Ahirs: Wikis


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Castes of India
Classification Chandravanshi Kshatriyas
Religions Hinduism and Islam to a minor extent[citation needed]
Language Hindi, Haryanvi, Marathi, Gujarati, Bhojpuri[citation needed]
Populated States India, Nepal and Pakistan[citation needed]
yaduvanshi कृष्ण

The Ahir or Abhir (from Sanskrit Abhira अभीर "fearless")' is the oldest "martial tribes" of India, who historically ruled over various parts of India and Nepal. The name has got corrupted only in Hindi and English, Bengali and Marathi Language still uses the term Abhir[1] Greek Historians' reference of Abisares are thought to be of Abhira Chief.[2][3] The Indian census of 1931 counted 14 million Ahirs.[4]James Tod demonstrated that they were included into the list of 36 royal races of Rajasthan(Tod,1829,Vol1,p69 ii,p358)[5] and supposed them to be descendants of the Yadavs of the Chandravanshi Kshatriyas of Pururavas, whom they placed in the region between the Sutlej and the Yamuna, from where they would have migrated beyond Mathura in the East and beyond Gujarat and Maharashtra in the South. In the opinion of Dr. Budh Prakash,the name of the State of Haryana may have been derived from Abhirayana, its ancient inhabitants having been Ahirs.[6] Similarly, according to some inscriptions in Gujarat, the portion of the Central Indian Plateau between Bhilsa (Vidisha) and Jhansi was known for a long time as Ahirwada (land of Ahirs). Hindu writers have described the Ahirs as living in the north and west, the quarter varying according to the locality of the writer.[7][8][9][10]


Classification of Ahirs

Avar warrior with captive.[11]

Yadavas of West also known as Ahirs,Lord King Krishna was born to Vasudeva who was from Yaduvansh as he was put in prison by tyrant king Kansa in order to save Krishna from Kansha who wanted to kill all Vasudeva's children Nand Baba an Ahir Lord Raised Krishna hence there has been close relationship between Yaduvanshis, Nandvanshi Ahirs and Gwalvanshi's or Gollas (Holy Gwals who used to play with Krishna)[12]:

  • Nandvanshi - Descendants of Nanda(Nand Baba) found in Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi and Western UP.
          Yayati  [13]
           Yadu (Ancestor of Madhu)
          Madhu ---- Nanda ----Nandavanshi, Madhauth(Majhauth)
          yadu  (Successor of Madhu)

Ahirs tradition

Ahirs are traditionally cow herders and farmers. Formerly the Ahirs had the exclusive right to milk cows. Their role with the sacred cows gave them special status.[14] They are found not only in the Kaatch (Kutch) area of western Gujarat, but also in Eastern Rajasthan, Southern Haryana, Northern Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Central Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and also in Nepal and Pakistan. The Ahir community are present in large numbers in Terai, the plains that lie in the southern part of Nepal.[15].


A favorite saint is Haridas Baba. The main festivals are the Diwali and Janmashtami.[14] The Gawali (Milkmen) group is territorially divided into Nandavanshi, Yadavs, Lingayat Gawali and Ahirs, a sub-caste of Dhangar in Maharashtra territory.[16]

Ancient Martial Race

The British Rulers of India classified the Ahirs amongst the "martial races". The Ahirs may be seen to have continued their warrior tradition by their extensive participation in the Indian Army and police forces.[17] Since ancient time, as per Mahabharata, Ahirs(Abhiras) have been warriors some were agriculturists and farmers. The people of the Ahir tribe are traditionally cow herders.They are a subcaste of Dhangar and are not only found in the Kaatch (Kutch) area of western Gujarat, but also in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Nepal [15]. In Maharashtra Ahirs comprise a subgroup of the Dhangar caste system of India.

Ahir origin

The origin of the Ahir is controversial, with various scholars claiming different origin. Sir William Wilson Hunter propounded the Scythic Origin view by directly deriving Ahir from Ahi which means snake in Sanskrit, and saying that snake worship compounded by other cultural facts, suggests Scythic Origin. However, J C Nesfield refutes it by saying that, snake worship is not peculiar to scythics but a common practice all over India, and he also argues that it is absurd to derive Ahir from ahi, a Sanskrit word, when the original name of the community is Abhira, and Ahir its Prakrit corruption. He is of the view that Ahirs have an Aryan Origin. One study in Deccan Ahirs, have found out existence of Totemistic septs, which is regarded as sure sign of being Non-Aryan, seconded by existence of a sept called romabans, which is the regular corruption of word romak, frequently found in Sanskrit works on astronomy, and identified by Prof. Weber to be town Alexandria in Egypt, from where the science of astronomy was cultivated and from whom people of India borrowed the concepts of astronomy. It is argued, foreign horde from Romak might have settled in India, and incorporated into Ahirs.[18].Sanskrit scholars in India however, have demurred this suggestion. Bhagwan Singh Suryavansi, in his research claims, archaeological research in Deccan has revealed, the presence of pastoral people of Neolithic era, who shares many attributes of Abhira. Hence, Abhira might have been present much earlier than what has been postulated so far. Finally he concludes, they spread from Indus to mathura, and migrated southward and eastward.[19]. He also claims that similarity of culture and common belief that they are descendant of Lord Krishna, is the proof that they sprang from a common source. According to a theory advanced by A P Karmakar, Abhiras were a Proto Dravidian Tribe, derived from Dravidian Ayir[20], which means cowherd, He further argues, Aitareva Brahmin refers to Vasah, as the name of people, which in vedic literature means cow. Finally, he concludes from Padma Purana, where Vishnu informed Abhiras, "I shall be born among you, O Abhiras, at Mathura in my eighth birth". D R Bhandarkar, supports the non-aryan origin theory, by directly relating Krishna, to Rig Veda's "Krishna Drapsah", where he fights Aryan God Indra. Added to this Karmakar, shows Harivamsa says Yadu was born of Harynasva and Madhumati, who was the daughter of Madhu Rakshasa. Madhu says all the territory of Mathura belongs to Abhiras.[21]. Further, Mahabharata describes Abhira as forming one of the seven republics, Samsaptak Gunas, and as a friend of Matsyas, a pre vedic tribe.[22]

Mentions in religious scriptures

Manushmriti(Ch.10, 15) talks about Abhiras as sons of Brahmin & Ambashta. Earliest inscription about them refers to them as Abhira Brahmin.[23]

The Sabha-parva and Bhisma-parva sections of the Mahabharata mention the province of Abhira, situated near what once was the Sarasvati River in ancient Sind. Suras and Abhira were together referred to as Surabhiras in scriptures. Later works did not discriminate between the two. Many scholars have sought a link between the Indian Abhira and Surabhir with the Biblical references to Ophir and Sofir.

Ptolemy wrote there was a country called Abhira at the mouth of the river Indus. Sreemad Bhagwatam gave a similar account and matched the location of Sind. Christian Lassen (1800–1876), author of Indische Alterthumskunde, vol I, thought “Ophir” was a seaport on the southwest coast of India. Mrs. Manning said it was situated on the western coast of India. Gesenius, Sir Emerson Tennent, and Max Müller appeared to agree with Christian Lassen. Because of this relative consensus, there is general belief that Abhira is the equivalent of Ophir[24], mentioned in the Bible. In the Coptic language, Sofir, the name of India, refers to surabhir.

According to the Markandeya Purana, all the Haiheya aggressors (warrior caste) were killed in a massacre led by Parshuram. In that time, the Ahirs were either a sub-clan of the Hayheya or sided with the Hayheya. Only the Abhiras survived by escaping into the craters between mountains. The sage Markandeya remarked that "all Haiheya have been killed but Abhira have survived; they will surely rule the earth in Kaliyuga." The Ahirs also attacked Arjun as he entered the Ahirvati and launched attacks against the Yadus.[25] Vātsyāyana also mentions the Abhira kingdoms in the Kama Sutra.[26] References to Abhira being residents of the kingdom ruled by Yudhisthira are found in Bhagwatam.[27]

Shreemad Bhagwatam, which gives a detailed account of dynasties ruling after great war of Mahabharata, describes Abhira rulers in detail:

Krishna with Gopis (Ahirs), ca. 1790-1800
Then will follow seven kings of the Abhira race from the city of Avabhrti, and then ten Gardabhis. After them, sixteen kings of the Kankas will rule and will be known for their excessive greed. Eight Yavanas will then take power, followed by fourteen Turuskas, ten Gurundas and eleven kings of the Maula dynasty. These Abhiras, Gardabhis and Kankas will enjoy the earth for 1,099 years.

The Gupta Dynasty's account corresponds to the Abhira Kings mentioned in the Bhagwatam. Many scholars believe both Guptas[15][28] and Mauryas were Abhir[29].

The Ahirs were one of the more militant Hindu groups, including in the modern era. For example, in 1930, about 200 Ahirs marched towards the shrine of Trilochan and performed puja in response to Islamic tanzeem processions.[30]

The original cult of Lord Krishna, especially the aspect dealing with Krishna's boyhood in Vrindavan and his dalliances with the Gopis, has been attributed to the Ahir or Abhir tribe. The merging of this Lord Krishna with the hero of the Mahabharat did not occur until about 4th century C.E.[31][32]

Sura and Abhira were mentioned as two kingdoms where the river Saraswati existed only as a dried up river bed during the time of Kurukshetra War. They were sometimes referred to as Surabhira also, combining both Sura and Abhira kingdoms. After the fall of the Dwaraka federation, when Arjuna was taking the Yadav women of Dwaraka to Indraprastha, the Abhira tribes attacked him and took away the women and all the wealth.

Map of "Bharatvarsha" (Kingdom of India) during the time of Mahabharata and Ramayana. (Title and location names are in English.)

Nakula's military campaigning to the west

  • MBh 2.31

Nakula, lead his campaign from Indraprastha to the western regions, to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice.

Nakula, the Pandava general, brought under subjection the mighty Gramaniya that dwelt on the shore of the sea, and the Suras and the Abhiras that dwelt on the banks of the Saraswati, and all those tribes that lived upon fisheries, and those also that dwelt on the mountains, and the whole of the country called after the five rivers, and the mountains called Amara, and the country called Uttarayotisha and the city of Divyakutta and the tribe called Dwarapala.

Markandeya's prediction of powerful tribes in the future

  • MBh 3.187

Sage Markandeya explains to Yudhisthira about the rise of western tribes, and their influence on Bharata Varsha or Ancient India

The Andhhas, the Sakas, the Pulindas, the Yavanas, the Kamvojas, the Valhikas and the Abhiras, then become (in Kali Yuga, which is future for Yudhisthira), possessed of bravery and the sovereignty of the earth.

Abhiras in the List of Kingdoms of Bharata Varsha

  • MBh 6.9

In Bhishama Parava, while narrating to Dhritarashtra the names of the Mountains, Rivers, Provinces etc of Bharata Varsha, Sanjaya includes the Abhiras in the list of its provinces and seems to locate them somewhere between the Mallas, Valhikas and the Aprantas (6,9).

i.e. ....the Valhikas , the Vatadhanas, the Abhiras, the Kalajoshakas; the Aparantas, the Parantas, the Pahnabhas, the Charmamandalas; the Atavisikharas, the Mahabhutas.....

In the same Parava, there is also reference to the Sura-Abhiras who are listed among the tribes of north such as the Yavanas, the Chinas, the Kambojas, the Darunas, and many Mleccha tribes, the Sukritvahas, the Kulatthas (Kulutas), the Hunas, and the Parasikas, the Ramanas, and the Dasamalikas, the Daradas, the Kasmiras, the Khasiras, the Bharadvajas, and the diverse tribes of Kiratas, the Tomaras, the Hansamargas, and the Karamanjakas etc (6.9).

Participation in the Kurukshetra War

  • MBh 7.20

Bhutasarman, and Kshemasarman, and the valiant Karakaksha, and the Kalingas, the Singhalas, the Easterners, the Suras, the Abhiras, the Daserakas, the Sakas, the Yavanas, the Kambojas, the Hangsapadas, the Surasenas, the Daradas, the Madras, and the Kalikeyas, with hundreds and thousands of elephants, steeds, cars, and foot-soldiers were stationed at its neck of the military formation formed by the Kaurava general Drona in Kurukshetra War.

Impact of Bhargava Rama on Abhira tribe

  • MBh 14.29

Dravidas and Abhiras and Pundras, together with the Savaras, became fallen to low status, though those men who had Kshatriya duties assigned to them in consequence of their birth, falling away from those duties due to fear of Bhargava Rama.

Attack of Abhiras on Arjuna and the people of Dwaraka

  • MBh 16.7

Arjuna rescued the women and children and a few soldiers from Dwaraka Island as it sank into the sea. They were heading from Dwaraka to Indraprastha, along a road parallel to the course of Saraswati River. Then the Abhiras attacked them.

Then those men, with hearts overwhelmed by cupidity, those Abhiras of ill omen, assembled together and held a consultation. They said, Here there is only one bowman, Arjuna. The cavalcade consists of children and the old. He escorts them, transgressing us. The warriors (of the Vrishnis) are without energy. Then those robbers, numbering by thousands, and armed with clubs, rushed towards the procession of the Vrishnis (the Yadava clan of Dwaraka), desirous of plunder.

  • MBh 16.8

In Arjuna's very sight thousands of Vrishni ladies were carried away by the Abhiras of the country of the five waters.

Balarama's pilgrimage along Saraswati River

  • MBh 9.37

Then Balarama proceeded to Vinasana where the Sarasvati River hath become invisible in consequence of her contempt for the Suras, the Abhiras. And since the Sarasvati, in consequence of such contempt, is lost at that spot, the Rishis, for that reason, always name the place as Vinasana. Having bathed in that tirtha of the Sarasvati, the mighty Bala Rama then proceeded to Subhumika, situated on the excellent bank of the same river.


Mandalika the Abhira Ruler of Somnath, was also among the confederate princes who pursued Mahmud's army. Tarikh i sorath states Mahmud could not stand his onslaught and rather fled to save his life.[33][34]

"Shah Mahmud took to his heels in dismay and saved his life, but many of his followers of both sexes were captured.... Turk, Afghan and Mughal female prisoners, if they happened to be virgins, were accepted as wives by the Indian soldiers.... The bowels of the others, however, were cleansed by means of emetics and purgatives, and thereafter the captives were married to men of similar rank.Low females were joined to low men. Respectable men were compelled to shave off their beards, and were enrolled among the Shekhawat and the Wadhel tribes of Rajputs; whilst the lower kinds were allotted to the castes of Kolis, Khantas, Babrias and Mers."

Ahir as an ethnic category

Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli, Malwa, 1300 BCE.

According to M.S.A. Rao (an eminent sociologist), Yadava is an ethnic category consisting of several allied castes, which together constitute about one-tenth of the total population of India. These castes are found in different parts of India, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka and are known as the "Ahir" in the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan; the "Goalas" and "Sadgopa" or Gauda in Bengal and Orissa; Dhangar in Maharashtra; Yadava and Kurubas in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and Idayan and Konar in Tamil Nadu. There are also several sub-regional names such as Thetwar and Rawat in Madhya Pradesh, and Mahakul (Great Family) in Bihar.

M.S.A Rao further states that the Allahabad iron pillar inscription of Samudragupta (fourth century A.D) mentions the Abhiras as one of the tribal states of west and south west India, who paid homage to the emperor (churn, 1943:81). A fourth century (A.D) inscription found in Nashik speaks of an Abhira king, and there is proof that in the middle of the fourth century the Abhiras were settled in eastern Rajputana and Malwa. Similarly, when the Kathis arrived in Gujarat in the eighth century, they found the greater part of the country in the possession of the Ahirs. The Mirzapur district of the United Provinces has a tract known as Ahraura, named after the Ahir, and near Jhansi, another piece of country was called Ahirwar. The Ahirs were also kings of Nepal at the beginning of the Christian era. Khandesh and the Tapti valley were other regions where they were kings.

This indicates that the Abhiras, who rose to political prominence in the second century B.C., had a chequered political career until the fourteenth century A.D when their importance was over-shadowed by the Mughals, but even during the Mughal period the Ahir and Golla rajahs were a power to be reckoned with. The Gawlis rose to political power in Deogarh, on the Chhindwara Plateau in the central provinces. The Saugar traditions trace the Gawli supremacy to a much later date, as the tracts of Etawa and Khurai are held to have been governed by chieftains till the close of the seventeenth century (Russell, 1916:II, 20).

History of Ahir Kingdoms

Temple of Radha and Krishna in Barsana, Mathura. Yadavs/Ahirs go there for blessings.

Ahir kings ruled territory of the present-day India and beyond. At the beginning of the Christian era (CE), the invading Scythians and Kushans forced most of the Ahirs to lower Rajasthan in the Arbuda (Aravali region). In Marubhumi (Marwar), Saurashtra and Maharashtra areas, they served the local rulers and established their own rule. Ahirs laid the foundation of Ahir Batak town, which was called Ahrora and was located in Central provinces, and Ahirwar in Jhansi district in 108 CE. Rudramurti Ahir became the chief of the army and later on the King. Madhuriputra, Ishwarsen and Shivdutta were well-known kings of this lineage. Ishwarsena, a great Ahir general, became master of Western Deccan in place of the famous Satavahanas. He took the title of Rajan and an era was named after him. His descendants continued to rule for nine generations. This generation of Abhira kings ruled for 167 years till last of them was ousted by their Traikutaka feudatory in AD 415.[35] It is generally supposed that Traikutika were a different dynasty of Abhira[36][37], and hence are sometimes called Abhira-Traikutika.[38] Indradutta, Dahrasena & Vyaghrasena were well known kings from this dynasty.[39] Traikutikas were known for their Vaishnava faith, who claimed to be Yadav of Haiheya branch[40] and Dahrasena performed Ashvamedha yajna too[41] Abhira Era started by Ishwarsena in AD 249, continued with them and was called Abhira-Traikutika era[42]. This era was later continued by Kalachuri Dynasty, calling it Kalachuri era, and later Kalachuri-Chedi era[43]. After the rule of five traikuta kings, they retired to central provinces and assumed the name Haiyhaya (Chedi) and Kalachuri[44]. Historians call this entire era as Abhira-Traikutika-Kalachuri-Chedi era[45]

In a cave inscription at Nashik, references were made to an Ahir prince named Ishwersena, son of Shivdutta. Another inscription, found at Gunda and dated 181 CE, in the reign of the Kshatrapa Rudrasinha, described his general Rudrabhuti, who was called Ahir. When the kathis arrived in Gujarat, they found the greater part of the country controlled by Ahirs. The old fort Asirgarh(short of Asa Ahir Garh), in Khandesh, retains the name of its founder Asa Ahir. For centuries the Ahirs were eclipsed as a political power in Haryana until the time of the Pratihara dynasty. Ahirs ruled the whole of Haryana under the Mogul rule and later were declared as independent kings. Vātsyāyana also noted the Abhira kingdoms in the Kama Sutra.
Ahirs also ruled beyond the geographical borders of present-day India, as kings of the hilly terrain of Nepal. Eight kings of the first Ahir dynasty ruled Nepal, the first being Bhuktaman and the last Yaksha Gupta. Owing to pastoral disputes, this dynasty was replaced by another Ahir dynasty. The second Ahir dynasty had a succession of three kings: Badasimha, Jaymati Simha, and Bhuban Simha. Their rule ended when the Kirati invaders defeated Bhuban Simha.

Ahir Kings

  • Rudramurti Ahir [46]
  • Madhuriputra (mingled with rajputs) [47]
  • Samudragupta [48][49]
  • Ishwarsena (Western Deccan)
  • Shivdutta [49]
  • Indranigupta (a.k.a Sudraka)
  • Bhuktaman (Nepal)[50]
  • Jaya Gupta (Nepal)[51]
  • Param Gupta (Nepal)
  • Harsha Gupta (Nepal)
  • Bhim Gupta (Nepal)
  • Vishnu Gupta (Nepal)
  • Jaya Gupta II (Nepal)
  • Yaksha Gupta (Nepal)[50]
  • Vishva Gupta (Nepal)
  • Bhumi Gupta (Nepal)
  • Jishnu Gupta (Nepal, His inscription reads Kshatriya of the Lunar Dynasty, Somavansa Bhushana)[52]
  • Badasimha
  • Jaymati Simha
  • Virsen (Jalgaon)[53][54]
  • Bhuban Simha [46]
  • Mandalika (Ruler of Somnath)

Ahir Raj in Rewari

A majority of Ahirs occupy the Rewari Thesil of Gurgaon district. When Shershah Suri fought against the Mughal chief Humayun, the Ahir ‘Khap’ helped Humayun under the leadership of Rao Rura Singh. When Humayun occupied the throne of Delhi again, he made Rao Rura Singh the Chief of a Pargana. The Head Quarters of the Pargana was named Rewari. During the reign of Mughals, the Ahir State continued as an ally, and Rao Tej Singh made a name with them. In 1803 Lord Lake reduced the power and position of the Mughals and captured the Ahir State, then ruled by Puran Singh. Rao Tula Ram was born in 1825. He took over at age 13 after Rao Puran Singh died. Rao Tula Ram was ambitious, increasing his power and territory. Raja Mahar Singh of Balabgarh was the administrator and defender of Delhi during the mutiny of 1857. Rao Raja Tula Ram was active in the areas of Rewari and Narnaul, where he roundly defeated the British.

When the forces of Jaipur, Patiala, Jind and Kapurthala arrived to help the British, Rao Tula Ram had to leave Rewari, Kanund, and Narnaul. He made an alliance with Scindia and Tatiya Tope to continue fighting. A conference of the revolutionaries was called and Rao Raja Tula Ram was appointed to seek help from foreign countries. Rao Tula Ram reached the shore in disguise. He went to Basra by sea, where he met with the Russian envoy and Khedive, and went on to Iran. Although the government gave him a royal reception, they did not commit forces to his aid. After that, Rao Tula Ram wen to Kabul and struggled for six years. He raised a united army of Pathans and Indian revolutionaries. He died before returning to India. The Emir of Kabul sent his ashes to Rewari with two Sardars.[55]

In 1150, Vighararaja IV, a Chauhan from Rajasthan, forced the people to become his feudal vassals. In 1181 they were defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan, but only after they had put up a tough resistance.

Some scholars seek ethnic connections between the Yadav and Jews. According to Stephen Knapp, the Greeks referred to the Jews as Judeos, or Jah deos or Yadavas, meaning people of Ya or descendants of Yadu, one of the sons of Yayati. In his book The Holy Kabbalah, Arthur Edward Waite linked the mystical work with the Vedas. That Yadavas were possessors of great mystical knowledge was described in the Bhagvad Gita. It said the same knowledge was given to Manu (first man on earth), Surya and Ikshavaku (ancestor of Lord Rama) in ancient times. The Abhira were believed to be a link between eastern and western religions. There are compelling proofs of both Mauryan and Guptas being Abhirs.[56][57]

The Kshatriya religion was propounded by Krishna,[58][59][60] and no reference was found before him.[61] We only find Rajnya as the term alternatively used for it (Bhagwad Gita is a reduced form of hidden knowledge— Gope —which has its root in Shiva). Later on, many Kshatriyas were founded on the philosophy of yadavanshis, as revealed in the Bhagavad Gita.[60] [62]

Ahirs of Delhi NCR

For centuries the Ahirs were eclipsed as a political power in Haryana until the time of the Pratihara dynasty. In time they became independent rulers of Southwest Haryana. Although the Ahirs and Yadavas form one group, the former are an important community of Haryana, but numerically they constitute less than 10% of the total population. Most of them live in the region around Behror,Alwar,Rewari, Narnaul, Mahendragarh and Gurgaon which is therefore known as Ahirwal or the abode of Ahirs.Ahirs synonyms are Yadav and Rao Sahab. Rao Sahab is only used in Ahirwal region consisting of territories of few villages of Delhi, Southern Haryana & Behrod area of Alwar district (Rajasthan). Ahir's of this region are mainly in armed forces.


This area starts from South of Delhi to South west of Haryana and east of Rajasthan areas include Gurgaon till Alwar in Rajasthan.The modern day Gurgaon city has more than 40 Yadav villages where they are also nicknamed as Rao or Rao Sahab.Thousands of Gurgaon and Manesar Yadav villagers are millionaires today after selling their agricultural land to private builders.[63][64] Some of the famous Yadav dominated villages in Ahirwal are:-

Delhi has Haiderpur, Rajokri,Madipur,Surehra,Samaypur,Badli,Najafgarh,Todapur,Khaira,Sakarpur,Gudhana and Kapashera etc.

Gurgaon has Wazirabad,Samaspur,Kanhai,Badshapur,Noorpur,Islampur,Sukhrali,Hyatpur,Shilokhra,Tikri,Teekli,Sahraul,Khedki Daula,Fazilpur,Sikohpur,Nathupur,Chakkarpur,Sikanderpur,Nawada,Mohmmadpur,,Dundahera,Iqbalpur,Smalkha,Bamdoli,Mirpur,Sashand,amd Manesar etc.

Noida has Sarfabad,Chaukhandi,Zahilabad,Partha,Sorkhla,Naharpur etc.however it has more of Gujjar villages[65][66]

Ahirs of Gujarat

Kachchh (Kutch) District, State of Gujarat

There is a great concentration of Ahirs in Kutch: of the 18 million Ahirs in India about 300,000 live in Kutch.[67] There are four main castes of Ahirs in Kutch: Prantharia, Mochhaya, Baureecha and Sorathia. These communities are mainly of farmers who once sold milk and ghee but who now have diversified their businesses because of the irregularity of rain. Their mother tongue is Gujrati.[68]

Ahir/Jhadhavs of Maharashtra

Daulatabad Fort -- Devagiri (Deogiri).

The Seuna, Sevuna or Yadava dynasty (850 - 1334) was an Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Tungabhadra to the Narmada rivers, including present-day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh, from its capital at Devagiri (present-day Daulatabad in Maharashtra).

Pune under Yadav Dynasty

With the downfall of the Rashtrakutas which ruled Pune from the 8th century AD to the middle of the 10th century.It went under the control of the Yadavs.The Yadavs ruled Maharashtra from 10th century AD to the end of the 13th century. Singhania, the Yadav ruler was a lover of literature and art. Sant Dnyaneshwar, a Bhakti saint lived during this period. The Yadav rule came to an end with the coming of Ala-ud-din Khilji.

Society and regions

Khatushyamji in Sikar Rajastan Ahirs of north India visit this temple.

Ahir community is known to produce best of the military jawans, wrestlers and agriculturists. The Ahir’s preserve their associations with the country lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna. In many districts like Badaun, Etah, Mainpuri, Southern Haryana, northern Madhya Pradesh and eastern Rajasthan, the Ahir’s are still in a majority. Ahir’s also form a majority in various districts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, including Azamgarh and Madhepura. In medieval times the Ahir’s gave up their arms and took to agriculture. In early British settlement reports they are spoken of highly as farmers. They stand on an equal footing with the Rajput and Jats in the caste hierarchy, but though they eat with them, they do not intermarry. In appearance, they proclaim their Aryan descent. They are tall and wiry, have dark eyes, long noses, black hair and their complexion varies from wheatish to dark brown. Though mostly agriculturists, they also make good soldiers. Ahir’s have been serving the Indian military right from the British period and won the highest of gallantry awards like Victoria Cross and the Param Veer Chakra. In the annals of Indian military history there is sufficient proof of Ahir bravery that is immortalized in the ballads of Alah and Udal of Bundelkhand.

As Jhansi was known for a long time as Ahirwada (land of Ahir’s). People from Ahirwada also known as Ahirwar/Aharwar, Ahirwar are living in different regions of India from Jhansi to Mathura, Delhi, Ahmedabada, Agra region.

Some of the major groups derived from the principal professions they follow or the crafts they practice, for example, the cattle-breeding group takes the significant name of Gawli, derived from a Sanskrit word for cow. The names of the shepherd castes seem to be derived from words meaning sheep. Such is at least the case with Gadaria from 'gadar', on old Hindi word for sheep. Many others of these major groups called castes bear merely tribal or ethic names. Such are for example: Arora, Gujjar, Lohana, Bhatia, Meena, Bhil, Dom, Oraon,Munda, Santal, Koch, Ahir, Mahar, Nayar, Maratha,Gond, Khond, etc.[69] The computed genetic distance matrix shows diversity of Ahirs with the Gujars.This shows that Gujars are different from other communities such as Yadavs(Ahirs).[70]


Ahirs are usually tall ,slim have broad shoulders and have big round eyes,however their complexion and physical built varies from place to place ahirs of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan are fair to wheatish in complexion are tall and are well built as this area is rich and fertile. However appearances in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar varies from place to place as some parts of Uttar pradesh and most parts of Bihar are poor hence less fertile land leads to malnutrition. Ahirs of Bihar and Uttar pradesh are either tall or short in height their complexion varies from wheatish to dark brown however they too have big eyes and broad shoulders. Ahirs of Madhya pradesh and Maharastara and Gujarat are medium in height and their complexion is again wheatish.


Although the Abhiras constituted a distinct ethnic group, they spoke diverse regional dialects. The language of the Ahirs was known as Ahirani in Khandesh, resembling Marathi. While the Ahirs of Kathiawad and Kachh have a dialect which resembles Gujarathi (Bhandarkar, 1911:17). Abhira bhasha is in fact considered to be Apabhransha. In the ninth century B.C., it had become the language of the people, and was spoken from Saurashtra, and Shastri (1967) proves that poetry was composed in the language around the sixth century B.C. Suryavamsi (1962:14-15) mentions the following two dialects in addition to the ones above--Gaddi, which is currently the dialect spoken in Gadderan, on the outskirts of the Chamba and Kangra hills, and Gandi, spoken in some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Abhiri as a dialect has been recorded by Sanskrit poets such as Bharata and Dandin. Yadav (1916:15), notes that the dialect the people of Ahirwal in Haryana speak, has a resemblance to Rajasthani, and Grierson (1916:9) considers Ahirwati a branch of eastern Rajasthani and western Hindi.

Political influence

Through numerous political parties such as the Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Republic), Janata Dal the Yadavs have considerable political influence, especially in the North Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.[71] Laloo Yadav became the chief minister of Bihar and Mulayam Singh in UP and in Madhya Pradesh Subhash Yadav became the Deputy chief minister for two terms. Arun Subhash Yadav became the Centre Minister of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises. Siddaramaiah became the Deputy chief minister for two terms. Rao Birender Singh became the chief minister of Haryana and his son Rao Inderjit Singh became Minister of State of External Affairs and Defence. Bharm Prakash Yadav was the first chief minister of Delhi.

Martydom for Mother India

Naik Gulab Singh Yadav got Vir Chakra
Yogendra Singh Yadav got Param Veer Chakra
Umrao Singh got The prestigious Victoria Cross, awarded for exceptional valour "in the face of the enemy".

The Ahir/Yadav community has served the Indian armed and defense forces and laid down their lives to safeguard India. Some prominent battles fought by Ahir soldiers are the Indo-China war, the kargil war,[72][73] Akshardham[74][75], and Parliament attacks.[76]

During the Burma Campaign of the Second World war, Havaldar Umrao Singh,[77][78] a gunner, won the Victoria Cross; which is a world–wide symbol of the recognition of the highest form of bravery in the face of the enemy; in hand to hand combat with the Japanese infantry, when its do or die squads raided his gun position, in the Kaladan Valley. He killed ten of them with his bare hands armed only with the gun bearer (a heavy metallic tool) they found him exhausted and bleeding in the morning but still alive amidst a pile of Japanese corpses littered around the gun, which, remarkably, was found to be still fit for immediate firing.

In the Indo-China War of 1962, the Ahirs (almost all of them from the Ahirwal region of Southern Haryana) of 13 Kumaon Regiment set an unparallel example in the military history of Aryavart by defending their position at Rezang La in Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. The battle of Rezang La, a ridge overlooking the strategic Chushul plains in Ladakh, to defend the highest air strip in the world located at 16,000 feet — just across the Chinese claim line — is a chapter in the history of the Indian army which has been compared by some Indian military historians with the famed Battle of Thermopylae [79]. In the final phase of the Indo-China War of 1962, where Indian units typically offered little resistance while being routed by attacking PLA forces, the Ahir Charlie Company from 13 Kumaon Regiment, set a rare example of raw courage, bravery and dedication by literally fighting to the last man. Of the 120 defenders, only four survived, all seriously wounded. The dead bodies of those who died were discovered after the winter, frozen, mostly holding their weapons but with no ammunition. According to some accounts, several jawans, having run out of ammunition, came out of the pickets and charged the enemy with bare hands. Lance Naik Ram Singh killed several Chinese soldiers after lifting and hitting them against the rocks. It is also believed that these jawans inflicted heavy casualties on the attackers. Of the 120 soldiers, 114 were Yadavas from Ahirwal region of Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi.

On this horrific battle, Major-General Ian Cardozo, in his book Param Vir, Our Heroes In Battle writes, “When Rezang La was later revisited dead jawans were found in the trenches still holding on to their weapons... every single man of this company was found dead in his trench with several bullet or splinter wounds. The 2-inch mortar man died with a bomb still in his hand. The medical orderly had a syringe and bandage in his hands when the Chinese bullet hit him... Of the thousand mortar bombs with the defenders all but seven had been fired and the rest were ready to be fired when the (mortar) section was overrun.”

General T.N. Raina said, "You rarely come across such example in the annals of world military history when braving such heavy odds, the men fought till the last bullet and the last man. Certainly the Battle of Rezang La is such a shining example."

General K S Thimayya remarked, "I had said many years ago that the Army must have a Ahir Regiment. The supreme sacrifice of the Charlie Company has fulfilled my expectations. I hope a suitable memorial will be built in Ahirwal in their memory so that the generations to come may seek inspiration from the immense courage and valour of their forefathers."

The heroes who were awarded the Vir Chakra in 1962 defending Rezang La were Jamadar Surja, Jamadar Hari Ram, Naik Hukum Chand (posthumous), Naik Gulab Singh Yadav, Lance-Naik Singh Ram (posthumous), Subedar Ram Kumar and Subedar Ram Chander. All were from the Ahirwal region. [62][77][80]

A small memorial for the dead soldiers in Rezang La reads:

How can a man die better,
Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers,
And temples of his gods.
To the sacred memory of the Heroes of Rezang La,
114 Martyrs of 13 Kumaon who fought to the Last Man,
Last Round, Against Hordes of Chinese on 18 November 1962.
Built by All Ranks 13th Battalion, The Kumaon Regiment.

Muslim Aheers of Pakistan

The Aheer in Punjab speak Jhangochi and Seraiki, while those in Sindh speak Sindhi. Found principally in Khushab, Bhakkar, Mianwali, Jhang, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Chiniot, Khanewal,Rahim Yar Khan Districts of Punjab, Pakistan.

Their main villages in Chiniot District are Chak 142J.B (Aheeran), Chak 235JB (Haiboana), Langrana and Mouza Lodhran. In Jhang District the main village is Chak 410 JB (Aheeranwala). In Sargodha district Aheer are found mainly near Sahiwal, where there are several villages. In Mianwali District there are many villages of Aheers, most notable: Aheeranwala, Aba Khel, Ahheranwala, Jandanwala and Wandhi Aheeranwali near Pai-Khel. In Khanewal District they are found in Kabirwala and near Qadirpur Raan. Also found in Khushab District. In Khusab they are in large numbers along with Tiwanas and Awans and are quite active in the politics, and found mainly in Mohallah Aheeranwla in main Khushab city and in satellite town Jouharabad. The most influential are the aheers of the Khusab district. Their main villages in Khushab are Aheerpur and Rakh Baghoor.

The tribe is also found in Larkana District and Qambar Shahdadkot district of Sindh province of Pakistan. In Mandi-bha-ud-din district Tehsil Malakwal there is a famous village of Aheer family Chak 7 (Aheeranwala).

Variations in Caste status

B. P. Mandal statue in Patna, Bihar [3]

In 300 BC ahirs refused to accept brahmanism they were diplomaticlly given the second place among kshatriyas and so brahmans favored those aryan kshatriyas who accepted their hegemony and allowed them to play a role in the politics to rule the kingdoms i.e. brahmanical system in society. Ahirs were later renounced as shudras by brahmans, shudras varna was developed by brahmins to punish tyrannical kshatriyas.[81][82] Around 320 BC after the invasion and retreat of Alexander of Greek empire in the north west plains of India from failure of his army to fight the various small kingdoms of India. Chandragupta Maurya of Maurya tribe (a branch of yadus) with the help of brahman (chankya) who had defeated the Magadha brahmans against bulk army of chandravanshi aryans and destroyed the currupt Brahmanical system flourishing in the maghad also defeated generals of Alexander settled in gandhara (Kamboja kingdom of aryan mahajanpad) which is called as Afghanistan now. Chandragupta later adopted the Buddhist way of life.

All groups included in the Ahir category belonged to the “clean castes”, though their actual status varied from area to area. The Ahirs of Delhi, Punjab and parts of UP had a status equal to that of Rajput and Jats with whom, according to Rao, they shared commensual relations. In places where the Ahirs were owner-cultivators they ranked immediately after Brahmins but where they were small owner-cultivators or tenants (and Thakurs, the main landowning group), they moved lower down the caste hierarchy.

To improve their status, Ahirs at the turn of the century not only began to claim Kshatriya status but also to adopt Arya Samaj practices in a big way. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar witnessed widespread jenevo movements in the first two decades of the 20th century as Ahirs began to don the sacred thread in accordance with Arya Samaj practices. These years also saw the sprouting of Arya mandirs, pracharaks, priests and schools in many parts of India.

This was accompanied by major changes in the life-style of the Ahirs. They began to follow Vedic life cycle ceremonies conducted by Arya priests. There was renewed emphasis on their Kshatriya identity and their links with Lord Krishna. Yadavs/Ahirs emerged as major protectors of cattle and the celebration of Janmashtmi (Krishna’s birthday) became a major event in their social and religious life.

Ahirs all over the country were quick to respond to the forces of change unleashed by British rule. At the opening of the century itself their regional associations concerned themselves with establishing educational institutions and seeking modern employment opportunities for their castemen. In Punjab, western UP, and Madhya Pradesh,Ahirs turned mainly to the army for employment. In Punjab they even petitioned the government in the 1880’s for recruitment of Ahirs into the army.

All-India Yadav (Ahir) Mahasabha

The emergence of an English-educated elite among the Yadavs led to the formation of the All-India Yadava Mahasabha in 1923 in Allahabad. The AIYM immediately engaged itself in two issues. It appealed to its castemen in all regions to add “Yadav” to their names and at the same time launched on a major programme of social reform. The regional organisation of the Gollas of Hyderabad, the Hyderabad Rashtra Yadav Mahajana Samajam, for example, appealed to the Census Commission that their caste names of Golla, Gowli, Gollawar and Ahir be changed to Yadava.[83]

All India Yadav Mahasabha is also pressing Indian government for the formation of Yadav regiment in Indian Army after they showed their bravery in the 1965 Indo-China war. In 1966 the AIYM held its annual conference in Etawa, with Mulayam Singh Yadav as chairman of the reception committee and Rao Birender Singh the scion of the Rewari dynasty as president.[84] [85] [86] After Independence, the Yadavs have emerged as the leaders of the other backward classes. Prof. Rao’s study of the Yadava elite in the various states (based on the members and supporters of the All India Yadav Sabha and not on those of the rival All India Yadav Mahasabha) reveals the growth of varied business and professional groups within the caste category. Heading the list are businessmen who comprise roughly 21 per cent of the elite. They include dairy owners, contractors, tobacco and timber merchants, wholesale grass dealers, owners of engineering firms and other industries as well as restaurant owners. They are followed by the large farmers who comprise around 21 per cent of the Yadav elite. Politicians (MPs, MLAs, ministers, municipal councillors, district board members, office-bearers of political parties) constitute 17 percent of the elite and school and college teachers, doctors, lawyers and engineers together another 20 percent.[87]

Notable Ahirs

Krishna being carried over river Yamuna by Vasudeva just after his birth on Janmashtami
Born Ramkishan Yadav
Yogendra Singh Yadav
Yogendra Singh Yadav.jpg
Arun Gawli

  • Dr. Narpal Singh Rao, Former Chairman & Dean (UCCMS) Mohanlal Sukhadia ,university
  • Dr. Yadu Rao, Asst. Professor, GMGC, Udaipur
  • Divya Jayesh, Founder of www.ahircommunity.com, Founder of www.proudindian.in, a known Web Developer
  • Rao Tula Ram, ruler of Rewari (Haryana), fought Britishers during the revolt of 1857
  • Dr. Ram Baran Yadav, President of Nepal
  • Lalu Prasad Yadav, former Chief Minister of Bihar, former Railway Minister
  • Rao Balbir Singh, King of Rewari (Haryana)
  • Ekta Choudhry, She is grand daughter of Delhi’s First chief minister “Mr. Chaudhary BRAHM PRAKASH YADAV.[88][89]
  • Pran Sukh Yadav, fought along with Rao Tula Ram Yadav at Nasibpur
  • B.P. Mandal, former Chief Minister, Bihar and Chairman of Mandal Commission
  • Rao Birender Singh, former Chief Minister, Haryana
  • Chaudhary Brahm Prakash Yadav, first Chief Minister of Delhi
  • Mulayam Singh Yadav, former Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh. President of Samajvadi Party
  • Daroga Prasad Rai, former Chief Minister, Bihar
  • Siddaramaiah, former deputy Chief Minister of Karnataka
  • Ram Naresh Yadav, former Chief Minister, Uttar Pradesh
  • Babulal Gaur, former Chief Minister, Madhya Pradesh
  • Chandrajeet Yadav, Former Minister, Govt. of India
  • Subhash Yadav, Former Deputy Chief Minister, Madhya Pradesh
  • Arun Subhash Yadav, Minister of State, Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, Govt. of India,2009
  • Sharad Yadav, President JD (U), Member of Lok Sabha, former Union Minister
  • Akhilesh Singh Yadav, Member of Lok Sabha, son of Mulayam Singh Yadav
  • Rao Inderjit Singh, Member of Lok Sabha, former Minister
  • Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav, Param Vir Chakra recipient, Kargil War
  • Capt. Umrao Singh, Victoria Cross recipient, World War II, Burma Front
  • Havaldar Namdev Jadav, Victoria Cross recipient, World War II
  • Brigadier Rai Singh, Maha Vir Chakra recipient
  • Ahir Vikrambhai Arjanbhai Madam, MP from Jamnagar
  • Dr. Karan Singh Yadav, Veteran Heart Sergeon and former Member of Parliament, Alwar
  • Dr. Brijendra Kumar Rao, first Yadav recipient of Padma Bhushan from Haryana. Chairman of Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi
  • Dr. Sudha Yadav, former Member of Lok Sabha, Mahendragarh, Haryana
  • Devendra Prasad Yadav, MP from Bihar.
  • Ram Kripal Yadav, MP from Bihar.
  • Ram Gopal Yadav, MP, from Sambhal, UP. General Secretary of Samajwadi Party.
  • D.P. Yadav, former Member of Parliament, known gangster from Ghaziabad
  • Gajendra Prasad Himanshu, Ex Deputy Speaker/Minister, Bihar
  • Kannappan, M.L.A and former PWD Minister of Tamil Nadu
  • Bandaru Dattatreya, Ex min of govt of India, Andhra Pradesh.
  • Arun Gawli, known gangster and founder of Akhil Bharatiya Sena
  • Pran Sukh Yadav, Military commander in Anglo-Sikh war
  • Panne Lal Yadav, Wrestler
  • Hemulal Yadav, Cricketer
  • Jai Prakash Yadav, Cricketer
  • Jyoti Yadav, Cricketer
  • Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav, India's first individual Olympic medalist
  • Shivlal Yadav, Cricket player
  • Vijay Yadav, Cricket player
  • Simhachalam, Billiards & Snooker player of Andhra Pradesh and also an international referee in Billiards
  • Santosh Yadav, Mountaineer, Only lady to have climbed "Mount Everest" twice.
  • Rajendra Yadav, Hindi novelist and editor of "HANS"
  • Anand Yadav, Marathi writer
  • Parbhu Dayal Yadav, Artisan
  • Poonam Yadav, Singer, UP
  • Dibang,TV Journalist, NDTV
  • Rai Saheb Prof. Parmanand, Secretary of UP board for high school and intermediate education in 1940's
  • Ekta Chaudhary, Miss India universe 2009
  • Raghubir Yadav, Bollywood actor
  • Rajpal Yadav, Bollywood actor
  • Madhavi, well known South Indian Actress
  • Narsing Yadav, Telugu actor
  • Arjun Sarja, South Indian Hero, Director and Producer
  • Vijay Yadav, Telugu TV actor
  • Sasikumar, Tamil actor and director
  • Parul Yadav, Telugu Actress
  • Dwij Yadav, child actor
  • Shivram Yadav
  • Mayur Yadav
  • Manisha Yadav, Top most popular contestant of Miss India 2008
  • Upasana Singh, Top most popular contestant of Mrs India 2009
  • Paravai Muniyamma -Artiste and singer of Tamil village songs
  • Kallapaddi Sinkaram, Tamil Flim Actor
  • Senthamarai, Tamil Flim Actor
  • Yadav Kant Silwal
  • Yadav Pant, Nepalese economist and politician
  • Yadava College
  • Yadukush
  • Hansraj Gangaram Ahir
  • Ahir Vikrambhai Arjanbhai Madam
  • Ahir Bhairav
  • Ahir Rajsinhbhai Virabhia Jotava, first M.L.A. of Somnath- Veraval
  • Vasanbhai Ahir, M.L.A. of Bhuj-Kutch Minister of Social welfe Gujarat govt.
  • Kanubhai Kalsariya, M.L.A. Mahuva. Dist: Bhavanagar, Gujarat
  • Mulubhai Bera, M.L.A. Bhanvad. Dist: Jamanagar, Gujarat
  • Dhanabhai Mandabhai Barad
  • Baghwanbhai Dhanabhai Barad, M.L.A. Talalagir. Dist: Junagadh, Gujarat
  • Jasubhai Dhanabhai Barad, Ex minister Gujarat govt. Ex MP- Junagadh
  • Manzoor Ahmed Aheer, Muslim Sindhi Pakistani Unionist, General Secretary Peoples Employees Union CBA Sindh and Chairman of All Government Employees Alliance Sindh.
  • seth b. heeraman singh yadav sando westerler nizam state now hyderabad A.P. INDIA
  • Santosh yadav Cricket player RANJI Hyderabad
  • Govindbhai Kangad, President, All India Yadav Mahasabha, (Gujarat region)
  • Gautam Kangad, BJP leader, Rajkot rural (Gujarat)
  • Uday Kangad, ex-Mayor and Senior BJP leader, Rajkot municipal Corporation (RMC), Guajarat.
  • Aapa Devayat Bodar, War Hero in 1100 A.D.
  • Jadav Dangar, War Hero from Talaja 1150 A.D.
  • Bhimsinh Garaniya, War Hero in Bhavnagar 1000 A.D.
  • Reshmiya Vala, historical figure 1000 A.D. for reference read Saurashtra ni Rasdhar & Sorthi Baharvatiya by Jhaverchand Meghani

See also


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  2. ^ The Ethnographical Survey of Bombay, Page 2
  3. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume 9, Part 1, p. 264
  4. ^ http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_16.html
  5. ^ Population geography: a journal of the Association of Population ..., Volume 10 By Association of population Geographers of India, page no 2
  6. ^ Haryana,By Sukhdev Singh Chib, Page no. 3
  7. ^ Earthquakes in ancient India
  8. ^ c. South India. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
  9. ^ Genealogies
  10. ^ The Sunday Tribune - Spectrum - "Art and Soul"
  11. ^ The image is based on reconstruction by Norman J. Finkelshteyn of an image from an 8th-century ewer found at Nagyszentmiklos in Transylvania (original here). some scholars regard the image as that of a Khazar warrior.
  12. ^ According to Ibbetson, Bingley & Joon (Famous Historians),The Ethnographical Survey of Bombay, Page no.4[1][2]
  13. ^ Ancient Indian Historical Tradition By F.E. Pargiter, page no. 122
  14. ^ a b http://www.everyculture.com/South-Asia/Ahir.html
  15. ^ a b c Nepal Before Unification
  16. ^ K. S. Singh, B. V. Bhanu, B. R. Bhatnagar, "Maharashtra", in Anthropological Survey of India, D. K. Bose. pg 1526
  17. ^ Eyre and Spottiswoode, Report on the Census of British India taken on the 17th February 1881, London, p. 326
  18. ^ The tribes and castes of Bombay, Volume 1 By Reginald Edward Enthoven, Page no. 27
  19. ^ Bhagwan singh Suryavanshi, Abhira their history & culture (MS University Archaelogy, & Ancient History Series, No.6)xvi, 119pp., Maharaja Siyajirao, university of Baroda, 1962
  20. ^ Krishna-cult in Indian art By Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya, Page No. 126
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  27. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam, "Canto 2", Chapter 4, Verse 18
  28. ^ Indian Kāvya literature, Part 1 By A. K. Warder, Page no. 64
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