Ahmad Raza Khan: Wikis

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Dargah Aala Hazrat
Ahmad Raza Khan
Full name Ahmad Raza Khan
Born 14 June 1856[1]
Died 1921
Era Modern era
Region India
School Hanafi, Sufism
Main interests Aqeedah, Fiqh, Tasawwuf
Notable ideas Love of Holy Prophet, hot dialogues with other Muslim groups over religious issues

Ahmed Raza Khan or Ala Hazrat, "Fazil-e-Barelvi" was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Ala Hazrat has been recognized as the great Mujaddid of the 19th century. He has written many books on a vast range of topics covering religion, science and philosophy. A collection of fatwas by the title of Fatawa Ridawiyya, is his magna carta.

Imam Ahmad Raza followed Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa in Fiqh & Gaus-e-Azam Shiekh Abdul Qadir Jilani in Spiritualism.

He is referred to in India and Pakistan with titles as Aaqa-e-Ne'mat, Parwana-e-Sham'ma-e-Risalat, and et cetera.

Contents

Early life & Education

Ahmad Raza Khan was born on 14 June 1856 (1272 AH) in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh. His mother named him Amman Miyan, father Ahmad Miyan while his grandfather named Ahmad Raza[2]; he used to use the appellation Abdul Mustafa prior to signing his name in correspondence. (Abdu'l Mustafa means slave of Mustafa/Mohammed)[3]

He studied Islamic sciences and completed a traditional dars-e nizami course under the supervision and tutelage of his father Naqi Áli Khan.

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan studied some books of Urdu and Persian from Mirza Ghulam Qadir Beg. He also learnt acquired knowledge from Abdul Ali of Rampuri (d. 1885). He learnt 21 subjects from his respected father, Naqi Ali Khan (d. 1880). Besides, he was also taught by his Spiritual Guide, Shah Al-i-Rasùl of Marehrah Sharif (d. 1879) and H.H.Abul Husayn Nùri of Marehra Sharif (d. 1906).

Teachers of Imam Ahmad Raza[4]
1- Imam Ahmad Raza received his education from his father, Maulana Naqi Ali Khan & various other teachers.
2- He learnt a few books of urdu & Persian from Mirza Ghulam Qadir Baig Bareilvi (d-1883 AD)
3- He also learnt a little from Maulana Abdul Ali Rampuri (d-1885 AD)
4- Besides them, he was also taught by his saintly guide His holiness Shah Aale- Rasool Marehravi (d 1879 AD)
5- He also learnt some formulae of Jafr (Numerology & literology) from his guide's grand son shah Abul Hussain Noori Marehravi ( d 1906 AD)

Imam Ahmad Raza was comferred certificates of Hadith & Jurisprudence (Ijaza) by the following Ulama :- 1- Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad bin Zain Dahlan (d 1881 A.D.)
2- Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Rahman Siraj Makkih (d-1883 A.D)
3- Hazrat Shaikh Hussain bin Saleh (d 1884 A.D)

At the age of 18 (1874 AD) he was married & his noble son Maulana Hamid Raza Khan was born in 1875 A.D.

Intellectual and literary achievements

Islam in India


Jama Masjid Delhi.JPG


History

Architecture

Mughal · Indo-Islamic · Indo-Saracenic

Major figures

Moinuddin Chishti  · Shah Waliullah
Ahmad Raza Khan
Sayyed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
Shah Ahmad Noorani Siddiqi
Syed Faiz-ul Hassan Shah

Communities

Northern · Mappilas · Tamil
Konkani · Marathi · Vora Patel
Memons · North-Eastern · Kashmiris
Hyderabadi · Dawoodi Bohras · Khoja
Oriya · Nawayath · Bearys · The Saits
Meo · Sunni Bohras
Kayamkhani · Bengali

Schools of law

Hanafi · Shafi`i · Maliki · Hanbali

Schools of thought

Barelvi · Deobandi · Ahle Hadith

Mosques in India

List of mosques in India

Culture

Muslim culture of Hyderabad

Islamic Universities

Jamia Millia Islamia
Aligarh Muslim University
Jamia Nizamia
Aliah University

Other topics

Ahle Sunnat Movement in South Asia
Indian Muslim nationalism
Muslim chronicles for Indian history
Jamaat-e-Islami Hind B.S. Abdur Rahman University Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim

Part of a series on
Sunni Islam

Sunni.PNG

أهل السنة والجماعة‎


Beliefs

Monotheism
Prophethood & Messengership
Holy BooksAngels
Judgement DayPredestination


Pillars

Declaration of FaithPrayer
CharityFastingPilgrimage


Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu BakrUmar ibn al-Khattab
Uthman ibn AffanAli ibn Abi Talib


Schools of Law (Shariah)

HanafiShafi`iMalikiHanbaliAhl-e-Hadith


Schools of Theology

AthariMaturidiAsh'ari


Hadith Collections

Sahih BukhariSahih Muslim
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan Abu Dawood
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Sunan ibn MajaAl-Muwatta
Sunan al-Darami

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Translation of Quran

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan has translated the Quran into Urdu first published in 1912 under the title of Kanzul Iman fi Tarjuma al-Qur’an.

Main specialty of Kanzul Iman is Imam Ahmad Raza preserved the high status of Allah & his Messenger in the translation.

Kanzul Imam was actually dictated by Imam Ahmad Raza to his beloved student Sadrush Sharia Amjad Ali Azmi, who later compiled it and got it published.

Recently Golden Jubilee of Compilation of Kanzul Imam was celebrated across India like Bhadravati, (Karnataka) & Rajastan.

The original manuscript is preserved in the library of “Idara Tahqiqat-i-Imam Ahmad Raza”, Karachi.

Many scholars managed and complied dozen books on the comparative study of "Kanz ul-Iman". Few names are giving below:

1. Ghulam Rasùl Saeedi[5] 2. Riza-ul-Mustafa Azmi[6] 3. Prof. Dr. Majeedullah Qadri of Karachi University[7]

English translation of Kanzul Iman has also published.

Compilation of Hadiths

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan has written several books on the subject of collection and compilation of Hadiths.

The students of Arabic have considered the intellect of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan in this field. Applauding the ability of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan in the science of Hadith, Yasin Ahmad Khyari al-Madni has observed about Imam Ahmad Raza Khan as "Huwa Imam-ul-Muhadduthin" (the leader of Muhaddethin). Muhammad Zafar al-Din Rizawi has compiled a collection of traditions quoted by Imam Ahmad Raza Khan in his books in several volumes. The second volume has been published from Hyderabad, Sindh, with the title of "Sahih al-Bihari" in 1992 containing 960 pages. Mr. Khalid al-Hamidi of Jamia Millia of Delhi writing his doctoral dissertation of ulamà of sub-continent to Hadith literature. In this dissertation the author has mentioned more than forty books/treatises of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan on Hadith literature.

Fatwas

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan was a student of international repute. In this field, Imam Ahmed Raza Khan has written a number of books and booklets on a number of issues. But his masterpiece is Fatawa Ridawiyya which runs in 12 volumes and each volume is spread over 1000 pages. Raza Foundation, Lahore under the leadership of Mufti Azam Pakistan Mufti Abdul Qayyum Hazarwi revised the Fatwa Razawia, translating all the Persian/Arabic sentences in Urdu, and published in 30 huge volumes, running across 90 thousand pages, It is one of the largest fatawa collection in the history of Islam. It can be called a dictionary of Fatwas and an encyclopedia of Muslim jurisprudence.

Faqeeh-e-Millat Mufti Jalaluddin Ahmad Amjadi said that: Bahar-e-Shariat makes a person Aalim and Fatawa Razwia makes him a Mufti.

Dr Hasan Raza Khan presented his thesis on "The place of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan in Islamic jurisprudence", which was accepted by Patna University, India and a degree of doctorate was conferred on Dr. Hasan Raza Khan. Conceding the intellect of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan, Justice D. F. Mulla, a Parsi Judge of Bombay High Court observed that in India and Pakistan, two great books were written on Fiqh - one "Fatawà-i-Alamgiri" and the other Fatawa Ridawiyya. An uncommon feature of Fatawa Ridawiyya is that it is hailed by among friends and foes alike.

As a teacher

A‘lahazrat taught a number of persons. Yet it cannot be said with certainty as to how many persons in all were taught by A‘lahazrat. Some of his prominent pupils are Mawlana Hasan Raza Khan, Mawlana Mohammad Riza Khan, Mawlana Sayyid Mohammad Jilani Muhaddith-i-‘Azam of India of Pilibhit, Mawlana Ziauddin Ahmed, Mawlana Sayyid Nùr of Chittagong and Mawlana Hashmat Ali Khan of Pilibhit. Some of his prominent caliphs are Mawlana Abd al-Hayy of Africa, Shaykh Swaleh Kamal, Sayyid Ismail Makki of Saudi Arabia, Hujjatul Islam Mawlana [[Hamid Riza Khan, Mufti-i-‘Azam Mawlana Mustafa Raza Khan, Mawlana Amjad Ali (Writer of Bahar-e-Shariat), Mawlana Naimuddin Moradabadi, Mawlana Didar Ali of Lahore, Mawlana Abdul Aleem Siddiqi (father of Shah Ahmad Noorani Siddiqi of Pakistan), Idul Islam Mawlana Abdul Salaam of Jabalpur, Mawlana Burhanul Haq of Jabalpur, Mawlana Lal Mohammad of Madras et cetera.

Claims about authoring 1000 books

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan has written hundreds of books on various subjects. More or less, he has written one thousand books and treatises on fifty-five subjects as revealed by Mufti Ijaz Wali Khan Shaykh al-Hadith Jami‘a Nizamiyya Rizawaiyy, Lahore, in al-Mu‘tamid al-Mustanad, (Turkey). Allama Zafar al-din Rizawi had presented the bibliographical data of A'lahazrat in his book al-Mujmal al-Mu‘addid li Talifat al-Mujaddid (1327/1909), Dr. Hasan Riza ‘Azami also has given details of writings (Urdu, Persian, Arabic) of A‘lahazrat in his doctoral dissertation an A‘lahazrat. Dr. Majeedullah Qadri of Karachi University (Sindh, Pakistan) has given the details of A‘lahazrat’s contribution to various rational and traditional branches of knowledge in his doctoral dissertation on A‘lahazrat. Dr. Muhammad Mas‘ud Ahmad has collected the titles of books and treatises of A‘lahazrat. This list may exceed to one thousand books/treatises after completion. Mawlana Abdul Mubin Nu‘mani of al-Majma‘ al-Islami (Mubarakpur, India) has also compiled a book on the academic and literary contributions of A'lahazrat — rational and traditional branches of knowledge.

Research works

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan has researched in various fields. Briefs of some are mentioned below:

(1) Wuzu is the act of washing the parts of the body, which are generally exposed, in a prescribed manner. For making Wuzu, water is required. But water is a wide term. Which type of water is fit for making Wuzu and which type of water is unfit for the purpose. Such a question came up for consideration before Imam Ahmad Raza Khan. In 1915, he wrote a separate treatise over this issue. He has described 160 kinds of water; the Wuzu is permissible to make with. Besides, the water with which Wuzu cannot be made; he has given 146 kinds thereof. Thus, in all, he has described 306 kinds of water.

(2) Tayammum is an alternative of Wuzu or ghusl (bath) made without water under certain circumstances. Imam Ahmad Raza Khan has drawn a list of 181 things fit to be used for Tayammum. He has given a separate list of 130 things unfit for the purpose.

(3) Zafar al-din Rizawi has written a biography of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan, in which he states[8] that “he himself was able to fill up the "Naqsh-i-Murabba" (a sixteen column quadrilateral) by 1152 methods”. He further states that Ahmad Raza from whom he learnt this art, knew to fill it up by 2300 methods.

(4) Once someone asked Imam Ahmad Raza Khan if there were only 99 names of Holy Prophet Muhammad. He replied: "About 800 names of Holy Prophet are usually found in the books. I have been able to gather up to 1400 names and Allah knows better the exact number."

(5) Hazrat Imam Hussain proceeded from Mecca for Kerbala, Iraq on 3rd Zilhij and reached there on 2nd of Moharram. Some of the people raise an objection to it. According to them, it was impossible for Hazrat Imam Hussain to reach Kerbala from Mecca within such a short time, particularly when in those days the caravans used to proceed only on horses and camels.

On this point, Imam Ahmad Raza Khan made a full research and pointed out that the caravan of Hazrat Imam Hussain proceeded on horses. He also pointed out the various kinds of horses, the number of horses in the fleet, their individual races, and various routes through which the caravan proceeded. He further went to the extent of pointing out the respective distances and the aggregate distance from Mecca to Kerbala, the different kinds or routes, the holy caravan, passed through — sandy, stony and otherwise, and the different speeds of different horses. He pointed out their speeds vis-à-vis the kinds of routes. He, then, pointed out the time to be taken by a particular horse of a particular race on a particular route. Thus, after making a thorough research, the "thorough-bred researcher" proved fully that the caravan of Hazrat Imam Hussain having proceeded from Mecca on 3rd Zilhij carrying horses of such and such races passing through such and such routes, must have reached Kerbala only on 2nd Moharram and so it came to be.

Works in astronomy

Thrilling news appeared in the English Daily "Express" of 18 October 1919 published from Bankipur, Patna (Bihar) regarding a unique and dreadful forecast made by Prof. Albert of United States of America, who happened to be an astronomer and mathematician of international repute. Its gist was as under:-

"On 17 December, 1919, six planets which are most powerful viz. Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn and Neptune will be in conjunction and the Sun will come in opposite direction of these planets. These planets will fetch the sun towards them with all their gravity. The result will be that the magnetic properties of these planets will pierce into the sun and it will inflict a hole into the sun, which will be in the shape of a big dagger. And, such a stain on the sun will be visible which everybody would see on 17 December 1919 with naked eyes. Prof. Albert further predicted that conjunction of such planets, which was not witnessed for the last twenty centuries, would cause disorder in the air and it would bring about big storms, terrible rains and powerful earthquakes. The earth will return to its normal position after several weeks."

Mawlana Zafaruddin of Bihar, a disciple and caliph of Ala Hazrat apprised Ala Hazrat of such forecast of Prof. Albert. Thereupon, Ala Hazrat wrote an article belying the forecast tooth and nail brandishing it as baseless and bogus, which was published in the Monthly "Al Riza" from Bareilly. This contradictory article too gained equal publicity. Ala Hazrat was challenging Prof. Albert.

A deep study of these arguments may be made by going through the booklet "Prof. Albert F. Porta Ki Peshin Goi Ka Rad" published from Maktaba Gharib Nawaz, Allahabad.

Ala Hazrat argued vehemently that the very basis of such a forecast was wrong. The forecast was based on the principle that "sun is stationary and the earth moves around the sun". In the light of Holy Qur’an, Ala Hazrat declared:- "The sun and moon do move according to their course. They are sailing within a circle. It is earth (not sun) that is stationary around which the sun and other planets revolve".

According to the working of Prof. Albert, the mutual distance of six planets as on 17 December 1919 worked out to 26 degree, whereas Ala Hazrat presented a detailed chart depicting the real position of such planets as on 17 December, according to which, such mutual distance worked out to 112 degree. There was such a lot of difference between the two.

Prof. Albert gave all the weight to Law of Gravitation. Confuting it, Ala Hazrat argued that the said conjunction did not conform with the Law of Gravitation as well. Either of the two shall have to be discarded then. Have all the planets made a pact to attack the sun alone? Why will they not attack each other, Ala Hazrat quipped. If the Law of Gravitation is correct, it is bound to affect all — more effect upon what is nearer and sharper effect upon what is weaker. When the attack of six planets can cause such an injury to the sun, then why the Saturn could not be destroyed by the gravity of the remaining five planets, especially when the Saturn is smaller than Sun by thousand times, Ala Hazrat asked.

Mars is smaller than Saturn. Mercury is the smallest of all. So in this way, these are bound to be shattered into pieces. What an absurd it is to believe that the weaker might not suffer at all and the strongest (sun) will lose the battle, Ala Hazrat argued. Even on the basis of the Law of Gravitation, there can be no such conjunction of planets, Ala Hazrat declared.

By and by, the time passed and the crucial day of 17 December arrived. The panic-stricken people began to take it as Doomsday event. The day went off peacefully, the sun set setting the pandemonium at rest. Nothing untoward took place anywhere.

It was witnessed that what Ala Hazrat had observed and declared, came true. Prof. Albert also conceded that.[citation needed].

Works in education

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan taught a number of persons. Yet it cannot be said with certainty as to how many persons in all were taught by Ala Hazrat.

Imam Ahmad Raza Khan learnt a few books of Urdu and Persian from Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Qadir Beg. He also learnt a little from Hazrat Mawlana Abdul Ali of Rampur (d. 1885). Ala Hazrat learnt 21 subjects from his respected father, Hazrat Naqi Ali Khan (d. 1880). Besides, he was also taught by his Shaykh, His holiness Shah Al-i-Rasùl of Marehrah Sharif (d. 1879) and H.H. Shah Abul Hasan Nùri of Marehrah Sharif (d. 1906).

Thus, Ala Hazrat who later on proved himself at home in so many subjects, learnt most of the subjects at home.

Antagonism towards modern day deviant sects

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, claimed to be the promised Messiah, a false prophet and Mahdi. These claims proved to be orchestrated and wrong among Muslims and he was branded as a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Ahmad Raza Khan. To prove his point, when Ahmed Raza visited Mecca and Madina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled "AlMotamad AlMustanad" (The Reliable Proofs) for presentation to the eminent scholars of Mecca and Madina. Ahmad Raza Khan collected opinions of the Ulama of Hejaz and compiled them in a compendium written in Arabic language with the title, Husam al Harmain (The Sword of two sanctuaries), a work containing the thirty-three Ulamas’ thirty -four verdicts (20 Meccan and 13 Medinese Ulama). The overall import of this work was that Ghulam Ahmad's beliefs were blasphemous and tantamount to apostasy.

For a full exposé of deviant heretical sects and the verdicts against them according to traditional Sunni Islam, one can obtain English copies of Husam al Harmain from Raza Academy Ltd. based in Stockport in the United Kingdom, as well as many other works of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan.

Secularism

During the period of the Indian Khilafat Movement, Gandhi was advised that he should meet with Imam Ahmad Raza Khan. When he was told that the Gandhi wished to meet and speak to him, Imam Ahmad Raza Khan said, "What would he speak about? Religion or worldly affairs? If it is worldly affairs, what can I partake in, for I have abstained from the world and have no interest in it."[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hayat-e-Aala Hadhrat, vol.1 p.1
  2. ^ Ala Hadhrat by Bastawi, p.25
  3. ^ Man huwa Ahmad Rida by Shaja'at Ali al-Qadri, p.15
  4. ^ www.hazrat.org (official website of Markaz Ahle Sunnat, Bareilly Shariff)
  5. ^ "Tauzih al-Bayan"
  6. ^ "Qur’an Sharif Kay Ghalat Tarjumon Ki Nishandehi" (pointing out of wrong translations of Holy Qur’an), published from Aijaz Book Depot, Calcutta
  7. ^ Doctoral dissertation on the comparative study of “Kanz ul-Iman”
  8. ^ "Hayat-i-Ala Hazrat"
  9. ^ Al Mizaan P:335
  • Baraka, A - A Saviour in a Dark World (Article) The Islamic Times, March 2003 Stockport, UK

Haroon, M The World of Ahmad Raza Kazi Publications, Lahore 1974

Books by him:-

Al Malfuzat Sharif Kanzul Iman Kashafal Majoob Ishariya Fatawa Ridawiyyah (Table of Contents) Contents (Faharis) of Fatawa Ridawiyyah Alahazrat Imam Ahmad Raza aur Radd-e-Bidat Mira'at Sharh Mishkat

External links


Redirecting to Ahmed Rida Khan


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