.One rationale is that local production of organic produce by families in their own gardens for their own consumption is not taxed or regulated, and that little or no use of the energy-and-land-intensive transport system, or energy-and-labor intensive regulation system is required for these same people to sell the same product to neighbors.^ Little research has been done on large scale organic production systems.
  • Topics in Sustainable Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ocf.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, as production increases and organic products go mainstream, premiums are likely to decline, and organic farmers are likely to face the same economic pressures as their conventional neighbors.
  • Organic Farming: ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conducts applied research in regenerative, non-synthetic agriculture systems, emphasizing "practical technology to build rather than deplete local production resources as they are used."
  • Sustainable Agriculture Resource List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Safe trade rules to encourage organic farming and self-reliance, led by opponents of genetically modified food and monoculture.
  • Fair trade rules to ensure that poor farmers in underdeveloped nations that produce crops primarily for export are not exploited to put local farmers in developing nations out of work - which advocates consider a dangerous "race to the bottom" in agricultural labor and safety standards.^ Farmers market are an agriculture business marketing channel for farming businesses and other agricultural producers.
    • Agriculture Industry | Agricultural Companies | Business.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Tags: agriculture , farming , food , organic Posted in Uncategorized .

    ^ Genetically Modified crops ).
    • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Opponents point out that most agriculture in developed nations is produced by industrial corporations (agribusinesses) which are hardly deserving of sympathy, and that the alternative to exploitation is poverty.
.When rich countries subsidize domestic production, excess output is often given to the developing world as foreign aid.^ Development economists say that the world will need at least 250 percent more farm output by 2050, and perhaps three times as much.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major developing countries recognize their responsibility for—and opportunities in—implementing regimes that facilitate access and promote the sharing of benefits from sustainable commercialization of natural products.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted on August 14, 2009 by Wendy Werling Topics: Agriculture , Economic Development , Food Countries: Russia Could Africa be the world's next breadbasket?

.This process eliminates the domestic market for agricultural products in the developing world, because the products can be obtained for free from western aid agencies.^ The most important animal exportation from the Old World to the New were those of the horse quickly filled essential production roles on western hemisphere farms.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the number and average size of farms have dropped along with the total acres in agriculture, the market value of agricultural products continues to increase as a whole and on average across farms.

^ AGRICULTURE MARKETING From APMCs to electronic markets New electronic trading exchanges promise to give Indian farmers better options for marketing their crops, eliminating middle-men costs substantially in the process.
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In developing nations where these effects are most severe, small farmers could no longer afford basic inputs and were forced to sell their land.^ These farmers could be differently employed.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The credit available through these channels is usually small and short term and limits farmers’ investments in the essential ingredients needed to increase their productivity.
  • Acumen Fund Blog · agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC blog.acumenfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most farmers were willing to make long-term commitments to these crops even though it meant acquiring new equipment.

."Consider a farmer in Ghana who used to be able to make a living growing rice.^ The presumed solution is to make Midwest farmers radically cut their use of fertilizer, and to “crack down” on big livestock and poultry farms.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fix the Economy, make it worth while for more farmers- to grow FOOD, versus FUEL Build Nuclear Plants..
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ I consider horses who are not used as workhorses pets.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Several years ago, Ghana was able to feed and export their surplus.^ The Rev. Thomas Malthus’ famous question about whether humanity can continue to feed all the people was posed exactly 200 years ago.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europe’s commercial farmers saw this coming several years ago as EU support payments shifted to smaller, more politically correct farmers.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Now, it imports rice. From where? Developed countries. Why? Because it's cheaper. .Even if it costs the rice producer in the developed world much more to produce the rice, he doesn't have to make a profit from his crop.^ By contrast, consumer GPS receivers, originally developed for recreational uses (such as fishing, hiking, and auto trips) are much more affordable because they are mass-produced for a wider market.
  • Precision Farming Tools: Global Positioning System (GPS) - Virginia Cooperative Extension 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.ext.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus the cereal crops, when grown in rotation, yield more produce for sale in the season of growth than when grown continuously.

^ Most farmers were willing to make long-term commitments to these crops even though it meant acquiring new equipment.

.The government pays him to grow it, so he can sell it more cheaply to Ghana than the farmer in Ghana can.^ AGRICULTURE POLICY Wheat imports: Subverting procurement Despite the high price of imported wheat, the government prefers this option to paying Indian farmers a higher support price for their crops.
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fix the Economy, make it worth while for more farmers- to grow FOOD, versus FUEL Build Nuclear Plants..
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Sierra Leone farmers still derive more than half their rice from rain‑fed uplands.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

And that farmer in Ghana? He can't feed his family anymore."(Lyle Vanclief, Canadian Minister of Agriculture)
.According to The Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, corn, soybeans, cotton, wheat and rice are sold below the cost of production, or dumped.^ Reducing the cost of cotton production .
  • AITopics / Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A focus on the international price of corn, wheat, rice, and soybeans is highlighted.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ Crop production includes the growing of grains, such as wheat, corn, and barley; field crops, such as cotton and tobacco; vegetables and melons; fruits and nuts; and horticultural specialties, such as flowers and ornamental plants.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dumping rates are approximately forty percent for wheat, between twenty-five and thirty percent for corn (maize), approximately thirty percent for soybeans, fifty-seven percent for cotton, and approximately twenty percent for rice.^ A typical hill country farm through most of the nineteenth century had about thirty acres in cultivation—ten acres of corn, five acres of cotton, and the rest in cereal grains, sometimes tobacco (particularly in the Ozarks), potatoes, and vegetables.

^ In the corn belt, corn yields were about 10 percent less and soybean yields were about 5 percent less on organic farms than on paired conventional farms.
  • organic farming Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about organic farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1940, Delta counties cultivated only 153,000 acres of rice and 176,000 acres of soybeans, compared with 1.2 million acres of cotton; those figures changed dramatically in the next twenty years.

For example, wheat is sold for forty percent below cost.
.According to Oxfam, "If developed nations eliminated subsidy programs, the export value of agriculture in lesser developed nations would increase by 24 %, plus a further 5.5 % from tariff equilibrium.^ They came up with the Agricultural and Forestal District ordinance that would make qualifying lands eligible for lower real estate taxes based on its agricultural use instead of its market value which was increasing due to development pressures.

^ "Scientists in Denmark are developing an agricultural robot for identifying and eliminating weeds.
  • AITopics / Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 2002, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) established production standards, under the National Organic Program (NOP), which regulate the commercially use of the term organic .
  • Organic farming - PermaWiki 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC permaculture.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

... exporters can offer .US surpluses for sale at prices around half the cost of production; destroying local agriculture and creating a captive market in the process."^ Although the number and average size of farms have dropped along with the total acres in agriculture, the market value of agricultural products continues to increase as a whole and on average across farms.

^ The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.

^ For many farmers, the low prices for many agricultural goods have not kept up with the increasing costs of farming.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free trade advocates desire the elimination of all market distorting mechanisms (subsidies, tariffs, regulations) and argue that, as with free trade in all areas, this will result in aggregate benefit for all.^ In the US, of all places, I would have thought letting the free market rule would have been popular.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Agricultural trade has been stifled by more than $300 billon per year in rich-country farm subsidies that would be essentially unnecessary if we had free trade.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All areas of biotechnology would benefit – everything from medicine to genetics research, as well as pharmaceuticals and generics.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This position is particularly popular in competitive agricultural exporting nations in both the developed and developing world, some of whom have banded together in the Cairns Group lobby.^ This paper, thus, looks at the measures that may be undertaken both at the farm and national levels in order to adapt the Zimbabwean agricultural sector to climate change.
  • CSP Interim Reports - Zimbabwe 25 September 2009 12:35 UTC www.gcrio.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In some third-world nations, the ratio is more like 2:1....meaning half the entire population has to be farming, simply to keep up.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ He holds outstanding performance awards from both State and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and won the National Intelligence Medal of Achievement in 1983.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canada's Department of Agriculture estimates that developing nations would benefit by about $4 billion annually if subsidies in the developed world were halved.^ The Department of Agriculture is welcoming ideas from community groups and more money than ever is about to flow into school cafeterias, from Washington and from private providers.
  • Agriculture - Center for market intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC wiki.nlsearch.com [Source type: News]

^ For that reason he was willing to override the points of view of his technical planners in the irrigation agency and the Departments of Agriculture and Water Development.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He holds outstanding performance awards from both State and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and won the National Intelligence Medal of Achievement in 1983.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many countries don't grow enough food to feed their own populations.^ WATER AND FOOD SECURITY Fresh water scarcity demands fresh ideas A growing world population has led to rising demand for fresh water to ensure a growing supply of food and to meet rising nutrition demands.
  • India Together: Agriculture - news articles, reports, opinions and analysis - Homepage 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Says: January 2nd, 2010 at 3:53 pm The BEST way to ensure your health is to grow your own food.
  • Can farming save Detroit? 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many governments in SSA have wished to intensify the agricultural use of land to feed growing populations.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These nations must buy food from other countries.^ America already produces more than enough food for the US and many other countries.
  • Can farming save Detroit? 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other countries that stated as the main native of these quince fruits are Iran, Georgia and Armenia.

^ Upon this realization I decided to learn how to grow my own food, and to teach other people these skills.
  • Civil Eats » farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC civileats.com [Source type: General]

.Lower prices and free food save the lives of millions of starving people, despite the drop in food sales of the local farmers.^ While demand for "free" food is reaching levels not seen since the Great Depression, at a cost to the taxpayer of $73 billion a year and climbing, it might seem odd that there is also an infatuation with higher-priced local and organic food.

^ Case in point, is that too many people = a lower standard of living.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, the logical offshoot of higher yields for farmers is lower prices for consumers.
  • ipHandbook Blog » Agriculture Biotechnology 19 November 2009 17:16 UTC blog.iphandbook.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A developing nation could use new improved farming methods to grow more food, with the ultimate goal of feeding their nation without outside help.^ In the 2000s, plants have been used to grow biofuels , biopharmaceuticals , bioplastics , Specific foods include cereals , vegetables , fruits , and meat .
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fix the Economy, make it worth while for more farmers- to grow FOOD, versus FUEL Build Nuclear Plants..
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ You also get 1 Apple Tree Seed, 1 Acorn, and 5 Guam Seeds which can be used to get more Farming experience as well as a Supercompost Potion which will turn a Compost Bin full of Compost into Supercompost!
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

.New greenhouse methods, hydroponics, fertilizers, R/O Water Processors, hybrid crops, fast-growing hybrid trees for quick shade, interior temperature control, greenhouse or tent insulation, autonomous building gardens, sun lamps, mylar, fans, and other cheap tech can be used to grow crops on previously unarable land, such as rocky, mountainous, desert, and even arctic lands.^ Land and water management technologies as hybrids .
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not the tree-cutting company, not the tree-using company, but the tree-growing company.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New lands and crops - - Agricultural recession .
  • origins of agriculture -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More food can be grown, reducing dependency on other countries for food.^ It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.

^ Read more » World Food Day: There is enough food grown in the world for everyone (Op-ed) .
  • Agriculture campaign | Oxfam International 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.oxfam.org [Source type: News]

^ People’s health depends more on the composition of their diets than on the nature of individual foods.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Replacement crops can also make nations agriculturally independent.^ National Institute of Agricultural Botany : Independent body specialising in agriculture, horticulture and food.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, with rice , rather than wheat , as the primary crop.
  • Top20Agriculture.com - Online Directory for Argiculture Education. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC top20agriculture.com [Source type: Academic]

Sugar, for example, comes from sugar cane imported from Polynesia. .Instead of buying the sugar from Polynesia, a nation can make sugar from sugar beets, maple sap, or sweetener from stevia plant, keeping the profits circulating within the nation's economy.^ If you don't want to plant such expensive Crops as Magic Trees, just keep on going with lower level Trees such as Willows, Maples and Yews.
  • Farming Help - ::Sal's Realm of RuneScape:: 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC runescape.salmoneus.net [Source type: General]

^ Cellulose is an abundant plant sugar which makes up the cell walls of plants.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Wheat, barley, oats, beans, clover and other leguminous plants, turnips, sugar beet , mange's, potatoes and grass crops have thus been experimented upon.

.Paper and clothes can be made of hemp instead of trees and cotton.^ There is also the concern that hemp is illegal because it would kill off traditional materials like cotton and wood because it's a better source of raw materials for things like clothing fibers and paper products.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.Tropical foods won't grow in many places in Europe, but they will grow in insulated greenhouses or tents in Europe.^ And without the people growing the food, whether they’re driving combines or hoeing by hand, none of that would happen.

^ The fact is that when you put too many fish into one fish tank, they don't grow to full size.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ They grow for 6-10 weeks in our greenhouse and are then ready to sell.

Soybean plant cellulose can replace plastic (made from oil). Lemon oil can replace car oil for lubrication. Ethanol from farm waste or hempseed oil can replace gasoline. Rainforest medicine plants grown locally can replace many imported medicines. .This is why Thomas Jefferson said that the best thing you can do for your country is to grow a new crop species.^ Don't forget your crops grow while you are logged out, too.
  • Tip.it RuneScape Help :: Farming Guide :: The Original RuneScape help site! 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.tip.it [Source type: General]

^ Then you can refill it while watching over your crops!

^ Before you can actually grow anything, you need to prepare the plot so that your crops will grow.

.Alternates of cash crops, like sugar and oil replacements, allow the farmer to make more money on the real market, reducing the farmer's dependency on subsidies in both developed and developing nations.^ Like it or not, we're dependant on oil.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ Crops like corn, wheat and soybeans are starting to replace traditional petroleum-based ingredients in these new bio-products, making them easier on the environment and lessening our dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels.

^ They came up with the Agricultural and Forestal District ordinance that would make qualifying lands eligible for lower real estate taxes based on its agricultural use instead of its market value which was increasing due to development pressures.

The farmer population is approximately five percent of the total population in the E.U. and 1.7 % in the U.S.
.The total value of agricultural production amounted to 128 billion euros (1998).^ The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.

^ Agriculture is a state subject but the total plan outlay by 28 states during five years of X Plan on agriculture and allied activities was a paltry amount of Rs.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

.About forty-nine percent of this amount was accounted for by political measures: 37 billion euros due to direct payments and 43 billion euros from consumers due to the artificially high price.^ The advertisers sent the results of a poll in which 43 percent of consumers who expressed a preference for organic food said they preferred it because it tasted better.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture already uses about 37 percent of the earth’s land surface, and any land not already in a city or a farm is wildlife habitat.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, only about 4 percent of the First World’s population are even vegetarian, and most of these vegetarians consume lots of resource-costly eggs and dairy products.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eighty percent of European farmers receive a direct payment of 5,000 euros or less, while 2.2 % receive a direct payment above 50,000 euros, totaling forty percent of all direct subsidies.^ Number of millennia before humans first farmed that farmer ants were farming the spongy fungus on which they feed: 50,000 .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Percentage change since 1997 in direct government payments to U.S. farmers : +200 .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although farms generating over $250,000 per year in sales make up less than 10 percent of all farms, they supply three-quarters of all agricultural output.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The average U.S. farmer receives $16,000 in annual subsidies.^ Amount by which federal subsidies to U.S. cotton farmers last crop-year exceeded 2001’s U.S. cotton sales: $300,000,000 .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

.Two-thirds of farmers receive no direct payments.^ Percentage change since 1997 in direct government payments to U.S. farmers : +200 .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A third implication therefore seems to be that there is no sense finance programs that cannot prove with farmer response that they meet (immediate) farmer needs.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of those that do, the average amount amongst the lowest paid eighty percent was $7000 from 1995-2003. (http://www.ewg.org/farm/findings.php) Subsidies are a mix of tax reductions, direct cash payments and below-market prices on water and other inputs.^ "Direct Action in Industry" IWA pamphlet from early 1970s http://www.spunk.org/texts/intro/practice/sp001703.html .
  • Suggested Reading 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.mutualist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Farm Transition Network, 10861 Douglas Ave., Suite B, Urbandale, IA 50322 Internet: http://www.farmtransition.org .
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Myth of the Minimalist State: Free Market Ambiguities" Corner House Briefing 05 (March 1998) http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk/item.shtml?x=51960 .
  • Suggested Reading 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.mutualist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some claim that these aggregate figures are misleading because large agribusinesses, rather than individual farmers, receive a significant share of total subsidy spending.^ We just recently sold a horse because we would rather him have a job than to just be a big pet.
  • DailyTech - Getting The Food Crop Monkey Off The Back of Biofuels 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ The figures of distribution of operational holding reflect a largely similar pattern, but they also reflect a significant degree of reverse tenancy (hiring in of the land of poor peasants by rich and well-to-do farmers) – while 3.6% of total ownership holdings belong to the 10 acres and above range, 7.4% operational holdings belong to this range.
  • Agrarian Programme CPI(ML) 10 September 2009 17:36 UTC www.cpiml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long-term goal, he said, is for these small, inexpensive robots to take on some of the duties now performed by large, expensive farm equipment.
  • AITopics / Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Freedom to Farm Act of 1996 reduced farm subsidies, providing fixed payments over a period and replacing price supports and subsidies.^ Due to population pressure, however, the long periods of fallow with short periods of farming have been replaced by long periods of farming with short fallow periods.
  • Agenda 21 - Tanzania 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically, such support services are provided to the larger farms that are run more like businesses.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 1974 Article The helping hand behind food prices By Roger LeRoy Miller SEE ALSO: Agricultural price supports ; Agricultural subsidies ; Agriculture ; Food prices PDF IMAGES .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Farm Bill (2002) contains direct and countercyclical payments designed to limit the effects of low prices and yields.^ For many farmers, the low prices for many agricultural goods have not kept up with the increasing costs of farming.
  • Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considerable ecological knowledge is required to direct the array of natural flows necessary to sustain yields in a low-input system.
  • organic farming Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about organic farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Farmers tell them there’s a food surplus and that farm prices are too low.
  • agriculture | Center for Global Food Issues 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The World Trade Organization (WTO) has extracted commitments from the Philippines government, making it lower import barriers to half their present levels over a span of six years, and allowing in drastically increased competition from the industrialised and heavily subsidised farming systems of North America and Europe.^ It is important to note that the conversion process can take anywhere from one to five years depending on the level of artificialization or degradation of the original high-input system.
  • organic farming Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about organic farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They expect to sell $24,000 in Community Supported Agriculture shares this year from their half-acre farm, which spans their yard and the yards of 10 neighbors recruited from a post on the classifieds website Craigslist.org.
  • SPIN in the City : A New Form of Farming That Can Transform Cities (By Miranda C. Spencer) 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.emagazine.com [Source type: News]

^ The European Commission reported that the August heat wave was consistent with predictions about the pattern of global climate change and warned that many farming areas in Europe and North America may soon be unable to support agriculture .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

.A recent Oxfam report estimated that average household incomes of maize farmers will be reduced by as much as 30% over the six years as cheap imports from the US drive down prices in the local markets.^ The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.

^ Whereas formerly the farmer was to some extent compensated by a higher price for a smaller yield, in recent years he had had to compete with an unusually large supply at greatly reduced prices.

^ Percentage in import duties on Vietnamese catfish sought from the Commerce Department last year by U.S. catfish farmers : 190 .
  • Agriculture (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC harpers.org [Source type: Academic]

.The report estimates that in the absence of trade restrictions, US subsidised maize could be marketed at less than half the price of maize grown on the Philippine island of Mindanao; and that the livelihoods of up to half a million Filipino maize farmers (out of the total 1.2 million) are under immediate threat.^ The practice is for the Board of Agriculture to appoint local estimators, who report in the autumn as to the total production of the crops in the localities respectively assigned to them.

^ Sierra Leone farmers still derive more than half their rice from rain‑fed uplands.
  • Agrarian technologies as socio‑technical hybrids. Food crop improvement and management of land and water in sub‑Saharan Africa 1 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC apad.revues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If China consumed half of the Japanese French fry consumption, it would be a 2 million ton potato import market.
  • farming | Center for Global Food Issues 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contributors

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agriculture&action=history
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agricultural_policy&action=history
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agricultural_subsidy&action=history

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
Tilling the ground (Gen 2:15; 4:2, 3, 12) and rearing cattle were the chief employments in ancient times.
^ Tilling the ground ( Gen.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture contributes 15 percent of the state's employment and 12 percent of the value added in Georgia's economy.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Agriculture in Georgia: Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HTML check - 2 errors Browser compatibility - 1 problem Load time = 12.15 secs Try it .
  • Cultivate Interactive Issue 7: WebWatching CULTIVATE National Node Web Sites 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.cultivate-int.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Egyptians excelled in agriculture.^ The Egyptians excelled in agriculture.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And after the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this art.^ And after the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this art.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of the land market is designed to stimulate foreign investment inflow into the agricultural sector.

^ As the state continues to face pressure from population growth, more agricultural land will be converted into development.

.Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth.^ Agriculture became the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:-
.I. SOWING TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.^ (Beginning about vernal equinox.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nisan, latter half (Beginning about vernal equinox.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) Marchesvan. .Kisleu, former half.^ Kisleu, former half.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early rain due = first showers of autumn.^ Early rain due = first showers of autumn.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the last part of October or the first part of November God sends rain which softens the earth: "Thou makest it ____________ with showers" (Psalm 65:10).

^ The farmers always wait for the first or early rains before beginning to plow.

.II. UNRIPE TIME. Kisleu, latter half.^ II. UNRIPE TIME. Kisleu, latter half.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kisleu, latter half.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:- I. SOWING TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tebet. .Sebat, former half.^ Sebat, former half.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.III. COLD SEASON. Sebat, latter half.^ III. COLD SEASON. Sebat, latter half.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VI. SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Adar. [Veadar.] .Nisan, former half.^ Nisan, former half.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Latter rain due (Deut 11:14; Jer 5:24; Hos 6:3; Zech 10:1; James 5:7; Job 29:23).^ Ruth 2:7, 15; Job 24:10; Jer.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James 5:7 ; Job 29:23 ).
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 10, 2009, 11:29 am / posted by Ryan / Link Farmland Solstice Supper .

IV. HARVEST TIME. Nisan, latter half. .(Beginning about vernal equinox.^ (Beginning about vernal equinox.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:- I. SOWING TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Barley green. Passover.) Ijar. .Sivan, former half., Wheat ripe.^ Sivan, former half., Wheat ripe.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pentecost.
.V. SUMMER (total absence of rain) Sivan, latter half.^ V. SUMMER (total absence of rain) Sivan, latter half.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tammuz. Ab, former half.
.VI. SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half.^ VI. SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ab, latter half.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ III. COLD SEASON. Sebat, latter half.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Elul. .Tisri, former half., Ingathering of fruits.^ Tisri, former half., Ingathering of fruits.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the year mainly with the gathering in of the fruits.^ The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the year mainly with the gathering in of the fruits.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would operate about four months a year - April, May, June and July - canning the fruit.
  • History Of Farming 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC www.keyshistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first cultivation of wild grains, that is, turned hunter-gatherers into farmers, beginning some 12,000 to 10,000 years ago.
  • AGRICULTURE: 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine richly productive (Ps 13; 65:10; Prov 21:1; Isa 30:25; 32:2, 20; Hos 12:11), and the appliances of careful cultivation and of manure increased its fertility to such an extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant population, "20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber (1 Kg 5:11), and in large quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the merchandise in which they traded (Ezek 27:17).^ The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine richly productive ( Ps.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solomon, when there was an abundant population, "20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber ( 1 Kings 5:11 ), and in large quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the merchandise in which they traded ( Ezek.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This transition was made 10,000 years ago on land.

.The wheat sometimes produced an hundredfold (Gen 26:12; Mt 13:23).^ The wheat sometimes produced hundredfold ( Gen.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wheat sometimes produced an hundredfold (Gen.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wheat sometimes produced an hundredfold ( Gen.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful (Num 13:23), and the vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant fruit (Deut 33:24).^ Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful ( Num.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It produces abundant badly smelling fruit.
  • Agriculture in ancient Egypt 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.reshafim.org.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sharin Gol state farm, for example, grew fruits and vegetables, which then were processed in the state farm's factories to produce dried fruit, fruit juices, fruit and vegetable preserves, and pickled vegetables.
  • Mongolia - Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC countrystudies.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year, when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Lev 25:1-7; Deut 15:1-10).^ YEAR OF REST - Lest the productiveness of the soil be exhausted, it was decided that the whole land should rest every seventh year, when all agricultural labor would entirely cease ( Lev.
  • Agriculture in Bible times (explanation) - WebBible Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year, when all agricultural labour would entirely cease ( Lev.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But he soon found that to retain a high level of production every year, he had to use more and more chemicals, thus increasing input cost.
  • Gandhi of organic farming honoured - Mumbai - City - The Times of India 1 February 2010 7:50 UTC timesofindia.indiatimes.com [Source type: General]

.It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deut 22:9).^ It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deut.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sowing was done by hand, with the help of goats that walked over the newly sown fields to push the seeds out of the reach of bird looking for a quick meal.
  • Egypt: Tour Egypt Monthly: Ancient Egyptian Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC touregypt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Field-grown crops are sowed and harvested mostly by heavy machinery, which churns the soil, plants the seeds, and cuts and sorts the final product.

.A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deut 23:24, 25; Mt 12:1).^ A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deut.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wheat for March delivery dropped 18.25 cents to $4.69 a bushel, while March corn slid 12 cents to $3.53 a bushel and oats for March delivery lost 1 cent to $2.31 a bushel.
  • Agriculture News | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Agriculture News | KXNet.com Dickinson North Dakota 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: General]

.The poor were permitted to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings.^ The poor were permitted to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matthew 12:1 ) The rights of the corner to be left, and of gleaning [ CORNER ; GLEANING ], formed the poor man?s claim on the soil for support.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A forgotten sheaf in the field was to be left also for the poor.^ A forgotten sheaf in the field was to be left also for the poor.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(See Lev 19:9, 10; Deut 24:19.^ Leviticus 19:9,10 ; 24:19 ) AGRICULTURE [ISBE] .
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.Agricultural implements and operations.^ Agricultural implements and operations.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations of agriculture.^ The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations of agriculture.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An introductory subject which aims to develop an ability to manage the selection, operation and maintenance of tools and machinery, with particular reference to agriculture and horticulture.
  • Agriculture, Farm, Animal, Distance Education Courses, Australian Correspondence School - ACS Distance Education 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.acs.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fitzherbert throws some light on the position of women in the agriculture of his day.

.Ploughs of a simple construction were known in the time of Moses (Deut 22:10; comp.^ Ploughs of a simple construction were known in the time of Moses (Deut.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief implements were a wooden plough of simple and light construction, a hoe or mattock , and a light harrow .

Job 1:14). .They were very light, and required great attention to keep them in the ground (Lk 9:62).^ They were very light, and required great attention to keep them in the ground (Luke 9:62).
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the grounds men held it up to the posts, it would pull the wire very taught and they would nail the fence to the posts.

^ Of course, you must pay them to protect your tree, and they require 5 Monkey Nuts, a Monkey Bar, and a ground Suqah Tooth.

.They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14), cows (1Sam 6:7), and asses (Isa 30:24); but an ox and an ass must not be yoked together in the same plough (Deut 22:10).^ They had both hand ploughs and ones pulled by oxen.

^ The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.

^ Those who are yoked up together are on the same team.

.Men sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isa 28:24).^ Men sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods ( Isa.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isa.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoes were used to mix water and dirt in brick making, to break up dirt clods, and to manage the growing crops.
  • Egypt: Tour Egypt Monthly: Ancient Egyptian Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC touregypt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The oxen were urged on by a "goad," or long staff pointed at the end, so that if occasion arose it could be used as a spear also (Jdg 3:31; 1Sam 13:21).^ WIth no auger, we used Pickaxes, Mattocks, shovels and rock bar, a tool that looks a giant nail with a flat blade on the pointed end.

^ It ended the quarter with cash and cash equivalents of $2.6 billion as of August 31, 2009, but the business metrics are soft despite it trying to talk up long-term demand.
  • Agriculture – 24/7 Wall St. 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC 247wallst.com [Source type: News]

.When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the field (Mt 13:3-8).^ When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the field (Matt.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seeds would fall on the prepared soil.

^ The soil must be prepared to receive the seed.

.The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood.^ The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were, however, some occupations that were found in more than one industry so procedures were used to allocate workers in such occupations to the various industries in which they might have been employed.
  • U.S. Agricultural Workforce,1800-1900 | EH.Net 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC eh.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Hoes were used to mix water and dirt in brick making, to break up dirt clods, and to manage the growing crops.
  • Egypt: Tour Egypt Monthly: Ancient Egyptian Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC touregypt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In highly irrigated spots the seed was trampled in by cattle (Isa 32:20); but doubtless there was some kind of harrow also for covering in the seed scattered in the furrows of the field.^ In highly irrigated spots the seed was trampled in by cattle (Isa.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A farm implement for planting seeds which forms a small furrow, deposits the seed in dribbles, covers the seed, and packs soil over it.
  • Agriculture Glossary 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cahe.nmsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to circumstances.^ The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to circumstances.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves (Gen.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At harvest the corn was cut high on the stalk with short sickles and put up in sheaves, after which it was carried to the threshing-floor and there trodden out by the hoofs of oxen.

.The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves (Gen 37:7; Lev 23:10-15; Ruth 2:7, 15; Job 24:10; Jer 9:22; Mic 4:12), which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor or stored in barns (Mt 6:26).^ January 10, 2010 - January 16, 2010 January 3, 2010 - January 9, 2010 December 27, 2009 - January 2, 2010 December 20, 2009 - December 26, 2009 December 13, 2009 - December 19, 2009 December 6, 2009 - December 12, 2009 November 29, 2009 - December 5, 2009 November 22, 2009 - November 28, 2009 November 15, 2009 - November 21, 2009 November 8, 2009 - November 14, 2009 More...

^ He recommends the practice of setting up corn in shocks, with two sheaves to cover eight, instead of ten sheaves as at present - probably owing to the straw being then shorter.

^ Note : You could also put the animals on red barn cut-outs.
  • Old MacDonald's Farm at The Virtual Vine 3 February 2010 15:28 UTC www.thevirtualvine.com [Source type: General]

.The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle to tread repeatedly over them (Deut 25:4; Isa 28:28).^ The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle to tread repeatedly over them ( Deut.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At harvest the corn was cut high on the stalk with short sickles and put up in sheaves, after which it was carried to the threshing-floor and there trodden out by the hoofs of oxen.

.On occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth 2:17; Isa 28:27).^ On occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth 2:17; Isa.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For small quantities the sheaves (bundles) were beaten with a stick (Ruth 2:17) and this would force the grain to separate from the stalk.

.There was also a "threshing instrument" (Isa 41:15; Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the corn.^ At harvest the corn was cut high on the stalk with short sickles and put up in sheaves, after which it was carried to the threshing-floor and there trodden out by the hoofs of oxen.

^ There was also a "threshing instrument" (Isa.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the corn.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2 Sam 24:22; 1Chr 21:23; Isa 3:15).^ It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge ( 2 Sam.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At a later time the Jews used a threshing sledge called morag , ( Isaiah 41:15 ; 2 Samuel 24:22 ; 1 Chronicles 21:23 ) probably resembling the noreg , still employed in Egypt --a stage with three rollers ridged with iron, which, aided by the driver?s weight crushed out, often injuring, the grain, as well as cut or tore the straw, which thus became fit for fodder.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program will be held on three islands, starting on Kauai (Kauai Community College) on April 20-21, 2009; on Maui (Kula Community Center) on April 22-23, 2009 and the Island of Hawaii (Waimea Civic Center) on April 24-25, 2009.

.It was somewhat like the Roman tribulum, or threshing instrument.^ It was somewhat like the Roman tribulum, or threshing instrument.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up against the wind (Jer 4:11), and afterwards tossed with wooden scoops (Isa 30:24).^ When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up against the wind (Jer.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grain also needs processing, and as equipment for threshing and winnowing grew complex and large, the trend toward sedentism accelerated.
  • Is "Sustainable Agriculture" an Oxymoron? 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC patternliteracy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sounds are like that of a giant threshing machine; the swishing of grass stems beating against others, with each breath of the wind.

.The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Ps 355, Job 21:18, Isa 17:13.^ Job 21:18, Isa.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Job 21:18 , Isa.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Ps.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The refuse of straw and chaff was burned (Isa 5:24).^ The refuse of straw and chaff was burned ( Isa.
  • NETBible: Agriculture 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The refuse of straw and chaff was burned (Isa.
  • Agriculture Definition | Definition of Agriculture at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Freed from impurities, the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deut 28:8; Prov 3:10; Mt 6:26; 13:30; Lk 12:18).^ June 30, 2006 at 10:26 AM .
  • Green Car Congress: Research Suggests Food-Crop Yields Under Future Greenhouse-Gas Conditions Will Be 50% Lower than Expected 19 November 2009 20:49 UTC www.greencarcongress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 10, 2010 - January 16, 2010 January 3, 2010 - January 9, 2010 December 27, 2009 - January 2, 2010 December 20, 2009 - December 26, 2009 December 13, 2009 - December 19, 2009 December 6, 2009 - December 12, 2009 November 29, 2009 - December 5, 2009 November 22, 2009 - November 28, 2009 November 15, 2009 - November 21, 2009 November 8, 2009 - November 14, 2009 More...

^ During the Roman era at least, farmers at Karanis in the Faiyum kept pigeons in dovecotes and used their droppings to fertilize the soil [ 13 ] [ 10 ] .
  • Agriculture in ancient Egypt 10 February 2010 10:13 UTC www.reshafim.org.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with AGRICULTURE (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Agriculture, which are similar to those in the above article.








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